Civil Rights in the LGBT Community in the United States Kayla Shackleton Social Movements July 3, 2011
The Beginning 1972: A perfect record teacher of twelve years in Washington State was deemed “immoral” and “unfit” to teach because he was homosexual and therefore could not be trusted with teaching children. 1972: Minnesota ruled denying a civil marriage license to a same-sex couple is not unconstitutional. (Baker v. Nelson) 1982: Wisconsin is the first state to ban discrimination based on sexual orientation.
The Early Years 1985: Supreme Court let stand the ruling that Texas A&M University was to recognize a student organization for homosexual students; otherwise, it was an infringement of their first amendment. (Gay Student Services v. Texas A&M University)
1986: Supreme Court ruled that homosexual sex was no protected under the right to privacy. (Bowers v. Hardwick)
1989: Braschi was given the injunction that he received the benefits and home of his deceased partner when the landlords, Stahl and Associates, tried to evict him because his name was not on the lease. (Braschi v. Stahl)
The Nineties 1993: Hawaii ruled that unless there was “compelling state interest,” same-sex couples were entitled to civil marriage. 1996: Defense of Marriage Act is passed, allowing states to decide for themselves whether or not to recognize same-sex unions. 1996: Supreme Court ruled against Colorado amendment that would have prevented any part of the state to take action in recognizing LGBT citizens as a protected class. (Romer v. Evans) 1998: Hawaii amended the state constitution, restricting marriage to different-sex couples.
Moving into a New Century 1998: Federal law banned on-the-job sexual harassment ,even between two people of the same sex. (Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services) 1999: Vermont rules that the state had to give the same rights to same-sex unions and civil marriage. (Baker v. Vermont) 2000: Boy Scouts of America was ruled to be allowed to refuse membership to anyone based on sexual orientation.
The Last Decade 2003: Bowers v. Hardwick is overturned in Lawrence v. Texas, ruling sodomy laws cannot be directed at homosexuals alone. 2004: Massachusetts legalized same-sex marriage under Goodridge v. Department of Public Health 2007: Vermont introduced a bill to legalize same-sex marriage and became effective September 1, 2009. 2007: Michigan ordered protection of the rights of Transgender men and women.
The Last Decade 2009: Iowa passed same-sex marriage law effective April 2009. 2009: Maine passed a marriage equality bill, but was repealed later that year. 2009: US Legislature passes numerous Anti-Hate Crime bills that include race, gender, sexual orientation, and disability. 2010: Washington, D.C. passes marriage equality bill.
Today 2010: Military policy “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” is voted to be repealed 2011: New York passes bill that legalizes same-sex marriage
Laws regarding same-sex partnerships in the United States Same-sex marriage (dark blue) Civil Unions (light blue) Legislation Granting (aqua) Same-sex marriage performed elsewhere recognized (dark gray) No specific prohibition/recognition of same-sex marriage(gray) Statute bans same-sex marriage (pink) Constitution bans same-sex marriage (red) Constitution bans same-sex marriage and other kinds of same-sex unions (maroon)