Krishiyidangalile rasathantram

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Krishiyidangalile rasathantram

  1. 3. IrjnbnS-§-fnse ck-X-{´w
  2. 4. taÂa®pw ASn-a®pw <ul><li>taÂa-®v- þ- D-]-cn-X-e-¯n n¶pw 25 sk.-ao. hsc XmgvN-bn-ep-ÅXpw Xmc-X-tay Idp¸p ndhpw Cf-¡-hp-apÅ a®v </li></ul><ul><li>Dg-hp-]m-fn þ Inf-¡p-t¼mgpw Dghv S-¯p-t¼mgpw Cf-¡p¶ apI-fn-es¯ 12-þ18 sk.-ao. a®v. </li></ul>
  3. 5. a®p-­m-Ip-¶Xv <ul><li>shbnÂ, ag, Imäv XpS-§nb {]IrXniàn-I-fpsS {]hÀ¯--¯m ]md kmh-[mw s]mSnªv a®p­mIp¶p. </li></ul><ul><li>CXn-sm¸w kky P´p Ah-in-jvS-§Ä, kq£vam-Wp-¡Ä, Pew, hmbp F¶nh Ie-cp-¶p. </li></ul>
  4. 6. a®nse ssPhmwiw <ul><li>hnim-e-amb AÀ°¯n kky-P-´p-Pm-e-§-fpsS Agp-Im¯ Awi-§Ä, ¶mbn AgpIn cq]m-´cw kw`-hn¨ t¢Zw (lyq-a-kv), a®nse Øqekq£va Pohn-IÄ Ch-sbÃmw ssPhmw-i-amWv. </li></ul>
  5. 7. a®nsâ ^e-]pjvSn <ul><li>hf-¡q-dp-Å-Xp-sIm-­p-am{Xw ^e-]pjvSn D­m-I-W-sa-¶n-Ã. </li></ul><ul><li>a®nsâ cmk,- `u-XnIKpW-§Ä Ap-tbm-Py-am-I-Ww. </li></ul><ul><li>a®nsâ cN-, LS-, kpjn-c-Ø-ew, KmV-X, Pe kw{K-l-W-ti-jn, ndw, ssPhmw-iw, A¾-X, eh-Wmw-iw, [m-b-W-hn-n-a-b-£-aX XpS§n Ht«sd khn-tij LS-I-§-fpsS BsI-Xp-I-bmWv ^e-]p-jvSn. </li></ul>
  6. 8. ^e-]pjvSnbpÅ a®v
  7. 9. a®nse sImtfm-bvUp-IÄ <ul><li>Hcp ssat{Im-ao-ä-dn Ipd-hphep-¸apÅ Xcn-IfpÅ Ifn-a®pw t¢Z-hp-w a®nse sImtfmbvUv kz`m-h-apÅhbmWv. </li></ul><ul><li>Ch¡v (þ) sshZypX NmÀPp­v. AXn-m ]c-kv]cw hnIÀjn-¡pw. NmÀPp-Å hkvXp¡Ä tNÀ¯m sImtfmbvUv kz`m-hanÃm-Xm-Ipw. </li></ul><ul><li>]m Hcp sImtfmbvUv. ]pfntbm Dt¸m tNÀ¯m ]ncn-bpw. </li></ul>
  8. 10. hnfI-fpsS Blmcw <ul><li>hnf-IÄ¡v t]mj-I-aq-ey-§Ä Atbm-Wp-I-fmtb kzoI-cn-¡m-m-Iq. IqSp-Xepw [-A-tbm-Wp-I-fm-bmWv kzoI-cn-¡-s¸-Sp-I. </li></ul><ul><li>sImtfm-bvUp-IÄ¡v EW NmÀPmWv F¶-Xn-m [ NmÀPpÅ Atbm-Wp-IÄ sImtfm-bvUp-Ifn ]än-¸n-Sn-¡pw. </li></ul><ul><li>Hcp {Kmw Ifn-a-®nsâ BsI {]X-e-hn-kvXoÀ®w Hcp {Kmw aW-ensâ 1000 Cc-«n. AXn-m IqSp-X [-A-tbm-Wp-IÄ ]än-¸n-Sn-¡pw. </li></ul>
