Adukkalayile Rasathantram (pdf)

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This presentation prepared by Mr. KVS Kartha on behalf of Parishath Padanakendram Kottarakkara for Science Classes Campaign in connection with the International Year of Chemistry.

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Adukkalayile Rasathantram (pdf)

  1. 1. ck-X{´hÀjw 2011tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-j¯v
  2. 2. ASp¡fbnse ck-X-{´w Ah-X-cWw X¿m-dm-¡n-bXv ]T--tI-{µw, sIm«m-c-¡-c.
  3. 3. “Life is nothing butan orderly function of enzymes.”
  4. 4. DÂt{]-c-I-§-fpsS temIw• H¯ncn ka-bhpw IqSnb Xm]-nebpw Bh- iy-apÅ {]hÀ¯--§sf s]«¶v Ipdª Xm]-nebn S-¯m³ klm-bn-¡p-Ibpw kzbw amä-sam¶pw hcm-Xn-cn-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p- ¶-h-bmWv DÂt{]-c-I-§Ä.• F³ssk-ap-IfmWv ico-c-¯nse ssPh DÂt{]-c-I-§-Ä. Cu F³ssk-ap-IÄ t{]m«o- p-I-fmWv.• F³ssk-ap-IfnsÃ-¦n {]`m-X-`-£Ww Zln- ¡m³ 50 hÀjw.
  5. 5. ASp-¡f Hcp inev]-im-e-bmWv.]co-£-W-þ-K-th-jW ime-bm-Wv. ]mN-Iw Hcp imkv{X-am-Wv, kmt¦-Xn-I-hn-Zy-bmWv, Ie-bp-am-Wv.
  6. 6. F³ssk-ap-I-fpsS AÛp-X-temIw• 3000  A[nIw F³ssk-ap-IÄ Is−-¯n-bn- «p-−v.• Hcp F³sskanv Hcp tPmen am{Xw. ape-¸m- ense emIvtSm-kv F¶ ]©-km-csb ¥qt¡mkpw Kme-IvtSmkpw B¡n amäp-¶Xv emIvssSkv F¶ F³sskw BWv.• H¯ncn ka-bhpw 3000 Un{Kn NqSn DÂ]m-Zn- ¸n-¡p¶ A{X DuÀPhpw th− {]hÀ¯-§- fmWv 37 Un{Kn NqSn ½psS icoc¯n S- ¡p-¶-Xv.
  7. 7. cmk-{]-hÀ¯--§Ä• `£Ww Zln-¡p-¶-Xv, lrZ-b-¯ntâbpw Ic-fn-tâbpw Xe-t¨m-dn-tâbpw {]hÀ¯w, tIÄhn, ImgvN, cpNn FÃmw cmk-{]-hÀ¯-w.• F³ssk-ap-I-fn-ÃmsX Cu {]hÀ¯--§- sfm¶pw S-¡n-Ã.• icocw Xs¶ cmkn-I-am-Wv.
  8. 8. nÀ½m-W-{]-{Inb• `£Ww hnL-Sn-¸n-¡p-¶p, th−-sXms¡ Iq«n-t¨À¡p-¶p, Bh-iy-an-Ãm-¯Xv ]pd´Åp-¶p, t{]m«o-p-Ifm ]pXnb skÃp-IÄ nÀ½n¡p¶p, AXn-pÅ DuÀPw ImÀt_m-ssl-t{U-än ns¶-Sp- ¡p-¶p, sImgp¸v tX¨p-]n-Sn-¸n¨v ico-cm- IrXn D−m-¡p-¶p.• CXn-m-h-iy-amb `£Ww nÀ½n-¡p-¶Xv ASp-¡-f-bn-em-Wv.
