Charanda reverse osmosis

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RO process

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Charanda reverse osmosis

  1. 1. Reverse Osmosis K.S.Ramesh
  2. 2. Reverse Osmosis and Desalination <ul><li>Theory of Osmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Industry Applications of Reverse Osmosis (RO), Desalination </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Considerations for RO in Aquaria </li></ul>
  3. 3. Theory of Osmosis Fresh Water Sea Water H 2 O Initial Condition Fresh Water Sea Water (diluted) H 2 O Equilibrium H 2 O π Semipermeable Membrane Fresh Water Sea Water H 2 O Pressure Reverse Osmosis The Osmotic Pressure, π, is defined as: π = MRT For sea water at 35 ppt, π is about 350 psi.
  4. 4. Key Terms in RO Systems <ul><li>Permeate – The “purified” product water exiting the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate – The concentrated salt solution exiting the system. In some system designs this outflow is returned to the aquarium for salt recovery. </li></ul><ul><li>Feed Flow – The total flow rate of the source water pumped in the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery - The percentage of permeate achieved in a system, % Recovery = permeate flow/feed flow x 100. </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection – The percentage of dissolved solids removed from the source water by the membrane. </li></ul>
  5. 5. RO Membrane Filter Detail
  6. 6. Industrial Applications of RO Systems <ul><li>Purification of potable or “fresh” water sources: Purified, very low Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) water is produced for various uses. In the aquarium industry it can be used for: </li></ul><ul><li>- Make up water in fresh and salt water aquariums </li></ul><ul><li>- As a pure water base for artificial salt water systems </li></ul><ul><li>- As a non-scaling/spotting wash or rinse water for aquarium exhibit windows. </li></ul><ul><li>Desalination of Sea Water: </li></ul><ul><li>- Production of potable drinking </li></ul><ul><li>- Source water for combustible turbine power plants </li></ul><ul><li>- Irrigation and non-potable utility water uses </li></ul><ul><li>- It can also be used as a salt recovery system for closed-filtration sea water aquaria </li></ul>
  7. 7. RO System for Fresh Water <ul><li>300 to 1,000 gallon per day RO System </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a reservoir tank, high level shut-off switch and delivery pump </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Filtration: Requires a 5-micron sediment filter and a GAC filter to remove any chlorine residual and organics </li></ul>
  8. 8. Desalination RO Systems
  9. 9. Strong Acid Cationic Resin Polymeric Resin R-SO 3 -H R-SO 3 -Na R-SO 3 - R-SO 3 -H R-SO 3 - Na + K + Cu 2+ Mg 2+ Ca 2+ H + Ca 2+ H + H + Typical Cations Metals Fe 2+ Zn 2+
  10. 10. Applications for DI Water <ul><li>Analytical grade water for laboratory use </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially salt and micro nutrient free water that can be used to make artificial sea water </li></ul><ul><li>Replenish system water loss due to evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Makeup of specialized water quality environments, ie. natural waters with very low TDS and specific concentrations of cations </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mixed bed ion exchange capacity = 353,357 grains per m 3 10,000 grains per ft 3 Design Engineering of DI Systems Example: Your source water is potable city water and you require up to 400 liters per day of DI water. Source water TDS: 200 ppm Equivalent grains per gallon = 11.7 gpg (divide TDS by 17.1) Planned DI resin exchange frequency = 30 days Minimum required amount of mixed bed resin = 0.105 m 3 3.71 ft 3

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