Karen Saucier Lundy, PhD, RN, FAAN<br />Professor Emeritus<br />The Unsinkable: What the Titanic  Taught Us About Disaster...
Facts vs Fiction <br />
Congressional Hearings 1912<br />
Relative Size of Titanic<br />
Just how BIG???<br />
Final resting place of Titanic<br />
Historical footage of Titanic<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xD9-z6Nw2FM&feature=fvwrel<br />
The Numbers<br />Of the 2, 223 people aboard the Titanic, only 706 survived.<br />900 crew members<br />Tickets for the Ti...
LAST SURVIVOR:  Millvina Dean<br />
The Unsinkable <br />
Boarding pass<br />LIFEJACKET<br />
Steward Nurse<br />Violet Jessop, an ocean liner stewardess and a nurse was one of the survivors of the Titanic. She is al...
Violet Jessop<br />
Titanic Facts: The Construction<br />-March 31, 1909 in Belfast (Ireland)-The Titanic was constructed by the Harland & Wol...
Boarding the titanic<br />LIfeboats<br />
NON DISASTER:  INTERDISASTER PHASE<br />Planning and preparation<br />Staff training<br />Community/population education<b...
NON DISASTER/ INTERDISASTER PHASE:   TITANIC<br />The Titanic was supplied with only enough life boats/jackets  to accommo...
PREDISASTER PHASE<br />Early warnings<br />Mobilization<br />Evacuation<br />Organization of team, role definition.<br />H...
PREDISASTER STAGE:  TITANIC<br />Ice warnings on third day, noted by captain.<br />Warning that icebergs were within 5 mil...
IMPACT PHASE<br />Holding on, endurance.<br />Shock of population.<br />Secondary preparation, involvement of disaster lea...
IMPACT PHASE:  TITANIC<br />April 14 1912  - 10:13 pm lookout signaled bridge “Iceberg right ahead.”<br />Office ordered t...
EMERGENCY PHASE<br />Population/community face consequences.<br />Begins DURING the impact phase and continues until ALL t...
EMERGENCY PHASE: TITANIC<br />Compartments filling with water, bow sinking, no emergency whistles or warnings to avoid ‘ca...
EMERGENCY PHASE: TITANIC<br />60% of first class survived.<br />42% of second class survived.<br />25% of third class surv...
Map of Titanic disaster<br />
RECONSTRUCTION/REHABILITATION STAGE<br />Healing beings.<br />Goal:  Restore population/community to predisaster condition...
RECONSTRUCTION/REHABILITATION STAGE:  TITANIC<br />Facing the ‘saved by technology’ value of industrial and scientific rev...
Ellen Church, RN 1930<br />Ellen Church, nurse and pilot, suggested that nurses be put on commercial flights to make passe...
Ellen Church RN 1930<br />
Sample of airliner exit doors<br />
Disaster Instructions<br />Aviation<br />Aviation<br />
What the Titanic taught us.<br />Evacuation<br />Safety instructions<br />
Be prepared for anything.<br />Ship evacuations<br />Campus shooter education<br />
Disaster Drills work!<br />Secondary prevention<br />Decontamination drills<br />
Captain Sullenberger and Potomac Airline Disaster 2009<br />Sullenberger<br />All 155 passengers saved<br />
Disaster Preparation = Healthy Communities and Populations<br />Prepared families<br />DRILL  DRILLDRILL<br />
Examples of disaster preparation<br />
Prepare for the worst.<br />
What would Nightingale do in a disaster?  I think you KNOW.<br />Elderly nightingale<br />Death announcement<br />
Nightingale and research based nursing practice<br />
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The Unsinkable Titanic: What the TItanic Taught Us About Disaster Preparedness

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The Unsinkable Titanic: What the TItanic Taught Us About Disaster Preparedness is a PPS that details the changes in how we prepare for a disaster based on the Congressional Hearings of 1912.

