Manushya Sareerathile Rasathantram
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Manushya Sareerathile Rasathantram

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This presentation prepared by Mr. KVS Kartha on behalf of Parishath Padanakendram Kottarakkara for Science Classes Campaign in connection with the International Year of Chemistry. ...

This presentation prepared by Mr. KVS Kartha on behalf of Parishath Padanakendram Kottarakkara for Science Classes Campaign in connection with the International Year of Chemistry.

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Manushya Sareerathile Rasathantram Manushya Sareerathile Rasathantram Presentation Transcript

  • ck-X{´hÀjw 2011tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-j¯v
  • ap-jy-i-co-c-¯nse ck-X{´w Ah-X-cWw X¿m-dm-¡n-bXv ]T--tI-{µw, sIm«m-c-¡-c.
  • ap-jy-i-cocwHcp k©-cn-¡p¶ BhÀ¯--]-«nI ½psS Npäp-]m-Sp-w ImWs¸-Sp¶ aqe-I-§Ä Xs¶-bmWv ½psS ico-c-¯nepw.
  • i-co-c-¯nse aqe-I-§Ä 3% 2% 2% 10%18% 65% HmIvknP³ ImÀ_¬ ssl{UP³ ss{SP³ ImÕyw aäpÅh
  • i-co-c-¯nse aqe-I-§Ä
  • aqe-I-§fpsS [À½w FÃnpw96.5 % hpw tkmUnbw ]ÃnpwHmIvkn-P³ t¢mdn³ ImÕywImÀ-_¬ ico-c-¯nse Pe-¯nsâ t^mkv^-dkvssl{U-P³ Afhv Xpew sN¿m³ss{S-P³ s]m«mkyw Ccp¼v lrZ-b-kv]-µ--¯nsâ ssXtdm-bnUv lotam-t¥m-_n³ nc¡v nb-{´n-¡p-¶-Xnv tlmÀtam¬ nÀ-½m-W-¯nv nÀ½m-W¯nv - Ab-Un³ CXnsems¡ D−m-Ip¶ ]ÃnvsNdnb Gä-¡p-d-¨n t]mepw ^vfqdn³ ½psS Xmfw -sX-än¡pw.
  • k´p-en-Xm-hØ• Ab-Unsâ Ipdhv þ ssXtdm-bn-Unsâ {]hÀ¯- s¯ _m[n¡pw þ amµyX• {]mb-amb-h-cn tkmUnbw Ipdhv þ ]n¨pw t]bpw ]dbpw cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§-fpsS k´p-en-Xm-h-Ø-bmWv mtam-cp-¯-cpw.
  • `£Ww ImÀt_m-ssl-t{Uäv `£Ww t{]m«o³ sImgp¸v
  • • hmb apX ae-ZzmcwZl-w hsc 5þ6 aoäÀ of-¯n-epÅ Øe¯mWv Zl--{]-{InbbpsS BZy L«-§Ä. • AXy´w AXn-i-bn-¸n¡p¶ {]hÀ¯--§-fmWv Hmtcm nan-jhpw ChnsS S-¡p¶Xv
  • hmb-bn• `£Ww Danocpw tNÀ¯v Nh-¨-c-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p.• Hcp Znhkw H¶c enä-tdmfw Dan-oÀ.• Dan-ocnse Assa-tekv F¶ F³sskw A¶- Ps¯ amÄt«mkv F¶ ]©-km-c-bm¡n amäp¶p.• Bam-i-b-¯n-se¯n sslt{Um-t¢m-dnIv A¾-hp- ambn tNcp-¶-Xp-hsc Assa-tekv {]hÀ¯n-¨p- sIm-−n-cn-¡pw.• Dan-oÀ Xp¸n-¡-f-bm-p-Å-X-Ã.
  • s]cn-Ìm-fn-knkv
  • Bam-ibw A[n-I-apÅ shÅw `£-Wt¯mSv Ie-cmsX hf-hnsâ DÄh-i-¯p-IqSn (Nn-{X-¯n CS-Xp-`m-Kw)tsc sNdp-Ip-S-en-te¡v IS-¡pw.
