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Charanda reverse osmosis
 

Charanda reverse osmosis

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RO process

RO process

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    Charanda reverse osmosis Charanda reverse osmosis Presentation Transcript

    • Reverse Osmosis K.S.Ramesh
    • Reverse Osmosis and Desalination
      • Theory of Osmosis
      • Typical Industry Applications of Reverse Osmosis (RO), Desalination
      • Practical Considerations for RO in Aquaria
    • Theory of Osmosis Fresh Water Sea Water H 2 O Initial Condition Fresh Water Sea Water (diluted) H 2 O Equilibrium H 2 O π Semipermeable Membrane Fresh Water Sea Water H 2 O Pressure Reverse Osmosis The Osmotic Pressure, π, is defined as: π = MRT For sea water at 35 ppt, π is about 350 psi.
    • Key Terms in RO Systems
      • Permeate – The “purified” product water exiting the system.
      • Concentrate – The concentrated salt solution exiting the system. In some system designs this outflow is returned to the aquarium for salt recovery.
      • Feed Flow – The total flow rate of the source water pumped in the system.
      • Recovery - The percentage of permeate achieved in a system, % Recovery = permeate flow/feed flow x 100.
      • Rejection – The percentage of dissolved solids removed from the source water by the membrane.
    • RO Membrane Filter Detail
    • Industrial Applications of RO Systems
      • Purification of potable or “fresh” water sources: Purified, very low Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) water is produced for various uses. In the aquarium industry it can be used for:
      • - Make up water in fresh and salt water aquariums
      • - As a pure water base for artificial salt water systems
      • - As a non-scaling/spotting wash or rinse water for aquarium exhibit windows.
      • Desalination of Sea Water:
      • - Production of potable drinking
      • - Source water for combustible turbine power plants
      • - Irrigation and non-potable utility water uses
      • - It can also be used as a salt recovery system for closed-filtration sea water aquaria
    • RO System for Fresh Water
      • 300 to 1,000 gallon per day RO System
      • Requires a reservoir tank, high level shut-off switch and delivery pump
      • Pre-Filtration: Requires a 5-micron sediment filter and a GAC filter to remove any chlorine residual and organics
    • Desalination RO Systems
    • Strong Acid Cationic Resin Polymeric Resin R-SO 3 -H R-SO 3 -Na R-SO 3 - R-SO 3 -H R-SO 3 - Na + K + Cu 2+ Mg 2+ Ca 2+ H + Ca 2+ H + H + Typical Cations Metals Fe 2+ Zn 2+
    • Applications for DI Water
      • Analytical grade water for laboratory use
      • Essentially salt and micro nutrient free water that can be used to make artificial sea water
      • Replenish system water loss due to evaporation
      • Makeup of specialized water quality environments, ie. natural waters with very low TDS and specific concentrations of cations
    • Mixed bed ion exchange capacity = 353,357 grains per m 3 10,000 grains per ft 3 Design Engineering of DI Systems Example: Your source water is potable city water and you require up to 400 liters per day of DI water. Source water TDS: 200 ppm Equivalent grains per gallon = 11.7 gpg (divide TDS by 17.1) Planned DI resin exchange frequency = 30 days Minimum required amount of mixed bed resin = 0.105 m 3 3.71 ft 3