  9. 9. ASp-¡-f-bn Fs´ms¡? thhn-¡p¶p hd-¡p¶p hc-«p¶p s]mcn-¡p¶p Nps«-Sp-¡p¶p
  10. 10. amä-§Ä• ]mNIw `£y-]-ZmÀ°-§-fn amä-§Ä D−m¡p¶p.• Ch `uXnIamätam cmkamätam BImw.• ]mNIw sN¿p¶ BÄ¡v sN¿p-¶ {]{In-b-bpsS A-´-c-^ew F´m-bn- cn¡pw F¶-dn-hp-−m-bn-cn-¡Ww.
  11. 11. ]mNIw F´nv?1. kq£vam-Wp-¡sf in-¸n-¡m³2. kzmZv hÀ²n-¸n-¡m³- -3. Zlw kpJ-I-c-am-¡m³4. sshhn²yw D−m-¡m³5. BIÀj-I-am-¡m³
  12. 12. kq£vam-Wp-¡sf in-¸n-¡m³- – -]-¶n-amw-k-¯n n¶pw {Sn¡n-tm- knkv F¶ tcmKw- – -PÀ½-n-bn ]¨-I-¡n-cn¡bn n¶pw AXn-km-cw.
  13. 13. kzmZv hÀ²n-¸n-¡m³- kzmZv cpNnbpw hmk-bpw Ap-`q-Xnbpw tNÀ¶-Xv– cmk-amäw aqew hmk-bpÅ ]ZmÀ°- §Ä D−m-Ip-¶tXm hmk-¡v tlXp- hmb -hkvXp NqSv X«p-t¼mÄ _mjv]o- I-cn-¡-s¸-Sp-¶tXm BImw.
  14. 14. sdm«n samcn-¡p¶ aWw boÌnse F³ssk-ap- IÄ ÌmÀ¨nsâ Hcw- is¯ B¡-tlm- fm¡p-t¼mÄ ImÀ_¬ssU-Hm- IvsskUv D−m-Ip-¶p. CXv sNdp-Ip-an-f-I-fmbn sdm«n-bn nd-bp-¶p. samcn-¡p-t¼mgpÅ aWw B¡-tlm-Ä _mjv]o- I-cn-¡p-¶XmWv.
  15. 15. Zlw kpJ-I-c-am-¡m³• NqSpw CuÀ¸hpw thK-¯n Zln-¸n¡p-¶p.• Acn thhn¡p-t¼mÄ A¶P¯nsâ sNdp- tKm-f-§Ä XIÀ¶v A¶Pw ]pd-t¯-¡p-h- cp-¶p. IqSp-X sh´m A¶Pw sUIvkvt{Sm-km-Ipw. thhn-¡p-t¼mgs¯ hmk Zl--c-k-§Ä DÂ-]m-Zn-¸n-¡p¶p.
  16. 16. sshhn²yw D−m-¡m³hyXy-Ø-amb hn`-h-§Ä
  17. 17. BIÀj-I-am-¡m³]mNIw sN¿msX Ign¡m³ tXm¶m-¯h ]mN-I-¯n-eqsS cq]w amdp-t¼mÄ Ign-¡m³ tXm¶p-¶p.
  18. 18. ]mNIw`£W-]-ZmÀ°-§-fn Fs´ms¡ amäw hcp¯psa¶v tm¡mw.
  19. 19. ]¨¡dn-IÄ ]¨-¡-dn-I-fn A¶- Pw, t{]m«o-p-IÄ, Poh-I-§Ä, skÃp- tem-kv, Jn-P-§Ä, sNdnb Af-hn sImgp-¸v.• ]¨-¡-dn-IÄ ssl{U-P³ s]tdm-IvsskUv tNÀ¯ shÅ-¯ntem D¸p-sh-Å-¯ntem Igp-In-bm IoS-§Ä in¡pw
  20. 20. ]¨-¡-dn-IÄ thhn-¡p-t¼mÄ• Ign-bp-¶Xpw Ipd¨p shÅ-¯n ]mNIw sN¿p-I.• PohIw F F®-bnÂ/sImgp-¸nte ebn-¡q. AXn-m shÅ-¯n thhn-¨m jvS-s¸-Sn-Ã.• PohIw _n shÅ-¯n ebn-¡pw. AXn-m thhn¨ tijw shÅw Duän-¡-f-bm-Xn-cn-¡p-I.• PohIw kn NqSm-¡p-t¼mÄ _mjv]-amIpw. AXn- m sNdnb NqSn AS-¨p-h¨p thhn-¡p-I.• PohIw C thhn-¡p-t¼mÄ jvS-s¸-Sp-¶n-Ã.