  9. 11. A¾ a®n <ul><li>A¾-a-®n ssl{U-P³ Atbm-Wp-IÄ IpSp-X-ep-­m-Ipw. </li></ul><ul><li>Ip½mbw tNÀ¡p-t¼mÄ [mcm-f-ambn ImÕyw a®n-te¡v F¯p-w. a¬X-cn-I-fn ]än-¸n-Sn-¨n-cn-¡p¶ ssl{U-Ps XÅn-amän ImÕyw Ømw ]nSn¡pw. a®nv £mc-Kp-W-ambn amdpw. </li></ul>
  10. 12. H H H Ca Ca Ca
  11. 13. [m-bWhnn-abw <ul><li>Cu a®n-te¡v s]m«mkyw C«mÂ, s]m«mkyw ImÕys¯ XÅn-am-äp-Ibpw sNSn¡v e`y-am-¡p-Ibpw sN¿pw. </li></ul><ul><li>C¯-c-¯n [-A-tbm-Wp-IÄ ]c-kv]cw Ømw amdp-¶-XmWv [mbWhn-n-abw. </li></ul><ul><li>a®nsâ [m-b-W-hn-n-a-b-tijn IqSp-t´mdpw ^e-]p-jvSnbpw IpSpw. </li></ul>
  12. 14. H H H Ca Ca Ca K K K
  13. 15. sImtfm-bvUnsâ KpW-§Ä <ul><li>hf-¯nse aqe-I-A-tbm-Wp-IÄ Ifn-a-®n-tâbpw t¢Z-¯n-tâbpw Xcn-Ifn ]än-¸n-Sn-¡p-¶-Xn-m shÅ-¯n-eqsS Hen¨v t]mIp-¶n-Ã. </li></ul><ul><li>s]m«m-kyw, Atam-Wnbw Atbm-Wp-IÄ¡v a®n-eq-sS-bpÅ k©m-cX (Mobility) IqSp-X-em-Wv. </li></ul><ul><li>Ifn-a-®n-tebpw t¢Z-¯n-tebpw Xcn-I-fnse EW-NmÀPv Chsb ]nSn¨p h¡p-¶-Xn-m a®n-eq-sS-bpÅ k©mchpw Ipd-bp¶p. </li></ul>
  14. 16. sImtfm-bvUnsâ KpW-§Ä <ul><li>aen Pe-¯nse hnj-ab teml Atbm-Wp-I-fmb ImUvanbw, Cubw, n¡Â F¶n-hsb sImtfm-bvUp-IÄ ]nSn¨p h¡p-¶-Xn-m D]-cn-Xe/`qKÀ`-P-e-¯nsâ aen-o-I-cWw Hcp ]cn-[n-hsc XS-b-s¸-Sp-¶p. </li></ul><ul><li>a®nse ]n.-F¨v hyXym-k-§Ä AXn-Po-hn-¡m-pÅ Ign-hmWv D`b {]Xn-tcm-[-w.- CXv [-m-b-W-hn-n-abtijn IqSp-¶-X-p-k-cn¨v IqSpw. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Ifn-a-®pw t¢Zhpw <ul><li>a®n Ifn-a-®ntâbpw t¢Z-¯n-tâbpw km¶n²yw F{X-t¯mfw An-hm-cy-am-sW¶v t_m²y-am-bn-tÃ. </li></ul>
  16. 18. sN¦Â a®n <ul><li>sN¦Â a®n Ccp-¼v, Aeq-an-obw ssl{Ukv HmIvssk-Up-IÄ [mcm-f-ambn D­v. Ch cmk-kw-tbm-Pw hgn t^mkv^-d-kns _Ôn-¸n¨v nÀ¯n sNSn-IÄ¡v e`y-a-Ãm-Xm¡pw. </li></ul><ul><li>Ip½mbw tNÀ¯m ]n.-F-¨v. aqeyw Db-cpw. OH - Atbm-Wp-I-fpsS F®w hÀ²n¡pw. OH - t^mkv^-d-kv kwbp-à-§-fpambn tNÀ¶v Aeq-an-obw ssl{Ukv HmIvssk-Up-IÄ ho­pw D­m-¡pw. ]Icw t^mkv^-d-kns a®n-te¡v Ab-¡pw. AXv sNSnIÄ¡v e`y-am-Ipw. </li></ul>