  • Bam-ib¯n• Bam-i-b-¯n [mcmfw hkvXp-¡Ä DÂ]m-Zn-¸n- ¡-s¸-Sp-¶p.• Kmkv{Sn³, ayq¡kv F¶n-h-bvs¡m¸w Hcp Znhkw 1 þ 1.5 enäÀ sslt{Um-t¢m-dnIv BknUpw.• t{]m«o-p-Isf Zln-¸n-¡p¶ F³ssk-ap-Isf Dt¯-Pn-¸n-¡p-I-bmWv sslt{Um-t¢m-dnIv BknUnsâ tPmen.• Bam-i-b-`n-¯n-IÄ I«n-bpÅ ayq¡kv (I-^w) sIm−v s]mXn-ªn-«n-Ãmbn-cp¶p F¦n iàn-tb- dnb BknUv Bam-i-b`n¯n-I-tfbpw Zln-¸n-¨p-I- f-bpam-bn-cp-¶p þ s]]vänIv AÄkÀ.
  • {]hÀ¯--§Ä• `£-Ws¯ Iq«n-¡-eÀ¯p-¶pþa-kn-ep-I-fpsS ]¦v.• F³ssk-ap-I-fpsS klm-b-t¯msS t{]m«o³, yq¢nIv Bkn-Uv, sImgp¸v Ch-bpsS Zlw Bcw-`n-¡p-¶p.• Bam-i-b-¯nÂn¶pw B¡-tlmÄ, shÅw, ent¸m-^n-enIv Bkn-Uv, hnäm-an³ _nþ12 F¶nh BKn-cWw sN¿-s¸-Sp-¶p.• H¸w Nne _mIvSo-cn-b-Isf in-¸n-¡p-¶p.
  • _nþ12 sâ BKn-cWw• hnäm-an³ _n-þ12 sâ BKn-c-W-¯nv klm-bn- ¡p-¶ Kmkv{Snsâ DÂ-]m-Z-w th−-{X-bnÃm-¯- h-cn _n-þ12 sâ Ipd-hp-−mIpw.• C¯-c-¡mÀ _n-þ12 sâ Ipd-hp- ]cn-l-cn-¡m³ yqtdm-_-tbm¬ t]mepÅ _n-þ12 Kpfn-I-IÄ Ign-¨n«v Hcp Imcy-hp-an-Ã. Kmkv{Sn-n-ÃmsX AXpw BKn-cWw sN¿m-m-In-Ã.• Hcp hÀjw 300 tImSn cq]-bpsS Kpfn-I-IÄ shdpsX aq{X-¯n-eqsS jvS-am-Ip-¶p.
  • hb-än Hcp Fcn¨n• Bam-i-b-¯nse HCL sâ PH c−v B-Wv.• Akn-Un-än¡v Ign-¡p¶ sPeq-kn t]mepÅ Aâm-kn-Up-IÄ, `£Ww Zln¨p Ignªv _m¡n-bpÅ HCL s nÀÆo-cy-am-¡m-p-Å-Xm- Wv.• CXv `£Ww Ign-ªp-Ss Ign-¨mtem ?• Aâm-kn-Up-IÄ `£-W-¯nv Ac-a-Wn-¡qÀ apt¼m `£Ww Ignªv 2þ3 aWn-¡qÀ Igntªm am{Xw.
  • `£-Whpw acp¶pw• hb-än `£-W-ap-Å-t¸mÄ Bkn-Up-Ifpw D−m-Ipw.• Nne Bâo-_-tbm-«n-¡p-I-tfbpw (DZm: Bw]n- kn-en³) Bkn-Up-IÄ in-¸n-¡pw.• AXn-m `£Ww Ign-ªÃ, shdpw hb-än- emWv Ah Ign-t¡-−-Xv.