  21. 21. ]¨-¡-dn-bnse t{]m«o-p-IÄ • Nne t{]m«o-p-IÄ shÅ- ¯n ebn-¡pw. At¸mÄ Zlw thK-¯n-em-Ipw. • aäp NneXv sImbm-Kp-eo-I-cn- ¡pw. At¸mÄ Zlw ITn- -am-Ipw. • AXn-m Ch o−-tcw thhn-¡m-Xn-cn-¡p-¶-XmWv ÃXv.
  22. 22. AXn-]m-NIw• IqSp-X thhp-¶Xv ]IpXn thhp-¶-Xp- t]mse tZmj-Icw• ]¨-¡-dn-IÄ, ]g-§Ä ]¨-tbmsS `£n- ¡p-t¼mÄ Poh-I-§Ä ]qÀ®-ambpw e`n¡p-¶p.• AXn-]m-NIw Blm-cs¯ A{]n-b-am-¡p- ¶p, Nne-t¸mÄ Zlw ZpjvI-c-am-¡p¶p.
  23. 23. ]¨-¡-dn-bnse Jn-P§Ä• ImÕyw, Ccp-¼v, aáojyw XpS-§nb Jn-P-§Ä thhn-¡p-t¼mÄ shůn ebn-¡pw.• AXn-m thhn¨ shÅw If-b-cp-Xv.
  24. 24. ]¨-¡-dn-bnse mcp-IÄ • ]pdw-tXm-Snepw X−nepw Ce-bnepw FÃmw skÃp- temkv (m-cv) D−v. F§s ]mNIw sNbvXmepw mcnv cmk- amäw hcn-Ã. Aev]w arZp- hm-Ip-sa¶p am{Xw. CXv ap-jy-i-co-c-¯n Zln- ¡p-Ibpw CÃ.
  25. 25. mcp-IfpsS KpWw• mcv ae-¯nsâ hym]vXw hÀ²n-¸n-¡pw. tim[ kpJ-I-c-am-¡pw. sImgp-¸ns hen-s¨-Sp-¡pw.• AXn-m ]¨-¡dn pdp-¡p-t¼mÄ Bh- iy-¯n-e-[nIw sXmen sN¯n-¡-f-b-cp-Xv.
  26. 26. {i²n-¡pI• ]mNIw Ipd¨p shÅ-¯nÂ.• shÅw Duän-¡-f-bm-Xn-cn-¡p-I.• AS-¨p-h¨v thhn-¡p-I.• Bh-iy-¯n-e-[nIw sXmen sN¯n-¡-f-b-cp-Xv.• Bh-iy-¯n-e-[nIw thhn-¡-cp-Xv.• ]¨-¡dnIÄ ssl{U-P³s]-tdm- IvssktUm Dt¸m tNÀ¯ shÅ-¯n Igp-Ip-I.
  27. 27. [my-§Ä • A¶Pw IqSp-Xepw t{]m«o³ Ipd-hpw. • Xhn-Sn Jn-P-§fpw Poh-I-§fpw mcpw. Xhn«p-n-d-apÅ ]pgp-¡-e- cn. • H¯ncn shÅ-¯n thhn¨v Iªn hmÀ¯p-I- f-b-cpXv. thhn¨v hän-¡p- ¶Xv D¯-aw. • thhv Ipd-bp-I-bp-a-cp-Xv, IqSp-I-bp-a-cp-Xv.