  17. 19. EWm-b-W-hn-n-abw <ul><li>Ip½mbw CSp-t¼mÄ sN¦Âa-®n S-¡p¶ Cu {]{Inb EWm-b-W-hn-n-a-b-am-Wv. </li></ul><ul><li>EWm-b-W-hn-n-a-b-abhpw sNSn-IÄ¡v t]mjWw In«p-¶-Xnv klm-bn-¡p-¶p-­v. </li></ul><ul><li>Ip½mbw CSp-¶Xv [m-b-W-hn-n-a-b-ab¯npw EWm-b-W-hn-n-a-b-ab¯npw klm-b-I-am-hp¶p F¶p ½Ä I­p. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Ip½mbw tNÀ¡Â <ul><li>tIc-f-¯nse `qcn-`mKw a®p-Ifpw A¾o-b-amWv. Cu a®n ImÕy-¯nsâ A`m-h-ap-­mIpw F¶-Xn-m Ip½mbw tNÀ¡Â Bh-iy-ambn hcp-¶p. </li></ul><ul><li>[m-b-W-, EWm-b-W hn-n-a-b-ab§Ä¡pw Ip½mbw tNÀ¡Â {][m--am-Wv. </li></ul>
  19. 21. ssPhmw-i-¯nsâ KpWw <ul><li>a®nsâ cN tami-am-b-Xp-sIm-­pÅ Zqjy-§Ä ]cn-l-cn-¡p-¶p. </li></ul><ul><li>ssPh-h-kvXp-¡-fnse t]mfn-km-¡-ssd-Up-IÄ BWv a¬I-Wn-I-Isf Dd-¸n-¨p-nÀ¯p¶ “ knaâv.” a®nsâ LS Ch-bn-sÃ-¦n s]«¶v XIÀ¶v t]mIpw. </li></ul><ul><li>a®n n¶pÅ Pe-_m-jv]o-I-cWw Ipd-¡p-¶p. </li></ul>
  20. 22. ssPhmw-i-¯nsâ KpWw <ul><li>aW IqSnb a®nsâ Pe-kw-{K-l-W-tijn Iq«p-¶p. </li></ul><ul><li>Ifn-a-®m-sW-¦n hmbp, Pew F¶n-h-bpsS a®n-eq-sS-bpÅ k©mcw Ffp-¸-am-¡p-¶p. </li></ul><ul><li>D]-cn-X-e-¯n Hcp ]pX¸p t]mse {]hÀ¯n¨v as®m-en¸v Ipd-¡p-¶p. </li></ul>
  21. 23. ssPhmw-i-¯nsâ KpWw <ul><li>ssPhmwiw tNcp-t¼m-gpÅ Xhnt«m Idpt¸m ndw a®nsâ Dujvam-hns kzm[o-n¡pw. </li></ul><ul><li>ssPhmwiw IqSp-X-epÅ a®n Pemw-ihpw IqSn-bn-cn-¡pw. AXn-m A[nIw NqSv hen-s¨-Sp-¡n-Ã. </li></ul><ul><li>NqSp-Im-e¯v XWp¸pw inin-c-¯n NqSpw ]IÀ¶v a®nse PohnXw kpJ-I-c-am-¡pw. </li></ul>
  22. 24. ssPhmw-ihpw t]mj-I-e-`y-Xbpw <ul><li>cmk-h-f-an-ÃmsX Irjn-sN¿pt¼mÄ ss{SPsâ 90-þ95 % hpw ssPhmw-i¯n n¶v. </li></ul><ul><li>ssPhmwiw 2% epw IqSp-X-epÅ a®n t^m-kv^-dkntâbpw kÄ^dn-tâbpw {][m t{imXÊv ssPhmwiw Xs¶. </li></ul><ul><li>DjvW-ta-Jema®nepw sN¦Âa-®nepw kq£vaaq-e-I-§Ä Ipd-hv. Nmc¯n 5% kq£vaaq-e-I-§Ä BWv. </li></ul>
  23. 25. ssPhmw-ihpw teml-aq-e-I§fpw <ul><li>Ccp-¼v, Aeqano-bw, sN¼v, kn¦v, amwK-okv XpS-§nb teml-aq-e-I-§Ä sNSn-IÄ¡v hen-s¨-Sp-¡-¯-¡-hn[w teb-cq-]-¯nembncn-¡n-Ã. </li></ul><ul><li>ssPhmw-ihpw teml-A-tbm-Wp-Ifpw _Ô-§Ä hgn dnwKv BIrXnbnepÅ X·m-{X-Ifmbn amdpw. Cu _Ôw kq£va-aq-e-I-§sf sNSn-IÄ¡v In«p¶ Xc-¯n-em-¡pw. </li></ul>
