Scotland.Up Helly Aa (English pronunciation: / ph li /ˈʌ ɛ ɑ UP-he-lee-ə) refers to any of a variety offire festivals held...
celebration today varies from country to country and except by coincidence does not fall on theday of the monarchs actual ...
Participants in the walks, or marches, often wear dark suits, although they may removetheir jackets if it is hot. Traditio...
the Orange orders were suspicious of the Gregorian calendar and its papist connections andcontinued to march on the correc...
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  1. 1. Scotland.Up Helly Aa (English pronunciation: / ph li /ˈʌ ɛ ɑ UP-he-lee-ə) refers to any of a variety offire festivals held in Shetland, in Scotland, annually in the middle of winter to markthe end of the yule [ju lː ] season. The festival involves a procession of up to athousand guizers in Lerwick [l w kɜː ɪ ] and considerably lower numbers in the morerural festivals, formed into squads who march through the town or village in avariety of themed costumes.The current Lerwick celebration grew out of the older yule tradition of tar barrellingwhich took place at Christmas and New Year as well as Up Helly Aa. Squads ofyoung men would drag barrels of burning tar through town on sledges, makingmischief [m s fɪ ʧɪ ] . After the abolition of tar barrelling around 1874–1880,permission was eventually obtained for torch [tɔːʧ] processions. The first yuletorch procession took place in 1876. The first torch celebration on Up Helly Aa daytook place in 1881. The following year the torchlit procession was significantlyenhanced and institutionalised through a request by a Lerwick civic body to holdanother Up Helly Aa torch procession for the visit of the Duke of Edinburgh.[1]Thefirst galley was burned in 1889.There is a main guizer who is dubbed the "Jarl". There is a committee [kəm tɪ ɪ] which a personmust be part of for 15 years before one can be a jarl, and only one person is elected to thiscommittee each year.The procession culminates in the torches being thrown into a replica Viking longship or galley.The event happens all over Shetland and is currently celebrated at ten locations – Scalloway,Lerwick, Nesting and Girlsta, Uyeasound, Northmavine, Bressay, Cullivoe, Norwick, the SouthMainland and Delting.After the procession, the squads visit local halls (including schools, sports facilities and hotels),where private parties are held. At each hall, each squad performs its act, which may be a send-upof a popular TV show or film, a skit on local events, or singing or dancing, usually in flamboyantcostume.Due to the often-flamboyant [flæmb əntɔɪ ] costumes and the large quantity of malesdressing up as females in the Lerwick festival (traditionally, the festival does notpermit women to partake in the squads), it has earned the joke name "TransvestiteTuesday".England.The Queens Official Birthday (Kings Official Birthday in the reign of a male monarch) is theselected day on which the birthday of the monarch of the Commonwealth realms (currentlyQueen Elizabeth II) is officially celebrated in those countries. The date varies as adopted by eachCommonwealth country, but is generally around the end of May to the start of June, to coincidewith a high probability of fine weather in the Northern Hemisphere for outdoor ceremonies.[1]The sovereigns birthday was first officially marked in the United Kingdom in 1748. Since then,the date of the king or queens birthday has been determined throughout the British Empire andlater the Commonwealth according to either different royal proclamations issued by thesovereign or governor or by statute laws passed by the local parliament. The exact date of the1
  2. 2. celebration today varies from country to country and except by coincidence does not fall on theday of the monarchs actual birthday (that of the present monarch being 21 April[2]). In somecases, it is an official public holiday, sometimes coinciding with the celebration of other events.Most Commonwealth realms release a Birthday Honours List at this time.It has been celebrated in the United Kingdom since 1748. There, the Queens Official Birthday isnow celebrated on the first, second, or third Saturday in June,[19]although it is rarely the third.Edward VII, who reigned from 1901 to 1910, and whose birthday was on 9 November, inautumn, after 1908[20]moved the ceremony to summer in the hope of good weather.