Static/Flat Character - He/She/It does NOT change throughout the story.
Dynamic/Round Character - He/She/It does change as a result of the story’s events.
Will change by:
Plot - Series of related events that make up a story.
Exposition : Gives the setting, creates the tone, presents the characters, and tells what the basic situation is. It is the place for the important background knowledge to set-up the story.
Inciting Force : The event or character that triggers the conflict. The conflict is the essence of fiction because it creates the plot. At this point in the story is when the tension begins to build.
Man vs. Man : External struggle between opposing forces.
Man vs. Nature : External struggle between man and an element of nature. (Examples include fire, tornadoes, flood, earthquakes, etc.)
Man vs. Society : External struggle between man and society as a whole.
Man vs. Self : Internal struggle within oneself through thoughts, desires, and/or emotions.
Rising Action - A series of events that build from the conflict.
Climax - The most exciting part of the story. The outcome is decided on one way or another. It is the turning point for the character and is frequently the moment of the highest interest and greatest emotion.
Falling Action- The events that occur after the climax of the story. They lead to the close of the story. It gives any necessary explanation of events that lead to the resolution of the conflict.
Denouement/Resolution - This is the end of the story. It rounds out and concludes the action. The outcome of the conflict is in the denouement.
Plot structure :
Exposition Inciting Force Rising Action Climax Falling Action Denouement
Mood - The overall atmosphere or feeling of a work. It is described usually by adjectives such as, scary, eerie, happy, sad, nostalgic, etc.
Tone : The attitude an author has about his/her characters. (Examples: humorous, passionate, sincere, etc.)
Point of View - The vantage point from which the story is told.
Most common are:
First person P.O.V. - All information comes from one character that is the narrator of the story. The “I” point of view.
Omniscient (All-knowing) - The narrator is outside the story and knows everything that happens, as well as everything that goes on in the minds of all the characters.
Can tell us about the past, present, and future.
Can tell what is happening in several places at the same time.
Does not take part in the story’s action.
Third Person Limited - The narrator focuses on the thoughts and feelings of only one character.
The character is referred to in the third person as he or she .
The reader observes action through eyes of only one of the characters in the story.
Theme - An idea or message that the writer wishes to convey about a subject or work.
It is usually not stated directly. The reader will have to make an inference by thinking about all the elements of the work.
Foil - A person or a thing that contrasts strongly with another and therefore makes the others qualities more obvious.
Protagonists - The main character that is involved in the work’s central conflict.
Antagonist - Any force that is in conflict with the protagonist. It can be a person, nature, society, etc.
Symbolism - Person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself and stands for something beyond itself as well.
Figurative Language - A word or phrase that describes one thing in terms of another and is not meant to be understood as literally true.
Simile - Comparison between two unlike things using like, as, than, or resembles.
Examples: “Her face was as round as a pumpkin.” “This steak is tougher than an old shoe.”
Metaphor - Comparison between two unlike things in which one thing is said to be another thing.
Examples: “She has a heart of stone.” (Her heart is not really made of stone. She is just cold and uncaring.)
Personification - When an object or animal is spoken of as if it had human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes.
Examples: “The sun smiled down on the sunbathers.” The clouds cried gently using the earth as their tissue.”