  24. 26. hnäm-anpw aäpw <ul><li>ssPh-hkvXp¡-fpsS hnL-S-w- hgn -hn¯p-ap-f-¡Â, thcv hfÀ¨, hnfhv F¶n-hsb kzm[o-n-¡p¶ hn-äm-an-p-IÄ, Bâo_-tbm«n¡pIÄ, kkytlmÀtam-Wp-IÄ F¶nh a®n-te-¡v. </li></ul><ul><li>Bâo_-tbm«n¡pIÄ tcmKm-Wp-¡-fpsS kwJy Ipd-¡pw. </li></ul><ul><li>a®nsâ ^e-]pjvSn ne-nÀ¯p¶ kq£vaPohnI-fpsS t{imXÊv ssPhmwiw. </li></ul>
  25. 27. ssPhmwi kwc-£Ww <ul><li>ssPhmwiw ne-nÀ¯m³ a®n ss{S-P³ D­m-I-Ww-þ- ss{S-Pv ]-bÀhÀ¤-§Ä, ss{S-P³ cmk-h-f-§Ä, ssPh-h-kvXp-¡Ä. </li></ul><ul><li>Bh-c-W-hn-f-Ifpw ]¨ne-hn-f-Ifpwþh-«, D§v, ioas¡m¶, kp_m-_pÄ-þ-sU-bn-©, Inep¡n, NW-¼v, sImgnªnÂ. </li></ul><ul><li>slIvS-dnv 5þ6 S¬ ssPh-h-fw. </li></ul><ul><li>as®m-en¸v XS-b-Ww. hmbp k©mcw Iq«mpw If-Isf HXp-¡mpw am{Xw Dghpw Inf-¡epw </li></ul>
  26. 28. t]mjI aqe-I-§Ä <ul><li>{]Ir-Xn-bn 92þ kky-tIm-i-§-fn 60þ hfÀ¨¡v 17. </li></ul><ul><li>ImÀ_¬, ssl{U-P³, HmIvkn-P³, ss{S-P³,- t^m-kv^-d-kv, s]m«m-kyw, ImÕyw, aáojyw, KÔ-Iw, amwK-o-kv, Ccp-¼v, sN¼v, mIw, tamfn-_vUn-w, t_mtdm¬, t¢mdn³, n¡Â. </li></ul><ul><li>IqSmsX acp-`q-an-bnse Nne sNSn-IÄ¡v tkmUn-bw, ss{S-P³ kw`-cn-¡p¶ _mIvSo-cn-b-IÄ¡v tIm_mÄ«v, sÃnpw Icn-¼npw knen-¡¬ </li></ul>
  27. 29. Ah-iy-aq-e-I-§Ä <ul><li>17  3 þ D-W-§nb kky`mK¯nsâ 94 % hpw ImÀ_¬, ssl{U-P³, HmIvkn-P³þhm-bp-hn n¶pw Pe-¯n n¶pw e`y-am-Ipw. </li></ul><ul><li>_m¡n 14 v a®v Xs¶ B{ibw </li></ul><ul><li>{]mY-anI t]mjIaqe-I-§Ä/ hfaqe-I-§Äþ ss{S-P³,- t^m-kv^-d-kv, s]m«m-kywþIq-Snb Af-hn thWw. </li></ul><ul><li>ZznXob t]mjIaqe-I-§Äþ ImÕyw, aáojyw, KÔ-Iw. </li></ul><ul><li>kq£va aqe-I-§Ä-þ-_m¡n 11 F®w. </li></ul>
  28. 30. e`yX <ul><li>{]mY-anI t]mjIaqe-I-§Ä hf-ambn ÂI-Ww. </li></ul><ul><li>ZznXob t]mjIaqe-I-§fpw kq£vaaqe-I-§fpwþ-h-f-ambn ÂtI­n hcm-dn-Ã. </li></ul><ul><li>]s£ as®m-en-¸pw ssPh-h-f-{]-tbm-K¯nsâ Ipdhpw kq£va-a-q-eI ZuÀe`yw krjvSn-¡mw. </li></ul>
