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Architecting E Governance Space Npc Lecture Feb 2009
 

Architecting E Governance Space Npc Lecture Feb 2009

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    Architecting E Governance Space Npc Lecture Feb 2009 Architecting E Governance Space Npc Lecture Feb 2009 Presentation Transcript

    • ARCHITECTING EGOVERNANCE SPACE Prof. K. Subramanian Professor & Director Advanced Center for Informatics & Innovative Learning, IGNOU Consulting IT Adviser to CAG of India EX. DDG(NIC), Ministry of Comm. & IT
    • PRINCIPLES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE Humane Governance 2/25/2009  Leadership   Should be Creative  Selflessness  Uses Knowledge for NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space-  Integrity National Wealth and  Objectivity Health creation  Accountability  Understands the economics of  Openness Knowledge  Honesty  High Morality 2
    • E-GOVERNMENT IS EVOLUTIONARY NAMING IS EVOLUTIONARY, E-GOVERNANCE IS YETevolutionary, e-Government is TO TAKE OFF Naming is evolutionary, 2/25/2009 e-Governance is yet to Take off fficient Government … Effective Government … NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- Open Government … Joined-up Government.. Connected Government 3
    • FOUR MANTRAS OF GOOD DIGITAL GOVERNANCE From Vision Mission Implementation-->Impact study-  >Improvisation- Leadership & Alignment Projects Formulate, Architect, Design & Construct,  Comprehensive Multi-tier Review, Monitoring & Feedback control Collaborate, Communicate, Cooperate, Co-work & co-exist  Logical Process Integration (ERP) superimposed with BI  makes the Enterprise a creative and Innovative A mature accountable, transparent and Open Government Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov 4 2/25/2009 space-NPC Lecture Feb 2009
    • UNDERLYING FOUNDATIONS OF ARCHITECTING EGOV SPACE Undertake a Structured eGovernment Strategy Exercise  2/25/2009 Ensure Your eGov Strategy has a Sound Underlying Architecture  Create a Single High-Level Strategic Body (create synergy and  convergence of vision & mission in inter & intra departments of govt. for Development) NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- Don't Let Strategy Become Detached From Local  Realities(participation of constituents in the system design requirements) Advocate & Implement Project Governance & Management  Principles. Make Your eGovernment Vision Clear, Collective, Challenging and  Customised The Objectives of eGovernment Strategy Should be Better  SMART(simple, moral, accountable, responsive and transparent) Government Vision-Mission-Implementation-Feedback & Correction- Sustenance  with One Nation(INDIA ONE) & One Government For the People-By the People- Of the People 5
    • FOUR DIMENSIONS OF EGOV 2/25/2009 The information dimension : the system design assumed that its  creation of formal strategic information would be of value to Ministry functioning.  In reality, informal information and gut feelings were what decision makers valued and used. NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- The process dimension : the system design assumed that a  rational model of structured decision-making held sway within the Ministry.  This mismatched the dominant reality of personalised, even politicised, unstructured decision-making. The objectives and values dimension : the system was designed  within, and reflecting, a scientific environment which had a 'role culture' that valued rules and logic.  In reality, it was to be used in a political environment which had a 'power culture' that valued self- interest and hidden agendas. The management systems and structures dimension : the  system was designed for an organisation that had both structures and systems to support strategic decision making.  In reality, such structures and systems did not exist within the Ministry. 6
    • FIVER TIER ARCHITECTURE FOR EGOV SPACE 2/25/2009 Data Architecture:  an overall plan for the data items (and their relationships) necessary to  deliver e-government. NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- Process Architecture:  a plan of the key activities that e-government will support and undertake.  Technology Architecture:  how computers will be sized and connected for e-government, and an  outline of the software to be used. Data Management Architecture:  how data input, processing, storage and output functions will be divided  across the information technology architecture. Management Architecture:  the policies, standards, human resource systems, management structures,  financial systems, etc. necessary to support e-government. To create a building, you need a sound underlying architecture for that building, based on an architect's 7 plan.  The same is true for e-government. 
    • COMPETENCES REQUIRED FOR EGOV PROJECTS PLANNING 2/25/2009 Skills, Knowledge NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- Attitudes. All three of these must be in Planning the e-government project. 8
    • NEEDED COMPETENCIES 2/25/2009  Systems Development Competencies NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space-  Project/Change Management Competencies  Intelligent Customer Competencies  Operational Competencies . 9
    • Emerging Technologies -Competitive Environments & Integration Catering through ICE Technologies 1. Operational Integration Selection of Technologies 2. Professional Integration 1. IT •Affordable (HR) 2. BT 3. Emotional/Cultural •Acceptable 3. CT Integration •Sustainable 4. ET ICE is the sole •Reliable integrator & IT/Cyber 5. NT Governance is Important 6. ST 2/25/2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov 10 space-NPC Lecture Feb 2009
    • TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR EGOV PROJECTS 2/25/2009 Should not be the Leading Edge(Bleeding edge as it is vendor  driven)  Should not be Outdated( e dumping, difficult to maintain and sustain) NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space-  Based on the connectivity levels and technological standards available right now.  Work with & connect directly to all end users rather than intermediaries. 1. Prototype And / Or Pilot Your Project Making the design match real user needs, and by making users more realistic in their expectations of the system. 2. Stakeholder Involvement Is A Must general staff, including administrators and other lower-/middle-level system users, were involved with the project. Their ideas were incorporated into the design, ensuring that the design did meet the real - rather than imagined - needs of these key 11 stakeholders.
