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Classification and generations of computers

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Introduction to computers
    • Classifications of computers
    • (1)By nature
    • (2)By purpose
    • (3)By size
    • Generations(5)
  • 3. Computers Digital Computers Analog Computers Hybrid computers Classification by nature
  • 4. Digital Computers Use digits specially binary digits (0, 1) to represent data Examples: Personal computers such as Laptops and Desktops, etc Computer Classification Classification by nature
  • 5. Analog Computers Use physical magnitudes as voltage and pressure instead of digits Examples: Thermometers, voltmeters, speed measuring meters, etc Computer Classification Classification by nature
  • 6.
    • Hybrid Computers
    • Combination of both the analogue and digital computers
    • Examples:
    • A computer that maintain temperature in a burner of a production plant
    Computer Classification Classification by nature
  • 7. Computer Classification Classification by Purpose Special purpose computers General purpose computers Computers
  • 8.
    • Special purpose computers
      • Designed for a special job only
      • Examples: Computers used in digital watches, pocket calculators, point of sales, etc
    Computer Classification Classification by Purpose
  • 9.
    • General Purpose computers
      • Design to solve wide variety of problems
      • Examples: A personal computer used in an office or at home
    Computer Classification Classification by Purpose Can a general purpose computer be converted to a special purpose computer ?
  • 10. By size Mainframe Minicomputers Microcomputers Supercomputer
  • 11.
    • Mainframe computer
      • A large computer
      • has enormous input, process, output and storage capacities
      • hundreds of terminals connected
      • hundreds of users can work simultaneously
    Computer Classification Classification by size
  • 12.
    • Mini computer
      • A smaller version of Mainframes
    Computer Classification Classification by size
  • 13. Computer Classification Classification by size
    • Microcomputer
    • A smaller computer
        • available for only one user at any time
        • The central processing unit is embedded in a single chip - microprocessor
    • Examples: personal computers; Laptops, desktops
  • 14.  
  • 15.
    • The First generation
    • The Second Generation
    • The Third Generation
    • The Fourth Generation
    • The Fifth Generation
  • 16.
    • 1942-1955
    • Vacuum Tube
      • Heat
      • Burnout
    • Machine language
    • Magnetic core memory
    • Storage
      • Punched cards
      • Tape (1957)
    • Characteristics of 1 st Generation Computers
      • Computers big and clumsy
      • Electricity consumption is high
      • Electric failure occurred regularly  - computers not very reliable
      • Large air conditioners was necessary because the computers generated heat
      • Batch processing
  • 17. programming - machine language
  • 18. ENIAC - first generation computer vacuum tube 1942-1955
  • 19. ENIAC - first generation computer vacuum tube 1942-1955
  • 20.
    • 1955-1964
    • Transistor
      • Smaller
      • No warm-up time
      • Less energy
      • Less heat
      • Faster
      • More reliable
    • Storage
      • Removable disk pack (1954)
      • Magnetic tape
    • Programming languages
      • Assembly language
      • FORTRAN (1954)
      • COBOL(1959)
    Used primarily by business, university, government
  • 21.
    • Computers became smaller  
    • Generate less heat
    • Electricity consumption lower
    • More reliable and f aster 
    • Core memory developed
    • Magnetic tapes and disks used
    • First operating systems developed
    • A new processing method was needed.
    • Time-sharing (processing technique)
  • 22. transistor 1955-1964 second generation computer
  • 23. = 40 1
  • 24.
    • 1964-1975
    • Integrated Circuit
      • Electronic circuit on small silicon chip
      • Reliability
      • Compactness
      • Low cost
      • Inexpensive – mass-produced
    • Computers smaller, faster and more reliable
    • Power consumption lower
    • High-level languages appeared
  • 25. 1 1000
  • 26.
    • 1975-1989
    • Microprocessor
      • General-purpose processor on a chip
    • Explosive growth
      • Digital watches
      • Pocket calculators
      • Personal computers
      • Cars
      • Copy machines
      • Television sets
    • Integrated circuits, smaller and faster
    • Micro computer series such as IBM and APPLE developed
    • Portable computers developed
    • Great development in data communication
    • Different types of secondary memory with high storage capacity and fast access developed
  • 27. third generation computer integrated circuit 1975-1989
  • 28.
    • 1989-Present
    • Large capacity of main memory, hard disk, optical disk.
    • Notebook
    • Powerful desktop P.C and workstation
    • Very powerful mainframe systems
    • Internet
    • World wide web (www) ,multimedia applications
    • Portable computers, more powerful ,cheaper ,reliable and easy to use.
  • 29. fifth generation computer microprocessor 1989 - today
  • 30. IBM PC & COMPATIBLE 2007 1990
  • 31. second vacuum tube transistor integrated circuit third first microprocessor fourth
  • 32.