  • Icfpw ]m³{Inbmkpw• sImgp¸v shÅ-¯n ebn-¡n-Ã. IcÄ DÂ]m-Zn- ¸n-¡p¶ ss_ sImgp-¸ns shÅ-¯n Ie- ¡p¶ Hcp {]{Inb (Emulsification) am{XamWv sN¿p-¶-Xv.• t{]m«o-³, ImÀt_m-ssl-t{U-äv, sImgp¸v, yq¢nIv BknUv Chsb Zln-¸n-¡p-¶-Xn ]m³{In-bmkv DÂ]m-Zn-¸n-¡p¶ F³ssk-ap- IÄ {][m ]¦p-h-ln-¡p¶p.• ]m³{In-bmkv DÂ]m-Zn-¸n-¡p¶ tkmUnbw ss_ImÀ_-tWäv Bkn-Up-Isf nÀho-cy-am- ¡p-¶p.
  • sNdp-Ip-S Icfpw ]m³{In-bmkpw nÀ½n-¡p¶F³ssk-ap-IÄ sNdp-Ip-S-ensâ BZy-`m-K-amb Untbm-Un--¯n-te-¡mWv F¯n-t¨-cp-¶Xv.
  • Ht«sd F³ssk-ap-IÄsNdp-Ip-S-en-te-bvs¡-¯p¶ F³ssk-ap-IÄ – Amino-Peptidases – Di-Peptidases – Tri-Peptidases – Sucrases – Maltase – Lactase – Di- Saccharidases – Tri- Saccharidases – Lipase – Nucleases
  • F³sskw ^mIvS-dn-IÄ1. hmbn Salivary amylase2. Bam-i-b-¯n Gastric acid3. sNdp-Ip-S-en trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase dipeptidase Pancreatic amylase Pancreatic lipase
  • Zl--¯nsâ ck-X{´w• `£Ww Zln-¸n-¡p-¶Xv ssls{Um-ssfkv sNbvXmWv. 1. A¶-Ps¯ efn-X-amb ]©-km-c-I-fm-¡pw. 2. t{]m«o-p-Isf Aantm Bkn-Up-I-fm-¡pw. 3. sImgp-¸ns ^mänBkn-Up-w ¥nk-tdm-fp-am¡pw. 4. yq¢nIvBkn-Uns yq¢n-tbm-ssS-Up-I-fm¡pw.
  • F³ssk-ap-I-fpsS ]Wn
  • sNdp-Ip-S-enÂt{]m«o³,ImÀt_m-ssl-t{U-äv,^mddn Bkn-Uv,hnäm-anpIÄ,an-d-ep-IÄ XpS-§n-b-h-sbÃmw sNdp-Ip-S-en h¨p Xs¶ BKn-cWw sN¿-s¸-Spw.
  • h³Ip-S• h³Ip-S-en Zlw S-¡p-¶n-sÃ-¦nepw Zln- ¡msX _m¡n-h-¶-hsb _mIvSo-cn-b-IÄ Zln- ¸n-¡p-¶p. hmX-I-§Ä D−m-Ip-¶p.• h³Ip-S-en n¶pw hnäm-an³ _n, sI Ch-tbm- sSm¸w IqSp-X shÅ-t¯bpw cà-¯n-te¡v BKn-cWw sN¿-s¸-Sp-¶p.• shÅw o¡w sN¿-s¸« tijw Ah-in-jvS- §Ä ]pdw-X-Åp-¶p.
  • Zl--]m-X-bnÂHmtcm-bn-S-t¯bpwPH Dw AhnsSsNe-hn-Sp¶ka-bhpw
  • DuÀtÖmÂ]m-Zw• `£Ww Zln¨v cà-¯n IeÀ¶p Ign- ªm cà-¯n sh¨pS-¡p¶ Nne {]{In- b-Ifpw IqSn Bsb-¦nte DuÀtPm-Xv]m-Zw ]qÀ®-am-Iq.• ¥qt¡m-kn n¶pw ATP X·m{X D−m-Ip¶ Hcp coXn.• asäm¶v Ic-fnepw amwk-t]-in-I-fn-ep-sams¡ ss¥s¡m-Pn³ Bbn kq£n-¨p-h-¡p¶ coXn.
  • skÃp-emÀ Zlw ¥qt¡m-kns ATP X·m-{X-I-fmbn amän Ign-bp-t¼mÄshÅhpw ImÀ_¬ssU-Hm-IvsskUpw am{X-amWv _m¡n-bm-hp-I.