  29. 31. hf-{]-tbmKw <ul><li>t]mj-I-aq-e-I-§Ä a®n-eq-sStbm tcnt«m ÂIp-I. </li></ul><ul><li>aq¶v Xcw </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ssPh-hfw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cmkhfw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pohm-Wp-hfw </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. ssPh-hfw <ul><li>It¼m-ÌvþN¸p-N-h-dp-IÄ, Ce-IÄ, Agp-In-t¨-cp¶ ssPhm-h-in-jvS-§Ä, NIn-cn-t¨mdv + NmW-Iw, tKmaq{Xw </li></ul><ul><li>ssPhm-h-in-jvS-§Ä ¶mbn hnL-Sn¨v sNSn¡v Ffp¸w hen-s¨-Sp-¡m-hp¶ AhØ </li></ul><ul><li>ImÀ_¬-þ-ss-{S-P³ Ap-]mXw 10 : 1 BIWw </li></ul><ul><li>ss{S-P³ t{imX-Êp-IÄþNmW-Iw, io-a-s¡m-¶, ]b-dp-hÀ¤-]-¨n-e-IÄ, tImgn-¡m-jvTw, Noª-aÕyw. </li></ul>
  31. 33. ØqessPh-hf§Ä <ul><li>- arKhf§Ä, sXmgp-¯p-h-fw, tImgn-¡m-jvTw, kkym-h-in-jvS-§Ä, Nmcw XpS-§n-bh </li></ul><ul><li>Ch-bn k-ky-aq-e-I-§Ä Ipd-hv- þ -AXn-m h-fsc IqSnb Afhv thWw </li></ul><ul><li>-hne IqSp-X – -F-¯n-¡m-pÅ _p²n-ap-«v- þ- e-`y-X-¡p-dhv </li></ul>
  32. 34. km{µo-Ir-X- ssP-h-h-f-§Ä <ul><li>e£yw t]mj-I-§Ä ÂIpI </li></ul><ul><li>th¸n³ ]n®m-¡v, Bh-W-¡n³ ]n®m-¡v-þ-h-fhpw ssPhIoS-m-in-nbpw. </li></ul><ul><li>FÃp-s]m-Sn-þ20-þ25 % t^mkv^-dkvþA-¾-X-Iq-Snb a®nv Ap-tbm-Pyw. </li></ul><ul><li>aÕy-h-fw-þ4% ss{S-P³, 3.9% t^mkv^-dkv </li></ul><ul><li>cà-h-fw-þ10-þ12% ss{S-P³ </li></ul>
  33. 35. cmk-h-fw-þ-D-]-tbm-K-coXn <ul><li>Hmtcm hnfbv¡pw GXp aqeIw GXv ka-b¯v F{X Af-hn F¶v a-Ên-em-¡-Ww. </li></ul><ul><li>hnf-I-fpsS Cw, Ahbv¡v Bh-iy-amb t]mj-I-aq-e-I-§-fpsS tXmXv, a®nsâ LS-, kz`mhw F¶n-hsb ASn-Øm--am¡n hf-{]-tbm-Kw. </li></ul>
  34. 36. cmk-h-f-§Ä <ul><li>tÀh-f-§Ä-þ-Hcp {]mYanI kky-aq-eIw am{Xw-þ-bq-dnb (ss-{S-P³), kq¸À t^mkvt^-äv (-t^m-kv^-d-kv) </li></ul><ul><li>kwbp-à-h-f-§Ä-þ-H-¶n IqSp-X {]mYanI -aq-eI§Ä tNÀ¯v nÀ½n-¨-Xv-þ-^m-IvSw-t^mkv (20% ss{S-P³ 20% t^mkv^-d-kv) </li></ul><ul><li>Iq«p-h-f-§Äþ-H-¶n IqSp-X tÀh-f-§Ä- Irjn-bn-S-¯nÂh¨v Iq«n-t¨À¯-Xv-þ10:5:20 Iq«phfw </li></ul>