  28. 28. tZmibpw CUvenbpw• Acn Dgp¶v 3:1 F¶ Ap-]m-X-¯n FSp¯v shtÆsd shÅ-¯n IpXnÀ¯v Ac¨v Iq«n- t¨À¯v Hcp cm{Xn ]pfn-¡m³ hbv¡p-¶p.• Dgp-¶nepw Acn-bnepw DÅ kq£vam-Wp-¡-Ä DÂ]m-Zn-¸n-¡p¶ F³ssk-ap-Ifpw boÌp-am-bpÅ {]hÀ¯--^-e-ambn ImÀ_¬ssU-Hm-IvsskUv D−m-Ip-¶p.• Dgp-¶nepw Acn-bnepw DÅ ]i-t]m-se-bpÅ cmkn-I-§Ä ]pfn¨p s]m´p-¶ amhns Ønco-I- cn-¡p-¶p. A¾-cpNn D−m-Ip¶p.
  29. 29. tZmibpw CUvenbpw• ocmhn X«p-t¼mÄ ImÀ_¬ssU-Hm-IvsskUpw hmbphpw ]pd-t¯¡v hcp-Ibpw amhv sh´v kvt]m©v t]mem-Ip-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p.• Dgp¶p Ipd-ªm ]md t]mse. IqSn-bm I¿nepw tZmi-¡-Ãnepw H«pw.
  30. 30. tKmX¼vv1. B« þ XhnSpw _oPm¶hpw {`qWhpw tNÀ¶ s]mSn þ A¶-Phpw t{]m«opw Poh-Ihpw Jn-Phpw þ N¸m¯n D−m- ¡m³2. dh þ tKmX-¼nsâ _oPm¶w Xcn-bm- ¡nbXv þ {][m--ambpw A¶Pw þ D¸p-am- hv, lÂh, ssakqÀ]m¡v F¶n-hbv¡v3. ssaZ þ tKmX-¼nsâ DÄ¡m-¼p-am{Xw s]mSn-bm-¡n-bXv þ A¶Pw am{Xw þ s{_Uv, s]mtdm-«, tI¡v, _nkv¡äv þ ]i
  31. 31. tKmX-¼nse Kvfq«³• Acn-amhpw tKmX-¼p-amhpw X½n-epÅ hyXymkw tKmX-¼p-amhnepÅ Kvfq«³ F¶ t{]m«o³ (8-þ10%) BWv.• ¥nbm-Un³, Kvfqs«-n³, sdkn-Uyq-t{]m-«o³ F¶o LS-I-§Ä tNÀ¶-XmWv Kvfq«³. tKmX-¼p-s]mSn Hgp-Ip¶ shÅ-¯n Igp-In-bm _m¡n-bmhp¶ d_Àt]m- epÅ D−-bmWv Kvfq«³.
  32. 32. N¸m¯n D−m¡p-t¼mÄ• amhv ¶mbn Ii¡n aÀ±n¨v Ipg-¡p-t¼mÄ AXnse A¶Pw ]pd-t¯¡p hcpw.• _oä Assa-tekv F¶ F³sskansâ {]hÀ¯--^-e-ambn A¶Pw amÄt«mkv F¶ ]©-km-c-bmbn amdpw. CXv amhnv teiw a[pcw D−m-¡pw.• amhv Ipg¨v Ipd¨p tcw hbv¡p-¶Xv Ã-Xm- Wv.
  33. 33. N¸m¯n D−m¡p-t¼mÄ• F³ssk-ap-I-fpsS km¶n-²y-¯n ]©-km-c- IÄ InWz-¯nv hnt[-b-am-hp-Ibpw ImÀ_¬ssU-Hm-IvsskUv D−m-hp-Ibpw sN¿pw. amhv IqSp-X arZp-hm-Ipw. NqSmb IÃn N¸m¯n CSp- t¼mÄ amhn-epÅ _mjv]oI- cn¨ Pehpw ImÀ_¬ssU-Hm- IvsskUpw nd-bp-¶-Xn-m N¸m¯n s]m´n hcpw.