  • • cmk-{]-{In-b-I-fn-eqsS D−m¡n-sb-Sp¯ DuÀPw AUn-tm-kn³ ss{S t^mkvt^äv F¶ ATP X·m-{XIfmbn IcpXn h¡p-¶p.• DuÀPw Bh-iy-ap-Å-t¸mÄ sslt{Um-fn-kn- eqsS Cu X·m-{Xsb hnL-Sn-¸n-¨mWv ico-c- ¯nv Bh-iy-amb DuÀPw D−m¡p¶-Xv.
  • amen-y-nÀ½mÀPw • IcÄ • hr¡ • Xz¡v
  • [À½-§Ä IcÄ• t{]m«o³ kwtÇjWw• ss¥t¡m-Pn³ kw`-cWw• tlmÀt½m¬ nÀ½mWw• sImf-kvt{SmÄ kwtÇjWw• Zl-s¯ klm-bn-¡Â• RBC in-¸n-¡Â• hnj-a-b-h-kvXp-¡-fpsS nÀ½mÀPw• B¡-tlmÄ hnL-Sw
  • BtcmKyapÅ IcÄ
  • knsdmknkv _m[n¨t¸mÄ
  • B¡-tlm-fnsâ Afhv • hntZ-i-aZyw þ 42.8% • Nmcmbw þ 35% • _nbÀ þ 4% • ssh³ þ 6% • IÅv þ 4% • A-[n-IrX aZyw þ ambw þ sa¯-tmÄ
  • DÅn-se-¯p¶ Nmcmbw_nbÀ: 4% x 12 Hu¬kv = 0.48 Hu¬kv B¡-tlmÄssh³: 12% x 4 Hu¬kv = 0.48 Hu¬kv B¡-tlmÄhnkvIn: 40% x 1.25 Hu¬kv = 0.50 Hu¬kv B¡-tlmÄ
  • kw`-hn-¡p-¶Xv• B¡-tlmÄ Unssl-t{Um-Pn-ss-kn§v F³ssk-ansâ (ADH) {]hÀ¯--^-e-ambn F¯-tmÄ Ak-ämÂUn-ssl-Um-Ip-¶p.• Ak-ämÂUn-ssl-Uv Unssl-t{Um-Pn-ss-kn§v F³ssk-ansâ (ALDH) {]hÀ¯--^-e-ambn Ak-ämÂUn-ssl-Uv Ak-tääm-Ip-¶p.• ]s£ Gjy³hwi-P-cn 50% t]cnepw ALDH {]hÀ¯--£-a-a-Ã.
  • A]-ISw• lrZ-b-kv]-µ--¯nsâ nc¡v IqSp-I, aw ]nc- «Â, OÀ±nÂ, A[n-I-amb ip²o-I-cWw F¶n-h- h-bvs¡ms¡ ASn-ªp-Iq-Sp¶ Ak-ämÂUn- sslUv tlXphm-Ip-¶p. CXv Ic-fnv tISp-h-cp- ¯p-¶p.• aZy-]mw nÀ¯m³ ÂIp¶ ssUkÄ^ndmw ALDH sâ {]hÀ¯-s¯ XS-bp-I-bmWv sN¿p- ¶-Xv. aZy-]mw nÀ¯m-pÅ B{K-lhpw COm-i-ànbpw CÃm¯ BÄ¡v CXp ÂIp- Ibpw ho−pw IpSn-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p¶Xv IqSp- X A]-I-S-am-Wv.
  • hr¡-IÄ
  • [À½-§Ä• cà-k-½À±w nb{´n-¡p-I.• Ce-Ivt{Sm-sse-äp-Isf nb-{´n-¡p-I.• Bkn-Uv-þ-s_bvkv Xpew ne-nÀ¯p-I.• bqdn-b, Atam-Wnbw Ch-bpsS hnkÀPw.• shÅw, ¥qt¡m-kv, Aantm BknUv Ch ho−pw BKn-cWw sN¿Â.• ImÂkn-t{SmÄ, sdn³, Fdn-t{Xm-t]m-bn-än³ F¶o tlmÀtam-Wp-I-fpsS nÀ½m-Ww.
  • s^vtdm-Wp-IÄHcp hr¡-bn 13 e£w s^vtdm-Wp-IÄ. BsI ofw 160 In-ao.