  35. 37. hfw tNÀ¡p¶ coXn <ul><li>ASnhfambpw taÂh-f-ambpw þ hnX-dn-sIm-Sp-¡p¶ coXn km[m-cWw þ jvSw Hgn-hm-¡m³ thcp-]-Sew DÅn-S-t¯¡v tcn«v C«p-sIm-Sp-¡p-I. </li></ul><ul><li>ssPh-h-f-§-Ä aqe[mXp-¡fmbn hnL-Sn-¡p-¶-Xnv ka-b-sa-Sp-¡pw. AXn-m Sp-¶-Xnv c­mgvN ap¼v a®n tNÀ¡-Ww. </li></ul><ul><li>cmk-h-f-§Ä Sp¶ ka-b¯pw hnf-I-fpsS hnhn[ hfÀ¨m-Z-i-I-fnepw </li></ul>
  36. 38. hfw tNÀ¡p¶ coXn <ul><li>hfÀ¨bv¡v XpSÀ¨-bmbn Bh-iy-apÅ ss{S-P³ Xh-W-I-fmbn ÂImw. </li></ul><ul><li>thcp-I-fpsS hfÀ¨sb klm-bn-¡p¶ t^mkv^-dkv BZy L«-¯n thWw. tdm¡vt^m-kvt^äv a®n ebn-¡m³ ka-b-sa-Sp¡psa¶-Xn-m 2þ4 BgvN ap¼v. </li></ul><ul><li>s]m«mkyw hfÀ¨-bpsS FÃm L«-§-fnepw shW-sa-¶-Xn-m Xh-W-I-fm-bn. </li></ul>
  37. 39. kwtbm-PnX hf-{]-tbmKw <ul><li>Xmsg ]d-bp-¶-h-sbÃmw ]cn-K-Wn-¨p-sIm-­pÅ hf-{]-tbmKamWv kwtbm-PnX hf-{]-tbmKw </li></ul><ul><li>a®nsâ `uXn-I, cmknI LS--IÄ Ap-Iq-e-am-¡pI. </li></ul><ul><li>a®n Bh-iy-¯nv ssPhmwiw e`y-am-¡pI. </li></ul><ul><li>t]mj-I-aqeI§Ä -Bh-iy-¯nv e`y-am-¡pI. </li></ul><ul><li>a®nsâ A¾Xbpw eh-Wmw-ihpw hnf-IÄ¡v tbmPn¨ Xc-¯n-em-¡pI. </li></ul>
  38. 40. a®nsâ ^e-]pjvSn <ul><li>agbpw shbnepw þ aqe-I-§Ä s]s«¶v jvS-s¸-Spw. </li></ul><ul><li>IqSp-X hnfhv In«p¶ hnf-IÄ þt]m-j-I-jvSw IqSpw. </li></ul><ul><li>An-b-{´n-X-amb as®m-en¸v þjvSw ]ns¶bpw IqSpw. </li></ul><ul><li>^e-]pjvSn ne-nÀ¯m³ jvS-s¸-Sp-¶-Xnv Xpey-ambn aqe-I-§Ä Xncn¨v ÂIWw </li></ul>
  39. 41. ssPh-h-fw-þ-{]-iv-§Ä <ul><li>ssIImcyw sN¿m-pÅ _p²n-ap«v </li></ul><ul><li>DbÀ¶ hne </li></ul><ul><li>Ipdª e`yX þ C´y-bn Irjn-sN-¿p¶ hnf-I-sfÃmw IqSn a®nÂn¶pw Hcp hÀjw 28 Zi-e£w S¬ t]mj-I-§Ä FSp-¡p-¶p. NmW-Iw, ap-jy-a-ew, hnfm-h-in-jvS-§Ä XpS-§n-bh FÃmw Iq«n-bmepw BsI 5.6 Zi-e£w S¬ t]mj-I-§tf Xncn¨v ÂIm³ Ign-bq. </li></ul><ul><li>ssPh-hfw am{Xw D]-tbm-Kn-¨m slIvS-dnv 5 S¬ F¶Xv 14 S¬ Bbn DbÀ¯-Ww. </li></ul>
  40. 42. cmk-h-fw-þ-{]-iv-§Ä <ul><li>Aan-X-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-¨m ]mcn-Øn-XnI {]iv-§Ä </li></ul><ul><li>ssPh-hfw CÃmsX cmk-hfw am{X-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-¨m a®nse t]mj-I-tiJcw CÃm-Xm-Ipw. kq£va-aq-e-I-§-fpsS Ipd-hp-­m-Ipw. </li></ul><ul><li>CXv a®n-s Xs¶ _m[n-¡pw. </li></ul>