[19]Queen Elizabeth II at the Trooping the Colour, London, on her Official Birthday, 14 June 2008The day is marked in London by the ceremony of Trooping the Colour, which is alsoknown as the Queens Birthday Parade. The list of Birthday Honours is alsoannounced at the time of the Official Birthday celebrations. In British diplomaticmissions, the day is treated as the National Day of the United Kingdom. Although itis not celebrated as a specific public holiday in the UK (as it is not a working day),some civil servants are given a "privilege [pr v(ə)lɪ ɪʤ] day" at this time of year,which is often merged with the Spring Bank Holiday (last Monday in May) to createa long weekend, which was partly created to celebrate the monarchs birthday.Northern Ireland.People in Northern Ireland annually celebrate Orangemens Day to commemorate the Battle ofBoyne, which occurred on Ireland’s east coast in 1690. It is a bank holiday on or after July 12and often features marches. This day is known as "Orangemens Day", "Orange Day", "theGlorious Twelfth" or just "the Twelfth".What do people do?In many towns in Northern Ireland, marches or walks are held by organizations with a Protestantorientation. The marching season lasts from April until August but the Glorious Twelfth (ofJuly), or Orangemens Day, is particularly important. Many marches are organized by Lodges ofthe Orange Order and are accompanied by a marching band.2
  3. 3. Participants in the walks, or marches, often wear dark suits, although they may removetheir jackets if it is hot. Traditionally, they also wore black bowler hats and whitegloves, although these are not as common now. The participants also wearcollarettes [ k ləretˌ ɔ ]. This type of collarette is made from a long thin piece of cloth,which is draped around the neck of the wearer and joined to form a “V” shape at thefront. Many collarettes are made from orange cloth, although there may be othercolors. The collarettes bear the number of the lodge that the wearer belongs to anda range of badges showing the person’s positions in or degrees from the lodge.Many lodges carry at least one flag during the marches. This is normally the Union Flag,sometimes known as the Union Jack, although some carry Scottish, Ulster orOrange Order flags. Many lodges also carry one or more banners. These displaythe name and number of the lodge on one side. The other side often displaysimages of William of Orange, deceased [d si stɪ ː ] lodge members, local landmarksor the bible with a crown.Public lifeOrangemens Day, or the Glorious Twelfth, is a bank holiday in Northern Ireland. It normallyfalls on July 12 but if that date is on a Saturday or Sunday, the bank holiday falls on Monday,July 13 or 14. Schools, public offices, many businesses and organizations, and some stores areclosed. Public transport services may run on their regular or special holiday timetables.In some towns and cities there may be local disruption to traffic on Orangemen’s Day as locallodges hold marches, or walks, through certain districts. Orangemen’s Day may be observed andcelebrated in other parts of the United Kingdom (Scotland, England and Wales) where it is not abank holiday.BackgroundThe Battle of the Boyne was held on July 1, 1690 on the banks of the Boyne River near the townof Dorgheda on the East coast of Ireland. It was a battle between King James VII of Scotland andJames II of England and Ireland and his supporters on one side and Prince William of Orangeand his followers on the other side. Prince William of Orange won the battle and became KingWilliam III.The Battle of the Boyne has been seen as symbolic of the sectarian struggles between Catholicsand Protestants in Ireland. King James was seen as representing the Catholics and PrinceWilliam was seen to represent the Protestants. This gave the Battle of the Boyne an importantsymbolic role in Irish politics and life. However, modern analysis of documents from the timesuggests that Catholics and Protestants fought on both sides.Although the Battle of the Boyne is now commemorated on July 12, it was held on July 1, 1690.The shift in the date is due to the changeover from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar.In Ireland, the Gregorian calendar was adopted in 1752 and September 14 followed September 2.Many dates in the calendar were mapped into the new calendar without a correction. However,3
  4. 4. the Orange orders were suspicious of the Gregorian calendar and its papist connections andcontinued to march on the corrected date of July 12.Orangemen’s Day is also celebrated in some areas of the USA and Canada. In the Canadianprovinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, Orangemens Day is usually celebrated on theMonday closest to July 12. In some fishing communities the celebrations are held in the winterso fishermen do not lose valuable days at sea during the cod fishing season.The Orangemens Day bank holiday in Northern Ireland is proclaimed by the Secretary of Statefor Northern Ireland. The bank holiday falls on July 12. If July 12 falls on a Saturday or Sunday,the holiday moves to Monday July 13 or 14.4