  • • hn{ia ka-b¯v Hcp ann-«n 1.2 enäÀ càw Acn-s¨-Sp-¡p-¶p.• Hcp Znhkw 1750 enäÀ• CXn n¶pw ann-«n 125 anÃo enäÀ shÅw Acn-s¨-Sp-¡p-¶p. aWn-¡q-dn 7.5 enäÀ, Znhkw 180 enäÀ þ tkmUn-bw, s]m«m-kyw, t¢mdn³ þ th−Xv FSp-¡p-¶p.• Hcp Znhkw Hcp enäÀ aq{Xw ]pdw-X- Åp¶p.
  • Xz¡v
  • Hcp NXp-c{i sk:- aoädn• 100-þ600 tkzZ{KÙn-IÄ.• Chbv¡v aWn-¡q-dn 3 enäÀ, Znhkw 24 enäÀ, hnbÀ¸v D−m-¡m-m-Ipw. ¶mbn hnbÀ¯m 500-þ600 an: enäÀ shÅw ]pd-¯p-t]mIpw.• 100-þ900 kvtl {KÙn-IÄ.• ¥nk-ssd-Up-IÄ, ^män Bkn-Up-I-Ä, hmIvkv FÌ-dp-IÄ, sImf-kvt{SmÄ F¶nh AS-§nb sImgp¸v ico-c-¯nv BIm-chpw `wKnbpw ÂIp-¶p.• sXmen hc−v DW§n t]mIm-Xn-cn-¡m³.
  • [À½-§Ä• kv]Ài-w, NqSv, XWp-¸v, aÀ±w, thZ F¶nh Ap-`-h-th-Zy-am-¡m³.• sImgp-¸n-tâbpw shÅ-¯n-tâbpw kw`-c-W- tI{µw• hnäm-an³ Un bpsS kwtÇ-j-Ww þ shbn sImÅWw þ saem-n³ bp hn civan-I-fn n¶pÅ kwc-£-W-¯nv þ {]Xn-tcm-[-ti-jn.• ico-tcm-jvam-hnsâ {Iao-IcWw• ameny hnkÀPw
  • izkw
  • izkmfn(apIÄ`mKw) [À½-§ÄizmktIm-i-¯n-te-¡pÅ hgn.aWw Xncn¨dn-bm-pÅ kwhn-[mw.s]mSn-]-S-e-an-ÃmsX hmbp-hns Acn-s¨-Sp-¡p-¶p.hmbp-hns Pemw-i-hpw NqSpap-ÅXm¡p-¶p.i_vZ-¯n-pÅ kv]µ Ad-IÄ.
  • izkmfn(Iogv`mKw)[À½-§ÄLarynx: `£-Whpw hmbphpw AXm-Xnsâ hgn-I-fn-eqsS IS-¶p-t]m-Im³ klm-bn-¡p-¶p. i_vZwD−m¡p¶-Xnv klm-bn-¡p-¶p.Trachea: izmk-tIm-i-¯n--I-t¯-¡pw ]pd-t¯-¡p-apÅ hmbp k©m-c-¯nvBronchi: c−mbn ]ncn-bp-¶p.Lungs: hmbp BÂhn-tbm-fp-I-fn-te-¡v.