  41. 43. ssPh-Ir-jnþ]cn-anXn-IÄ <ul><li>hym]-I-ambn ssPh-Irjn¡v Bh-iy-amb ssPh-h-f-¯nsâ e`yX C¶nÃ. </li></ul><ul><li>]s£ ssPhhfw Bh-iy-¯nv e`y-amb Øe-§-fn DXv]m-Z--£-a-X-bn amä-an-ÃmsX cmk-hfw ]qÀ®-ambn Hgn-hm¡n Irjn km²y-hpam-Wv. </li></ul><ul><li>C¶v cmk-hfw D]-tbm-Kn-¡p¶ Øe¯v cmk-hfw ]qÀ®-ambpw Hgn-hm-¡p-t¼mÄ DXv]m-Z--£-a-X-bn Ipd-hp-h-cpw. F¶m 5þ6 hÀjw sIm­v DXv]m-Z--£-a-X- hos­-Sp-¡m-m-Ipw. </li></ul>
  42. 44. hf-{]-tbm-Kw-þ-im-kv{Xo-bX <ul><li>a®nse ImÀ_¬-þ-ss-{S-P³ Ap-]mXw ne-nÀ¯-W-sa-¦n hnf-]-cn-{I-a-¯n ]bÀhÀ¤§Ä DÄs¸-Sp-¯p-Ibpw ss{S-P³ hf-§Ä tNÀ¡p-Ibpw thWw. </li></ul><ul><li>CXv a®n ne-n¡-W-sa-¦n ImÀ_¬ IqSn a®n D­mI-Ww. CXnv ssPhmwiw Xs¶ thWw. </li></ul>
  43. 45. kwtbm-PnX hf-{]-tbm-Kw <ul><li>ssPh-h-f-{]-tbmKw a®nsâ ^e-]pjvSn ne-nÀ¯p-¶-Xn-m-h-iy-amb `uXn-I, cmk-Kp-W-§Ä sa¨-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xn ]cn-an-X-s¸-Sp-¯pI. </li></ul><ul><li>t]mj-I-aq-e-I-§Ä cmk-h-f-§-fn-eqsS ÂIp-I. </li></ul><ul><li>A¾X IqSnb a®n Ip½mbw tNÀ¡p-I. </li></ul><ul><li>Ip½mb¯ntâbpw cmk-h-f¯ntâbpw Afhv Bh-iy-¯nv am{Xw </li></ul>
  44. 46. {i²n-t¡-­h <ul><li>a®v ^e-]p-jvSn-tbmsS ne-n¡-W-sa-¦n ssPh-hfw, cmk-hfw, Pohm-Wp-hfw, Ip-½mbw F¶nh Bh-iym-p-k-cWw tNÀ¡Â, If-n-b-{´-Ww, Dghv Ipd-¡Â, ]pX-bn-SoÂ, hnf-]-cn-{I-aw, ]b-dp-Ir-jn, a®p-kw-c-£Ww F¶n-h-bn-seÃmw {i²n-t¡­Xp­v. </li></ul>
  45. 47. IoS-m-in-n-IÄ <ul><li>1845-þ-AbÀem³UnÂþsF-dnjv s]m«täm ^man³-þ-I-cn-¨n tcmKw þacWw 4 tImSn. </li></ul><ul><li>1943-þ44-þ-_w-KmÄ £maw-þ-s-Ãns _m[n¨ slÂhnt´m kvt]mdnbw eo^v kvt]m«v F¶ IpanÄ tcmKw-þ-a-cWw B hÀjw am{Xw 15 e£w t]À. </li></ul><ul><li>C¯cw kml-Ncyw Hgn-hm-¡m-pÅ {ia-¯n n¶pw IoS-m-in-n-IÄ þ “ nÈ_vZ hk´w” ]pÀhn-Nn-´--¯nv XpS-¡-an-«p. </li></ul>
  46. 48. IoS-nb{´Ww <ul><li>bm{´nI nb-{´Ww þ ssIsIm-­v, sIWn D]-tbm-Kn-¨v, kqcy-Xm-]w, NqSv Ch D]-tbm-Kn-¨v. </li></ul><ul><li>Irjn-coXn D]-tbm-Kn-¨v. </li></ul><ul><li>ssPhnI nb-{´Ww þ FXnÀ {]mWn-IÄ, ]cm-Z-§Ä, Cc-]n-Sn-b-·mÀ, tcmKm-Wp-¡Ä F¶nh D]-tbm-Kn-¨v. </li></ul><ul><li>cmk-n-b-{´Ww þ cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§Ä D]-tbm-Kn-¨v. </li></ul>