  34. 34. N¸m¯n D−m¡p-t¼mÄ• NqSp X«p-t¼mÄ amhnse t{]m«o-p-I-fnse Aan- tm-A-¾hpw ]©-km-cbpw {]Xn-{]-hÀ¯n¨v k¦oÀ®-amb buKn-I-§Ä D−m-Ip-¶p.• NqSv IqSp-t¼mÄ Ch hnL-Sn¨v Xhn-«p-n-d-¯n-epÅ buKn-I-§Ä D−m-Ip-¶p. CXmWv N¸m-¯n-bpsS Xhn-«p- n-d-¯n-pÅ Imc-Ww.• amhnv InWzw kw`-hn-¡p-t¼mÄ D−m-Ip¶ B¡-tlmÄ _mjv]o-I-cn-¡p-¶Xpw ]©-kmc Aev]w Icn-bp-¶-Xp-amWv sImXn-¸n-¡p¶ hmk- bv¡v Imc-Ww.
  35. 35. N¸m-¯n-bpsS arZpXzw• Kvfq«³ tNcph IqSp-X-epÅXpw Kvfq«nse aq¶p LS-I-§fpw Xpey-am-bp- Å-X-amb amhp-sIm-−p-−m-¡p¶ N¸m¯n arZp-hm-bn-cn-¡pw.• amhn sdkn-Uyq-t{]m-«o³ IqSp-X-em-sW- ¦n N¸m¯n tXmep-t]m-en-cn-¡pw.• Kvfnbm-Un³ IqSp-XepÅ amhm-sW-¦n N¸m-¯n¡v ISp-¸-am-bn-cn-¡pw.
  36. 36. F®bpw sImgp¸pw• DuÀP-¯nsâ km{µo-I-cWw þ t{]m«opw ]©- km-cbpw 4 Intem Itemdn DuÀPw ÂIp- t¼mÄ sImgp¸v 9 Intem Itemdn.• kky-F-®-Ifpw arK-sIm-gp-¸p-Ifpw ¥nk-tdmÄ F¶ B¡-tlmfpw ^män-A-¾-§fpw kwtbm- Pn-¨p-−m-Ip¶ FÌ-dp-IÄ.• Poh-I-§Ä F,-Un,C,sI Chsb ebn-¸n-¡mpw ico-c-¯nsâ iotXm-jvW-ØnXn nb-{´n-¡m- pw sImgp-¸p-th-Ww.
  37. 37. ]qcn-Xhpw A]q-cn-Xhpw• Ahiy ^män A¾-§Ä ico-c-¯n- nÀ½n- ¡m-m-hn-Ã. `£-W-¯n-eqsS ÂIWw.• ]qcnX ^män A¾-§Äþ t]mj-I-aqeyw Ipdhvþ s]«¶v tISm-Inà (sh-fn-s¨-®,- sh-®,- s-¿v)• A]qcnX ^män A¾-§Äþ t]mj-I-aqeyw IpSpXÂþ s]«¶v tISm-Ipw.
  38. 38. tISp-h¶ F®• HmIvko-I-c-Ww aqe-ap-−m-Ip¶ Pe-hn-tÇ-jWw hgn F®bv¡v ZpÀK-Ô-ap-−m-hp-Ibpw tISp- hcpIbpw sN¿pwþ I-bv¡p-I, ImdpIþ Btcm-Ky- ¯nv lmn-I-cw.• Htc F® ]e-{]m-hiyw ]mN-I-¯nv D]-tbm-Kn- ¨m F® hnL-Sn¨v At{Im-en³ F¶ hnj- hkvXp D−m-Ipw.• F®bpw sImgp¸pw `£-W-¯nv kzmZv ÂIpw.• Aan-tXm-]-t`mKw A]-I-Sw.