  • BÂhn-tbmÄ 70 Zi-e£w BÂhn-tbm-fp-IÄ 70 NXp-c{i aoäÀ hnkvXoÀ®w•Hcp ann-«n 6 enäÀ HmIvkn-P³.•izmk-tImi tcmK-§Ä IqSp-¶p. ImcWw izkn-¡m³ à hmbphnÃ. Figure 10.8A
  • à hmbp• hmbp-hn 21% HmIvkn-P³. 5% D]-tbm-Kn¡pw. ]pd-t¯¡v hnSp¶ hmbp-hn 16% HmIvkn-P³.• ]cn-k-cs¯ hmbp aWn-¡q-dn 3 {]mhiyw F¦nepw amd-Ww, 6 {]mhiy¯n IqS-cp-Xv.• Xd -hn-kvXoÀ®-¯nsâ 25% hmXnÂ+P¶Â - hn-kvXoÀ®w. shân-te-äÀ+Xmg¯pIqsS hmbp IS-¡m-pÅ kwhn-[m-w.• knna Xotb-äÀ, kvIqÄ þ Dbcw IqSp-X thWw
  • BÀ_n-knbpw lotam-t¥m-_npw
  • HmIvkn-P³ hml-IÀ
  • Xe-t¨mdv
  • nb-{´W Øm-§Ä
  • ck-X-{´-abw• Xe-t¨m-dn-p-Ån Hcp sk¡³Un Hcp e£w cmk-{]-hÀ¯--§Ä.• mUn-I-fn-eqsS ktµ-i-§Ä IS-¶p-t]m-Ip- ¶Xpw tkmUnbw, s]m«mkyw Ch-bpsS {]hÀ¯--¯m-em-Wv.• cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§-fmWv ½psS kz`mhw nÀ®- bn-¡p-¶Xv þ tZjyw, k¦-Sw, kwXr-]vXn, kt´m-jw, Nn´, ssewKn-IX ............
  • mUokÔn-I-fnseck-X{´ ktµ-i-hm-l-IÀ• Acetylcholine (ACh) þ GtIm-]w• Dopamine (DA) þ kwXr]vXn• Serotonin (SER) þ kt´mjw• Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA)• Endorphins (END) þ hyàn_Ô-§Ä• Glutamate (GLU)
  • ktµ-i-hm-l-I-cpsS [À½-§ÄIqSn-bm Ipd-ªm tZjyw hnjmZw cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§-fpsS Gä-¡p-d-¨n-emWv ½psS kz`m-hs¯ nÀ®-bn-¡p-¶-Xv. Ipd-ªm Akw-Xr]vXn
  • Ap-`-h-§Ä {][mw• Nn´-Ifpw Ap-`-h-§fpw Cu cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§- fpsS nÀ½mW-s¯ kzm[on¡pw. (]ncn-ap-dp- ¡-apÅ Pohn-X-km-l-Ncyw tmtd-]n-n-^-dnsâ DXv]m-Zw Iq«pw)• Ap-`-h-§-sfÃmw dn¡mÀUv sN¿-s¸-Sp-¶p.• à Ap-`-h-§Ä à hyànsb krjvSn ¡p¶p.
  • Blm-chpw Xe-t¨mdpwkntdm-t«m¬, tUm]an³ Ch-bpsS nÀ½m-W-¯nv Ah-iy-amb {Sn]vä-^m³ DÅ Blmcw hnjm-Zs¯ CÃm-Xm-¡pw.
  • ^mÌv ^pUv kntdm-t«m¬, tUm]-an³nÀ½m-Ws¯ klm-bn-¡p-¶n-Ã.
  • kvtl-¯nsâ ck-X{´w• tamlw þ Lust • Estrogen, Testosterone• aXn-{`aw þ Infatuation • Phenyl Ethyl Amine (PEA) Dopamine, Norepinephrine• sshIm-cnI kvtlw • Oxytoxin– cuddling emotional attachments chemical • Vasopressin –monogamy chemical• KmV -ku-lr-Z-_Ôw Intimate relationships • Endorphin
  • ½fpw cmkn-I-§fpw• ½sf ASn-apSn kzm[o-n-¡p¶ Ht«sd cmk-]- ZmÀ°-§sf ½Ä ]cn-N-b-s¸-«p.• Cu cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§Ä D−m-Ip-¶-Xn ½psS `£-Ww, Nn´, Ap-`-h-§Ä, ImgvN-¸m-Sp-IÄ FÃmw henb ]¦p-h-ln-¡p-¶p-−v.• cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§Ä ½psS kz`m-hs¯ kzm[o- n-¡p-t¼mÄ ½psS `£-Whpw Nn´bpw Ap-`-h-§fpw ImgvN-¸m-Sp-Ifpw cmk-]-ZmÀ°- §fpsS nÀ½m-W-s¯bpw kzm[o-n-¡p-¶p.
  • AXn-m à `£-Ww à Nn´ à Ap-`-h-§ÄHs¡bpÅ Hcp kaqlw D−m-tI-−-Xp-−v.