  47. 49. hÀ¤o-I-cWw <ul><li>{]hÀ¯n-¡p¶ coXn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DZ-c-Io-S-m-in-n--þ-h-b-än-se-¯p¶p (ImÀ_m-dnÂ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kv]Ài-Io-S-m-in-n--þ-Xz¡neqsS (am-e-¯n-tbm¬) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[qa-Io-S-m-in-n--þizmkmfn-bn-eqsS (m-]vX-eo³) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>cmk-L-S </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ImÀ_-WnI Io-S-m-in-n- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AImÀ_-WnI Io-S-m-in-n- </li></ul></ul>
  48. 50. cmk-Io-S-m-in-n-IÄ <ul><li>A]-I-S-km-[y-X-¡-p-k-cn¨v hnhn[ te_-ep-IÄ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nph¸v </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aª </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>]¨ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nph¸pw aªbpw te_-epÅ IoS-m-in-n-IÄ A]-I-S-Im-cn-I-fm-Wv. Ch Ign-hXpw Hgn-hm-¡Ww </li></ul></ul>
  49. 51. IoS-m-in-n-IfpsS te_epIÄ <ul><li>Nph¸ v </li></ul><ul><li>BÂUn-ImÀ_v </li></ul><ul><li>s_µn-tbm-ImÀ_v </li></ul><ul><li>-^q-d-Um³ </li></ul><ul><li>ImÀ_-dn³ </li></ul><ul><li>UnHm-IvtkmÀ_v </li></ul><ul><li>^ntm-_q-ImÀ_v </li></ul><ul><li>s^tm-Ivko-ImÀ_v </li></ul><ul><li>sFtkm-t{]m-ImÀ_v </li></ul><ul><li>satXm-a-bn </li></ul><ul><li>aª </li></ul><ul><li>F³tUm-Ä^m³ </li></ul><ul><li>t{]mkn-tm-t^mkv </li></ul><ul><li>{Snbm-tkm-t^mkv </li></ul><ul><li>oe </li></ul><ul><li>_nIvtkmÄ </li></ul><ul><li>skhn-tUmÄ </li></ul><ul><li>skhn-tamÄ </li></ul>
  50. 52. ssPh-Io-S-m-in-n-IÄ <ul><li>]pIbne¡jmbw </li></ul><ul><li>ths¸-®-¸m-bkw </li></ul><ul><li>th¸n³Ip-cp-I-jmbw </li></ul><ul><li>as®® an{inXw </li></ul><ul><li>Xpf-kn-bn-e-an-{inXw </li></ul><ul><li>Im´m-cn-ap-fIp embn </li></ul>

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