Charanda reverse osmosis
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Charanda reverse osmosis



RO process

RO process



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Charanda reverse osmosis Charanda reverse osmosis Presentation Transcript

  • Reverse Osmosis K.S.Ramesh
  • Reverse Osmosis and Desalination
    • Theory of Osmosis
    • Typical Industry Applications of Reverse Osmosis (RO), Desalination
    • Practical Considerations for RO in Aquaria
  • Theory of Osmosis Fresh Water Sea Water H 2 O Initial Condition Fresh Water Sea Water (diluted) H 2 O Equilibrium H 2 O π Semipermeable Membrane Fresh Water Sea Water H 2 O Pressure Reverse Osmosis The Osmotic Pressure, π, is defined as: π = MRT For sea water at 35 ppt, π is about 350 psi. View slide
  • Key Terms in RO Systems
    • Permeate – The “purified” product water exiting the system.
    • Concentrate – The concentrated salt solution exiting the system. In some system designs this outflow is returned to the aquarium for salt recovery.
    • Feed Flow – The total flow rate of the source water pumped in the system.
    • Recovery - The percentage of permeate achieved in a system, % Recovery = permeate flow/feed flow x 100.
    • Rejection – The percentage of dissolved solids removed from the source water by the membrane.
    View slide
  • RO Membrane Filter Detail
  • Industrial Applications of RO Systems
    • Purification of potable or “fresh” water sources: Purified, very low Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) water is produced for various uses. In the aquarium industry it can be used for:
    • - Make up water in fresh and salt water aquariums
    • - As a pure water base for artificial salt water systems
    • - As a non-scaling/spotting wash or rinse water for aquarium exhibit windows.
    • Desalination of Sea Water:
    • - Production of potable drinking
    • - Source water for combustible turbine power plants
    • - Irrigation and non-potable utility water uses
    • - It can also be used as a salt recovery system for closed-filtration sea water aquaria
  • RO System for Fresh Water
    • 300 to 1,000 gallon per day RO System
    • Requires a reservoir tank, high level shut-off switch and delivery pump
    • Pre-Filtration: Requires a 5-micron sediment filter and a GAC filter to remove any chlorine residual and organics
  • Desalination RO Systems
  • Strong Acid Cationic Resin Polymeric Resin R-SO 3 -H R-SO 3 -Na R-SO 3 - R-SO 3 -H R-SO 3 - Na + K + Cu 2+ Mg 2+ Ca 2+ H + Ca 2+ H + H + Typical Cations Metals Fe 2+ Zn 2+
  • Applications for DI Water
    • Analytical grade water for laboratory use
    • Essentially salt and micro nutrient free water that can be used to make artificial sea water
    • Replenish system water loss due to evaporation
    • Makeup of specialized water quality environments, ie. natural waters with very low TDS and specific concentrations of cations
  • Mixed bed ion exchange capacity = 353,357 grains per m 3 10,000 grains per ft 3 Design Engineering of DI Systems Example: Your source water is potable city water and you require up to 400 liters per day of DI water. Source water TDS: 200 ppm Equivalent grains per gallon = 11.7 gpg (divide TDS by 17.1) Planned DI resin exchange frequency = 30 days Minimum required amount of mixed bed resin = 0.105 m 3 3.71 ft 3