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FIRST INTERNATIONAL AFRICAN BIO-FUELS SEMINAR - 14.12.2009 to 16.12.2009
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FIRST INTERNATIONAL AFRICAN BIO-FUELS SEMINAR - 14.12.2009 to 16.12.2009

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ETHANOL EVOLUTION & RAW MATERIALS FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION

ETHANOL EVOLUTION & RAW MATERIALS FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION

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FIRST INTERNATIONAL AFRICAN BIO-FUELS SEMINAR - 14.12.2009 to 16.12.2009 FIRST INTERNATIONAL AFRICAN BIO-FUELS SEMINAR - 14.12.2009 to 16.12.2009 Presentation Transcript

  • SUGAR CORPORATION OF UGANDA LIMITED MEHTA GROUP ETHANOL EVOLUTION & RAW MATERIALS FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION By K.SREERAMAMURTHY GENERAL MANAGER-DISTILLERY
  • GREEN PETROL • ETHANOL  is  green  petrol.  GREEN  PETROL  is  an  alternative  energy renewable  from  agricultural  resources.  Basically,  it  is  an  energy  used  as  motor  Fuel.  The    admixture    of    FOSSIL    FUEL,  like    Petrol,  with    ETHANOL    is   successfully  practiced  in  Western countries. Due  to  substantial  reduction  of  petroleum  reserves  across the  globe and  increase  of  air  pollution, many alternative fuel sources are being worked out.   • The  actual  property  of  ETHANOL, hydrocarbons  boils  at  lower  temperature    with   high  Calorific value   and   high  heat  value,  the  ETHANOL  may  seek the entry into  the  motor world  as  FUEL  in  association  with  the  petroleum  products. • ETHANOL  is  useable  as blends  with  petroleum products,  in present  day  Automobiles, without  any  engine   modifications    offers    an    immediate    solution    to    help    meet    the    growing    FUEL  OIL    scarcity      and    reduce   Automobile Pollution. ETHANOL ‐ BIO‐FUEL FEATURES • Ethanol  is  a  clear, colorless   and  homogeneous  liquid,  consisting  essentially  of  Ethyl Alcohol  admixed  with   not  more  than  0.50  percent  by  volume  of  water.  Ethanol is non corrosive and relatively non‐toxic Alcohol. ETHANOL ADDED TO PETROL REFERRED TO AS: • Absolute  Alcohol • Anhydrous  Alcohol • Dehydrated  Alcohol • Power  Alcohol Specifications  of  Fuel  ‐ grade  Ethanol  for  Blending  with  Petrol  ‐ ASTM  D ‐ 4806.
  • ORIGIN OF WORD ALCOHOL • The  technique  of  distillation  of  alcohol  was  discovered  by  Muslim  chemists  sometime  between  the  8th  and 9th century. They discovered the flammable alcoholic vapour, and then they invented the alembic (al  embic,  meaning  the  still)  which  works  on  the  principle  that  alcohol  evaporates  at  lower  temperatures  than water. So the spirit was isolated, but the thing is, since the ingestion of alcohol is prohibited in Islam,  the  chemists  found  various  uses  for  it,  but  didn't  drink  it  .    It's  primary  uses  were  for  medicine,  and  in  making perfumes and makeup.  • Al  Kohool:  the  makeup,  referring  to  the  use  of  the  distillate  in  the  manufacture  of  eyeliner.  The  word  kohool is the plural of kohol, which means eyeliner. Al Kohool is the current Arabic word for alcohol, and is  the most likely explanation. • Al Ghoul: the same word exists in English, ghoul, means monster or spirit, and is similar to how we refer to  alcohol as "spirits". Though it is far removed from the current Arabic word, it is possible that the word had  re‐entered the Arabic vocabulary due to foreign influence, and modified to its current form. • In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al‐khwl ‫ ,الكحول‬or al‐ghawl ‫ )الغول‬refers almost always to ethanol,  also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol. This sense underlies the  term alcoholism (addiction to alcohol). 
  • ETHANOL ‐ CLASSIFICATION • BY PRODUCTION ROUTE   FERMENTATION  Vs SYNTHETIC • BY COMPOSITION  ANHYDROUS  Vs HYDROUS • BY END USE BEVERAGE ,  INDUSTRIAL & FUEL  • SYNTHETIC ETHANOL SOURCE ETHYLENE, COAL & NON RENEWABLE  • FERMENTATION ETHANOL SOURCE SUGAAR  CANE,  CASSAVA,  SUGAR  BEET,  SWEET  SORGHUM,  MOLASSES,WHEAT,MAIZE(CORN),BARLEY,POTATOES,  SWEET POTATOES, RICE, WOOD  & RENEWABLE  • ANHYDROUS 99 % PURE  ‐ USED IN PETROL BLENDS • HYDROUS 96% PURE  ‐ USED AS 100% FUEL SUBSTITUTE
  • WHY ETHANOL IS AN ALTERNATE AUTOMOBILE FUEL?  Ethanol is eco‐friendly. Ethanol   is a renewable source of energy. Ethanol is clean, Sulphur free FUEL. Cleaner burning Engines and longer Engine life Lower Carbon Di‐oxide  emissions Reduced Co emissions Reduced Particulate emissions and OH&S issues associated with handling Petroleum   Products.   Ethanol is domestically produced FUEL by Sugar Industry helping for the  rural development. Ethanol  helps in  improvement  of  rural economy  and  also  helps in    increasing     employment  potential. considerable savings  of  precious  foreign  exchange.  70 % of the crude oil requirements of    the    country are imported. 5%  Ethanol  blending  in  petrol  results  in  Ethanol improves OCTANE NUMBER, so that anti‐knock performance of the   FUEL   increases.         A safer option for enhancing Octane ratings Ethanol is an alternate automobile FUEL to TEL/ MTBE/ETBE, which causes    environmental      damages. Ethanol can be blended with petrol safely up to 24% without   modifying the   engines. The  HYDROCORBON  FOSSIL  FUEL  resources are  limited and the   FOSSIL  FUEL  reserves  are      fast  depleting.
  • HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE France, Germany, Sweden, India and other countries relied on ETHANOL as a FUEL during the 1920’s - 1940’s. Brazil was the first to start a National Fuel Ethanol Program in 1975. In 1880 Henry Ford designed a car solely on Ethanol. The Model T Ford was originally designed to run on Ethanol During 1920 - 1924 , Standard Oil company marketed 25% by vol. Of ETHANOL in petrol in Baltimore area. In the mid 1930’s Petrol / Ethanol blends were used in the city bus services of Bangalore, India. This was supplied from Mandya Sugar factory. Ethanol was extensively used during World War II in Germany & India In Europe, Sweden has continued to develop technology in the transport sector with around 400 buses in Stockholm now running on 100% Ethanol China hosts the largest Fuel Ethanol Plant in world
  • FUEL ETHANOL GROWTH ‐ DRIVERS • ETHANOL IS GOOD FOR ENVIRONMENT (KYOTO) • GOOD FOR RURAL AREAS  • REDUCES DEPENDENCE ON OIL IMPORTS • ENHANCES TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE BASE • DEMAND IS VIRTUALLY UNLIMITED • A TRIED & TESTED TECHNOLOGY • SUSTAINABLE  SUPPLY SUCCESS FACTORS FOR BIO‐FUELS • FEED STOCKS • TECHNOLOGY • ACCEPTABILITY TO CONSUMERS • POLICY FUEL ETHANOL ‐ POLITICAL SUPPORT • ETHANOL MAY SERVE  SOCIALLY DESIRABLE GOALS BUT IT …. • IS MORE EXPENSIVE THAN  GASOLINE • FACES AN UNFAVOURABLE  OPPORTINITY COST STRUCTURE • GOVERNMENT SUPPORT IS CRUCIAL
  • FACTORS DRIVING ETHANOL MARKET • High oil prices • National energy security considerations • Ethanol tax incentives • Feed stock Price support • Capital cost support • Guaranteed(Captive) markets • Price Guarantees • Direct Price support • Improved technology • Climate change concerns WORLD FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION • World’s Ethanol production will pass 20 Bln gallons in 2012. • Ethanol production is expected to grow in 2008 ‐ 2012 with CAGR about 5%.  • U.S. and Brazil are leading the world in production of Ethanol. • Emergence of new Ethanol producers in Asia and Latin America. • Cuba has the capacity to manufacture as much as 3.2 billion gallons of Ethanol  annually from its sugar crop.
  • GLOBAL ETHANOL PRODUCTION PATTERN 14% 18% 66% 2% America Africa Europe Asia
  • World Ethanol Production Forecast 2008 ‐ 2012 by Country, Millions of Gallons 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 CAGR, % Brazil 4,988 5,238 5,489 5,739 5,990 2.8% U.S. 6,198 6,858 7,518 8,178 8,838 5.7% China 1,075 1,101 1,128 1,154 1,181 1.4% India 531 551 571 591 611 2.2% France 285 301 317 333 349 3.2% Spain 163 184 206 227 249 6.9% Germany 319 381 444 506 569 9.7% Canada 230 276 322 368 414 9.9% Indonesia 76 84 92 100 108 5.6% Italy 50 53 55 58 60 2.8% ROW 2,302 2,548 2,794 3,040 3,286 5.7% World 16,215 17,574 18,934 20,293 21,653 4.6%
  • ALTERNATE SOURCE OF RAW MATERIALS FOR ETHANOL CROP ALCOHOL  CROP YIELD  ALCOHOL PRODUCTION  YIELDS  (TONNES/HECTARE) (LITRES/HECTARE) (LITRES/TON NE) 1. SUGARCANE 70 66.50 4655 2. CASSAVA 180 8.75 1575 3. SUGARBEET 110 30.21 3323 4. SWEET SORGHUM 40 15.00 600 5. MOLASSES 220 ‐ ‐ 6. WHEAT 340 3.05 1037 7. MAIZE (CORN) 360 3.80 1368 8. BARLEY 250 1.76 440 9. POTATOES 110 17.50 1925 10. SWEET POTATOES 125 8.36 1045 11. RICE 430 3.80 1634
  • SWEET SORGHUM DEVELOPMENT
  • DISTILLERY‐FUEL ETHANOL PLANT  CONSTRUCTION
  • Fuel Ethanol Plaant/ Distillery ‐ Methane recovery and power generation “ CDM Project – Verification  of  VERs on 22.01.2007
  • PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ETHANOL Value Units Ethanol Water Reference Liquid density g/mL 0.789 1.000 Perry 3.2 Vapour density @ 90C g/mL 0.0015 0.001 PV=nRT Molecular weight g/mol 46.0634 18.0152 Perry 3.2 Liquid Heat Capacity J/gK 2.845 4.184 Perry 3-183 Heat of Vapourisation J/g 855 2260 Perry 3-178 Vapour Pressure @ 90C torr 1187 525 Perry 13-4 Liquid Viscosity kg/ms 0.00037 0.00032 Perry 3-252 Vapour Viscosity kg/ms 108 x 10-7 125 x 10-7 Perry 3-311 Surface Tension @ 20C mN/m 22.39 72.75 Kay & Laby Vapour Diffusivity ethanol/air m2/s 102 x 10-7 Perry 3-319 Liquid Diffusivity ethanol/water m2/s 128 x 10-11 Perry 3-319
  • COMPARISION OF TECHNOLOGIES Sl. Factor For Comparison UOM Molecular  Sieve  Azeotropic Distillation  Extractive No Process Process Distillation Process 1. Steam required Kg/lt. 0.6 1.8‐2.0 0.8 2. Power required KW/day 1100 1600 1320 3. Manpower Per shift 1 Operator 2 Operator + 2 Operator + 1 Supervisor 1 Supervisor 4. Entrainer ‐ No Cyclo‐hexane & Benzene Ethylene Glycol 5. Instrumentation ‐ Automatic plant Manual Semi‐Automatic 6. Product purity %purity 99.90% 99.80% 99.6‐99.8% 7. Product Quality ‐ Consistent May become inconsistent High purity possible
  • SPECIFICATIONS FOR ANHYDROUS ETHANOL S.N Characteristics Industry Tender Specification Methods of Test, Refer to Annex of IS 15464 : 2004 1. Relative density at 15.6cC / 15.6cC max. 0.7956 A 2. Ethanol content % by volume at 15.6cC / 15.6cC min. 99.5 B 3. Miscibility with water Miscible C 4. Alkalinity Nil D 5. Acidity (as CH3COOH), mg/l, Max. 30 D 6. Residue on evaporation, percent by mass, Max. 0.005 E 7. Aldehyde content (as CH3CHO) mg / l , Max 60 F 8. Copper , mg/kg,Max 0.1 G 9. Conductivity , μs/m,Max 300 H 10. Methyl alcohol , mg/litre , Max 300 J 11. Appearance Clear & bright and free from suspended Visual matter
  • POINTS RAISED BY OIL COMPANIES & AUTO PRODUSERS ETHANOL BLEND MUST BE CONTROLLED NOT ALL EMISSIONS ARE REDUCED, NOX AND ALDEHYDES INCREASED NOT ALL VEHICLES ON ROAD ARE SUITABLE ETHANOL ADDITION INCREASES THE VAPOR PRESSURE OF FUEL MIX ETHANOL ADDITION WILL RESULT IN RESIDUES IN FUEL SYSTEMS BEING RELEASED AND FUEL FILTER REPLACEMENT WILL BE MORE FREQUENT LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURE IN BLENDING AND DISTRIBUTION EXTRA EFFORTS TO PRODUCE AND HANDLE ETHANOL BLENDED PETROL SOME CHANGES NEED TO HANDLING AND STORAGE FACILITIES ETHANOL IS HYDROSCOPIC REMEDY ALL THE FUEL ETHANOL STORAGE TANKS SHALL BE PROVIDED WITH SILICA GEL TRAP & BREATHER VALVE.
  • NATIONAL SCENARIO Uganda  on  average  consumes  a  combined  volume  of  840  million  litres  of  refined  diesel  and petrol annually, meaning the country pays a higher price for fuel than either Kenya or  Tanzania,  who  import  crude  oil  and  refine  it  locally.  Uganda  imports  about  220  million  litres of petrol each year and this is projected to increase to 385 Million Litres by 2010. Petrol  imports  are  growing  at  5%  per  year  in  the  region.  If  Uganda  starts  by  blending  5%  ethanol with petrol, then tax revenue would remain the same ‐ since local ethanol would  only replace the additional volume of petrol that would otherwise have to be imported to  meet the growth in demand. The total volume of petrol imports would remain the same,  leaving the Government with the same tax revenue.  according to  the statistics of  the Oil companies , for  blending  5%  with  petrol  to  meet   the  demand  of  entire  UGANDA  would    be    in  the    order  of  20  Million  litres  Ethanol  per   annum. 
  • THANK YOU MEHTA GROUP K.SREERAMAMURTHY – GENERAL MANAGER-DISTILLERY