    • TECHNIQUES & REQUIREMENT ENGINEERING/ARCHITECTING THE EGOV SOLUTION SPACE 2/25/2009 An Overall Vision/Strategy for eGovernment   Project Management for eGovernment NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space-  Change Management for eGovernment  Politics/Self-Interest in eGovernment  Design of eGovernment Applications  Competencies (Skills, etc.) for eGovernment  Technological Infrastructure for eGovernment  External and Internal Drive for eGovernment eGovernment projects need managers, but they also need leaders as well 12
    • GOOD GOVERNANCE STRENGTHENING INTEGRATION OF MULTI- STAKEHOLDERS Operational Integration  Professional Integration (HR)‫‏‬  Emotional/Cultural Integration  ICT & Government Business & Services Integration  Multi Technology co- existence and seamless integration  Information Assurance  Quality, Currency, Customization/Personalization  Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov 13 2/25/2009 space-NPC Lecture Feb 2009
    • Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- 2/25/2009 NPC Lecture Feb 2009 14 STRUCTURED EGOVERNMENT IDEA 1: UNDERTAKE A STRATEGY EXERCISE
    • IDEA 2: ENSURE YOUR EGOV STRATEGY HAS A SOUND UNDERLYING ARCHITECTURE 2/25/2009 Data architecture: an overall plan for the data items (and  their relationships) necessary to deliver e-government. Process architecture: a plan of the key activities that e-  NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- government will support and undertake. Technology architecture: how computers will be sized and  connected for e-government, and an outline of the software to be used. Data management architecture: how data input, processing,  storage and output functions will be divided across the information technology architecture. ·Management architecture: the policies, standards, human  resource systems, management structures, financial systems, etc. necessary to support e-government. 15
    • IDEA 3: CREATE A SINGLE HIGH- LEVEL STRATEGIC BODY 2/25/2009 This body - of senior staff and other powerful  stakeholders - can take responsibility for functions such as scoping and commissioning an e-government strategy; NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- prioritising particular e-government projects; ensuring necessary resources are in place to deliver projects; and monitoring progress in e-government. Where such a body is set up with a view across the  whole of government, it can also have a coordination function - ensuring some degree of inter-operability between independently-developed e-government applications, assisting reusability of solutions to avoid 'reinventing the wheel', and generally facilitating learning across e-government projects 16
    • IDEA 4: DON'T LET STRATEGY BECOME DETACHED FROM LOCAL REALITIES 2/25/2009 In an overall sense, e-government strategy asks three  questions: quot;Where are we now?quot; (Here)  NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- quot;Where do we want to get to?quot; (There)  quot;How do we get from here to there?quot;  The danger is that asking such questions ignores local realities, creating a hypothetical vision of quot;Therequot;  that can never be achieved.  Government is only one player: rather than thinking it can design its environment, it should instead design TO its environment.  This means infusing question 1 with a sense of where clients (e.g. local citizens, local businesses, local communities, local NGOs, local agencies) currently are: their current rates of ICT access and use; their current needs; their current priorities.  It means infusing question 2 with a true sense of where those clients are headed: forecast trends in ICTs, needs, priorities, etc.  By doing this, you create a realistic rather than idealistic e-government strategy. Where e-government strategy does not take the local environment into account, problems will arise.  e-  government strategy designs must take good account of existing realities An ambitious strategy for e-government in Central Africa failed to take account of local realities: funding  limitations, infrastructural constraints, mismatch with objectives of key players, problems of theft of equipment.  The result was a failed strategy.  In some Indian states, too, e-government strategy has been a top-down, techno-centric exercise that neglects the  social, economic and cultural realities of intended client groups.  Such strategies are self-defeating disasters. 17
    • IDEA 5: SET CLEAR quot;GO/NO GOquot; CRITERIA 2/25/2009 Thinking in a high-level, strategic manner, work out a  set of criteria for decision-making about e-government projects.  NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space-  What criteria will you use to decide whether or not an e- government project should be supported and funded?   What criteria will you use to decide that a project - once funded - will be abandoned? 18
    • IDEA 6: MAKE YOUR EGOVERNMENT VISION CLEAR, COLLECTIVE, CHALLENGING AND CUSTOMISED 2/25/2009 A good e-government strategy will have the following features.   It will be clear: ordinary citizens will understand what it seeks to achieve.  It will be collective: shared by the key stakeholders NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- involved (and probably developed collectively in order to meet that criterion).  It will be challenging: not so optimistic as to be unrealistic, not so pessimistic as to be uninspiring: one watchword is quot;Think Big, Start Small, Scale Fastquot;.  It will be customised: matched to specific local conditions. 19
    • IDEA 7: THE OBJECTIVES OF EGOVERNMENT STRATEGY SHOULD BE BETTER GOVERNMENT 2/25/2009 In one or two states in India, for example, e-government  is seen as the servant of broader good governance objectives.  Put another way, e-government is seen as a NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- means, not as an end in itself.  The end specified in some cases is SMART government: government that is simple, moral, accountable, responsive and transparent. 20