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The Unsinkable Titanic: What the TItanic Taught Us About Disaster Preparedness

  1. 1. Karen Saucier Lundy, PhD, RN, FAAN<br />Professor Emeritus<br />The Unsinkable: What the Titanic Taught Us About Disaster Preparedness<br />
  2. 2. Facts vs Fiction <br />
  3. 3. Congressional Hearings 1912<br />
  4. 4. Relative Size of Titanic<br />
  5. 5. Just how BIG???<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. Final resting place of Titanic<br />
  8. 8. Historical footage of Titanic<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xD9-z6Nw2FM&feature=fvwrel<br />
  9. 9. The Numbers<br />Of the 2, 223 people aboard the Titanic, only 706 survived.<br />900 crew members<br />Tickets for the Titanic capped out at $4,350 (which is more than $95,860 in 2008 dollars).<br />April 10, 1912 46-ton luxury liner, Great Britain to NYC.<br />April 15, 1912 Sunk within 2 hours after ice cap impact<br />Last survivor died earlier this year. <br />
  10. 10. LAST SURVIVOR: Millvina Dean<br />
  11. 11. The Unsinkable <br />
  12. 12. Boarding pass<br />LIFEJACKET<br />
  13. 13. Steward Nurse<br />Violet Jessop, an ocean liner stewardess and a nurse was one of the survivors of the Titanic. She is also well known for surviving the Britannic in 1916, the sister ship to Titanic. Violet also survived an earlier fiasco in 1911, when she was aboard the RMS Olympic, when it collided with another ship, HMS Hawke. Served as WWI nurse with Red Cross. She passed away on May 5, 1971 of congestive heart failure.<br />
  14. 14. Violet Jessop<br />
  15. 15. Titanic Facts: The Construction<br />-March 31, 1909 in Belfast (Ireland)-The Titanic was constructed by the Harland & Wolff company<br />- Titanic construction took about 3 years and $7.5 million to complete<br />- It took around 3000 laborers to construct the Titanic<br />- The vessel featured 16 watertight compartments with steel doors designed to close within 25 seconds, keep any flooding out of the ship’s interior<br />
  16. 16. Boarding the titanic<br />LIfeboats<br />
  17. 17. NON DISASTER: INTERDISASTER PHASE<br />Planning and preparation<br />Staff training<br />Community/population education<br />Disaster plan<br />Primary prevention<br />Assessment of risk, vulnerability analysis, inventory.<br />
  18. 18. NON DISASTER/ INTERDISASTER PHASE: TITANIC<br />The Titanic was supplied with only enough life boats/jackets to accommodate about half of its maximum number of passengers<br />Only one ‘trial test’ 6-7 hours total, never ran engines at full speed prior to voyage.<br />No staff preparation/drills prior to departure.<br />No evidence of disaster plan, roles in disaster, had 24 hour lookout. <br />
  19. 19. PREDISASTER PHASE<br />Early warnings<br />Mobilization<br />Evacuation<br />Organization of team, role definition.<br />Health care workers put on “call.”<br />Community members must take warnings seriously and be ‘disaster prepared’.<br />Problems: desensitized, previous experience.<br />
  20. 20. PREDISASTER STAGE: TITANIC<br />Ice warnings on third day, noted by captain.<br />Warning that icebergs were within 5 miles of Titanic on day of disaster.<br />No discussion of potential risks, captain retired to his quarters, speed was not reduced (at full speed due to need for surprise early arrival at NYC).<br />Passengers had no advance warning of icebergs.<br />
  21. 21. IMPACT PHASE<br />Holding on, endurance.<br />Shock of population.<br />Secondary preparation, involvement of disaster leaders in setting priorities.<br />Knowing and implementing the Plan.<br />Triage of evacuation. <br />