  39. 39. amwkw• t]io-m-cp-Ifpw kwtbm-P-I- I-e-I-fpw -tNÀ¶-XmWv amwkw.• ]mNIw sN¿p-t¼mÄ t{]m«o³ irw-J-e-bpsS NpcpÄ Agn-bp-¶p. CXv ho−pw kwtbm-Pn-¡p-Itbm sImbm-Kp-eo-I-cn-¡-s¸-Sp- Itbm sN¿pw.• Pehpw Dcp-Inb sImgp¸pw ]pd-t¯¡p hcpw. amwkw kt¦m-Nn-¡pw.
  40. 40. ]mN-I-¯nsâ {]iv-§Ä• ]mNI¯neqsS t]io-m-cp-IÄ ZrV-am-Ip- t¼mÄ kwtbm-P-I-I-e-IÄ arZp-hm-Ip-w. t]io- m-cp-IÄ A[nIw ZrV-am-ImsX kwtbm-P-I-I- e-IÄ th−{X arZp-hm-IpIbmWv th−-Xv.• Cu {]{In-bsb kwtbm-P-I-I-e-bnse sImfm- Pn³ F¶ t{]m«osâ Af-hv, ]mN-I-hn-[n, ]mN-I-¯n-s-Sp¯ kabw, Xm]-ne Ch-- sbÃmw kzm[o-n-¡p-¶p.• ]¸m-b-I-j-W-§Ä C«m ]¸m-b-bnse ]¸- bn³ F¶ F³sskw amwks¯ arZp-hm¡pw.
  41. 41. hÀ®-I-§Ä• kzm`m-hnI hÀ®-I-§Ä þ aªÄ, Ip¦p-a- ¸qhv• Ir{Xna hÀ®-I-§Ä þ Ap-h-Zn-¨n-«p-ÅXv F«v F®w þ AXn Xs¶ SmÀSvdm-kn³ Nne AeÀPn-tcm-K-§Ä D−m-¡pw.• Ap-h-Zn-¨n-«n-Ãm-¯h þ saäm-n FtÃm(_ncn- bm-Wn, eÍp, aªÄs]mSn), seUvt{Im-taäv (aªÄs]mSn), Xpcn-iv(-]m-h-¡, ]«m-Wn-¸-b-dv)• saäm-n FtÃm Adn-b-s¸-Sp¶ AÀ_p-Z-Im-cn.
  42. 42. ]cn-c-£-I-§Ä• `£y-kw-kvI-cWw h³ hyh-kmbw þ ]cn-c-£- I-§-fpsS D]-tbmKw IqSn hcp-¶p.• tkmUnbw sst{Säv/ssss{SävþssUm-anävþ amwk-¯nsâ tizX-ndw ne-nÀ¯m³ þF¶m CXv sst{Smtkm Aao³ F¶ AÀ_p-Z-Im-cn-bpsS nÀ½m-W-¯nv tlXp-hm- Ipw.• tkmUnbw s_³tkm-thäv, s]m«mkyw saäm- ss_-kÄt^-äv, kÄ^À ssU-Hm-IvsskUv þ tkmkp-IÄ, Pmap-IÄ.
  43. 43. aäp-]-tbm-K-§Ä• ]©-km-c¡v _Z-embn þ km¡-dn³, Akv]mÀtSw, tkmÀ_n-tämÄ, ssken-tmÄ, ssk¢-ta-äv, ]nþ4000.• kzmZv hÀ²n-¸n-¡m³ þ APn-m-tam-t«m (tamtWm tkmUnbw ¥q«m-ta-äv) þ ssNokv hn`-h-§-fn hym]Iw þ ssNokv dtÌm-dâv kn³t{Umw F¶ AeÀPn tcmK-¯nv Imc-Ww.• `£Ww ]mbv¡v sN¿m³ þ t]mfn-¯o³, t]mfn s{]m¸n-en³, t]mfn-Ì-dn³.
  44. 44. Cn ho«nse ck-X{´]co-£-W-im-e-bn-te¡v t]mImw.

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