    • IDEA 8: DO SOMETHING 2/25/2009 Don't become so wrapped up in visions and strategies  that you never actually do anything.  And don't let strategy-making be an excuse for inaction.  Small, useful NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- e-government projects can proceed alongside strategy, and can create knowledge that feeds into strategy- making. 21
    • THE FACTOR MODEL 2/25/2009 The Factor Model identifies a set of ten key factors:  external pressure,  internal political desire,  NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- overall vision/strategy,  project management,  change management,  politics/self-interest,  design,  competencies,  technological infrastructure,  Presence or absence of these factors will determine success or  failure 22
    • DESIGN-REALITY GAP MODEL 2/25/2009 identifies a gap that exists for all e-government projects  between the design assumptions/requirements and the reality of the client public agency.  The larger this gap NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- between design and reality, the greater the risk that the project will fail.  The smaller the gap, the greater the chance of success. 23
    • IDEA 3: EGOVERNMENT IS A CHESS GAME 2/25/2009 Picture the e-government project as a chess game. Ask  yourself - what piece am I? Are you the all-powerful queen, a middle-ranking bishop, or just a lowly pawn? If NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- you are one of the lesser pieces in the game, you will face problems unless you can find a powerful ally: the equivalent of a rook or queen in chess. If you have trouble from middle-ranking stakeholders, ask yourself if there's a more powerful player that you can bring in - a senior official, a politician, an external agency, a donor organisation, etc. –Richard Heeks 24
    • AVOIDING EGOV FAILURE: IDEAS ABOUT EXTERNAL & INTERNAL DRIVERS Idea 1: Balance External And Internal Drivers  Without external encouragement, e-government projects may never be  2/25/2009 contemplated or started. Without internal ownership, e-government projects may never be developed. Without external facilitation, e-government projects may never be successfully implemented. eGovernment proposals must grapple with the difficult business of balancing and integrating these three forces. NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space-  eGovernment projects risk being too external: many initiatives in developing countries are donor- or vendor-led. The latter is particularly problematic given often conflicting objectives between vendors and governance, and the poor quality of some vendors. Care must be taken that both initiatives and institutions relating to e-government do not become vendor-dominated.  But e-government projects also risk being too internal: for some ruling elites in developing countries, 'it seems that governance is seen as a tool for serving personal, then ethnic, then social affiliation and last the national interest. All state machinery, institutions and mechanisms are viewed and used in this light.' eGovernment projects can be just the same: if senior public officials do come to see e-government as being in their interests and are able to take control of those initiatives, they may steer projects away from broader goals.  It is very difficult, but a balance must be struck between external and internal 25 drivers. One lesson from a Zambian e-government initiative was that an independent project team was required 'so that government cannot intimidate team members and that donor countries cannot hijack the project for their own benefit.'
    • Assurance in the PPP Environment 2/25/2009 NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- 26 26 03/10/08 Suny BUFF Lecture 27th Nov 2007
    • ENABLING TO RAPIDLY MOVE UP THE E-GOVERNANCE EVOLUTION STAIRCASE 5. Outsourcing 4. Transformation 2/25/2009 Define policy and Funding stream allocations outsource execution Agency identity Retain monitoring and control “Big Browser” 3. Transaction Evolve PPP model Strategy/Policy Competition NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- People Confidentiality/privacy Outsource service delivery staff Process Job structures Fee for transaction Technology Outsource process execution staff Relocation/telecommuting E-authentication 2. Interaction Organization Cost/ Searchable Performance accountability Self-services Complexity Database Multiple-programs skills Skill set changes Public response/ Privacy reduces Portfolio mgmt. email Sourcing Content mgmt. Inc. business staff Outsource customer Increased Integrated services facing processes 1. Presencesupport staff Trigger BPR Outsource backend processes Change value chain Governance Relationship mgmt. New processes/services Publish Online interfaces Change relationships Knowledge mgmt. Channel mgmt. (G2G, G2B, G2C, G2E) E-mail best prac. Constituent Existing Content mgmt. Legacy sys. links Value Metadata Applications Security Streamline New applications Data synch. Infrastructure Information access processes New data structures 24x7 infrastructure Search engine 27 Web site Sourcing E-mail Markup Time
    • Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- 28 2/25/2009 NPC Lecture Feb 2009 28 NPC Sikkim May 2006 06/29/06
    • Let all of us work together to make our country a Developed And Good Governed Nation 2/25/2009 FOR FURTHER  INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT :- NPC Lecture Feb 2009 Prof. KS@2009 Architecting eGov space- E-MAIL: ksdir@nic.in  ksmanian@ignou.ac.in  ksmanian48@gmail.com  91-11-23219857  Fax:91-11-23217004  Office of the CAG,  10, B.Z. Marg,  New Delhi-110002  29