  22. 22. IMPACT PHASE: TITANIC<br />April 14 1912 - 10:13 pm lookout signaled bridge “Iceberg right ahead.”<br />Office ordered to put helm ‘hard astarboard” and reverse engines.<br />Captain alerted.<br />Ship hits iceberg, causing slight roll.<br />Hole ripped in steel plating of ship.<br />Impact slight and not noticed by crew or passengers.<br />Boiler room flooded.<br />
  23. 23. EMERGENCY PHASE<br />Population/community face consequences.<br />Begins DURING the impact phase and continues until ALL threats and hazards have passed.<br />Secondary prevention to minimize damage, further complications.<br />Three parts: isolation, rescue, remedy.<br />
  24. 24. EMERGENCY PHASE: TITANIC<br />Compartments filling with water, bow sinking, no emergency whistles or warnings to avoid ‘causing chaos.’<br />Captain issues distress call, Carpathia (58 miles away) responded, Californian (19 miles away) ignored distress call.<br />Many lifeboats lowered into the water were only half full<br />Many Titanic lifeboats drifted off to sea before they could even be properly deployed.<br />“Women and children first”, FIRST CLASS THAT IS. CHAOS.<br />Boats suspended 70 feet, slammed into boat side.<br />Congress noted this was most serious lack of preparation for disaster. <br />12:47 am Titanic breaks in half, sinks.<br />Deaths: drowning, exposure, trauma.<br />Survivors rowed toward ‘lights’ of Californian.<br />
  25. 25. EMERGENCY PHASE: TITANIC<br />60% of first class survived.<br />42% of second class survived.<br />25% of third class survived.<br />25% of staff survived. <br />GENDER: 75% women survived; 25% men. <br />Rescue from Carpathia and Californian.<br />Returned to New York and Nova Scotia with survivors.<br />Prayer service for the dead 8:30 am, Captain of Carpathia<br />Public media notification: April 15, 1912<br />
  26. 26. Map of Titanic disaster<br />
  27. 27. RECONSTRUCTION/REHABILITATION STAGE<br />Healing beings.<br />Goal: Restore population/community to predisaster conditions.<br />Evaluation and reflection, lessons learned, implementation of research based changes in disaster preparedness.<br />Secondary and tertiary prevention.<br />PTSDT<br />
  28. 28. RECONSTRUCTION/REHABILITATION STAGE: TITANIC<br />Facing the ‘saved by technology’ value of industrial and scientific revolution.<br />Congressional hearings: May 1912<br />Revolutionary changes from Titanic disaster:<br />Inspection certificates mandated lifeboats, staff training, position of lifeboats, lifeboat staff responsibilities.<br />Disaster drills.<br />Passenger instructions, lifeboat assignments, paths to safety, instructions in each room.<br />Electric searchlights, 24/7 radio operator.<br />All ships required to meet construction standards.<br />
  29. 29. Ellen Church, RN 1930<br />Ellen Church, nurse and pilot, suggested that nurses be put on commercial flights to make passengers feel more comfortable about flying.<br />Church became the world's first stewardess on May 15, 1930.<br />
  30. 30. Ellen Church RN 1930<br />
  31. 31. Sample of airliner exit doors<br />
  32. 32. Disaster Instructions<br />Aviation<br />Aviation<br />
  33. 33. What the Titanic taught us.<br />Evacuation<br />Safety instructions<br />
  34. 34. Be prepared for anything.<br />Ship evacuations<br />Campus shooter education<br />
  35. 35. Disaster Drills work!<br />Secondary prevention<br />Decontamination drills<br />
  36. 36. Captain Sullenberger and Potomac Airline Disaster 2009<br />Sullenberger<br />All 155 passengers saved<br />
  37. 37. Disaster Preparation = Healthy Communities and Populations<br />Prepared families<br />DRILL DRILLDRILL<br />
  38. 38. Examples of disaster preparation<br />
  39. 39. Prepare for the worst.<br />
  40. 40. What would Nightingale do in a disaster? I think you KNOW.<br />Elderly nightingale<br />Death announcement<br />
  41. 41. Nightingale and research based nursing practice<br />

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