1. Eton CollegeEton College, usually referred to as Eton, is a British independent boarding school located in Eton, nearWindsor in England. It educates over 1,300 pupils, aged between 13 to 18 years and was founded in 1440 byKing Henry VI.Eton is one of nine English independent schools, commonly referred to as "public schools", included in theoriginal Public Schools Act 1868. Following the public school tradition, Eton is a full boarding school, whichmeans all pupils live at the school, and is one of four such remaining single-sex boys public schools (the othersbeing Winchester College, Harrow School and Radley College) to continue this practice.Eton has traditionally been referred to as "the chief nurse of Englands statesmen", and has been described asthe most famous public school in the world.Etons AimsEton is a full boarding school committed to:- promoting the best habits of independent thought and learning in the pursuit погоня of excellence;- providing a broadly-based education designed to enable all boys to discover their strengths, and to make themost of their talents within Eton and beyond;- engendering respect for individuality, difference, the importance of teamwork and the contribution that eachboy makes to the life of the school and the community;- supporting pastoral care that nurtures physical health and spiritual richness;- fostering воспитывать self-confidence, enthusiasm, perseverance, tolerance and integrityHistoryEton College was founded by Henry VI as a charity school to provide free education to seventy poor boys whowould then go on to Kings College, Cambridge, founded by the same King in 1441. Henry took WinchesterCollege as his model, visiting on many occasions, borrowing its Statutes and removing its Headmaster andsome of the Scholars to start his new school.Boys housesKings ScholarsOne boarding house, College, is reserved for seventy Kings Scholars, who attend Eton on scholarships providedby the original foundation and awarded by examination each year; Kings Scholars pay up to 90% of full fees,depending on their means. Of the other pupils, up to a third receive some kind of bursary or scholarship. Theoriginal school consisted of only seventy scholars, half of whom had previously been educated at WinchesterCollege, and all of these boys were educated at the kings expense.Kings Scholars are entitled to use the letters "KS" after their name and they can be identified by a black gownworn over the top of their tailcoats, giving them the nickname tugs.OppidansAs the school grew, more students were allowed to attend provided that they paid their own fees and lived inthe town, outside the colleges original buildings. These students became known as Oppidans, from the Latin
2. word oppidum, meaning town. The Houses developed over time as a means of providing residence for theOppidans in a more congenial manner, and during the 18th and 19th centuries were mostly run by womenknown as "dames". They typically contain about fifty boys. Although classes are organised on a school basis,most boys spend a large proportion of their time in their House. Each House has a formal name, mainly usedfor post and people outside the Eton community. It is generally known by the boys by the initials or surname ofthe House Master, the teacher who lives in the house and manages the pupils in it.Not all boys who pass the College election examination choose to become Kings Scholars. If they chooseinstead to belong to one of the 24 Oppidan Houses, they are known as Oppidan Scholars. Oppidan scholarshipsmay also be awarded for consistently performing with distinction in school and external examinations. To gainan Oppidan Scholarship, a boy must have either three distinctions in a row or four throughout his career.Within the school, an Oppidan Scholar is entitled to use the letters OS after his name.House StructureIn addition to the housemaster, each house has a House Captain and a House Captain of Games. Some Houseschoose to elect more than one. House prefects were once elected from the oldest year, but this no longerhappens. The old term, Library, survives in the name of the room set aside for the oldest years use, where boyshave their own kitchen. The situation is similar with the boys in their penultimate year, who have a similarroom known as Debate.There are entire house gatherings every evening, usually around 8:05-8:30 p.m. These are known as Prayers,due to their original nature. The housemaster and boys have an opportunity to make announcements, andsometimes the boys provide light entertainment. Many inter-house competitions occur, mostly in the field ofsport.For much of Etons history, junior boys had to act as "fags", or servants, to older boys. Their duties includedcleaning, cooking, and running errands поручение. A Library member was entitled to yell at any time andwithout notice, "Boy, Up!" or "Boy, Queue!", and all first-year boys had to come running. The last boy to arrivewas given the task. These practices, known as fagging, were partially phased out of most houses in 1970s.Captains of House and Games still sometimes give tasks to first-year boys, such as collecting the mail fromSchool OfficeUniformThe school is known for its traditions, including a uniform of black tailcoat (or morning coat) and waistcoat,false-collar воротник and pinstriped trousers в тонкую полоску. Most pupils wear a white tie that is effectivelya strip of cloth folded over into a starched накрахмаленный, detachable collar, but some senior boys areentitled to wear a white bow tie and winged collar ("Stick-Ups"). There are some variations in the school dressworn by boys in authority, see School Prefects and Kings scholars sections.Members of the teaching staff (known as Beaks) are required to wear a form of school dress when teaching.Tutors and teachingThe pupil to teacher ratio пропорция is 8:1, which is low by general school standards. Class sizes start ataround twenty to twenty-five in the first year and are often below ten by the final year.The original curriculum concentrated on prayers, Latin and devotion .
3. Later the emphasis was on classical studies, dominated by Latin and Ancient History, and, for boys withsufficient ability, Classical Greek. From the latter part of the 19th century this curriculum has changed andbroadened : for example, there are now more than 100 students of Chinese (non-curriculum course). In the1970s, there was just one school computer, in a small room attached to the science buildings. Today, all boysmust have laptop computers, and the school fibre-optic network connects all classrooms and all boysbedrooms to the internet.The primary responsibility for a boys studies lies with his House Master, but he is often assisted by anadditional director of studies, known as a tutor. Classes, colloquially known as "divs" (divisions), are organisedon a school basis; the classrooms are separate from the houses. Despite the introduction of moderntechnology, the external appearance and locations of many of the classrooms have remained unchanged for along time.Every evening, about an hour and a quarter, known as Quiet Hour, is set aside during which boys are expectedto study or prepare work for their teachers if not otherwise engaged. Some houses, on the discretion of theHouse Master, may observe a second Quiet Hour after prayers in the evening. This is less formal, with boysbeing allowed to visit each others rooms to socialise if neither boy has outstanding work.Incentives and sanctionsEton has a well-established system for encouraging boys to produce a high standard of work. An excellent pieceof work may be rewarded with a "Show Up", to be shown to the boys tutors as evidence of progress. If, in anyparticular term, a pupil makes a particularly good effort in any subject, he may be "Commended for GoodEffort" to the Head Master (or Lower Master).If any boy produces an outstanding piece of work, it may be "Sent Up For Good", storing the effort in theCollege Archives for posterity . This award has been around since the 18th century. As Sending Up For Good isfairly infrequent, the process is rather mysterious to many of Etons boys. First, the master wishing to Send UpFor Good must gain the permission of the relevant Head of Department. Upon receiving his or her approval,the piece of work will be marked with Sent Up For Good and the student will receive a card to be signed byHouse Master, tutor and division master.The opposite of a Show Up is a "Rip”. This is for sub-standard work, which is sometimes torn at the top of thepage/sheet and must be submitted to the boys housemaster for signature. Boys who accumulate rips are liableto be given a "White Ticket", which must be signed by all his teachers and may be accompanied by otherpunishments, usually involving doing domestic choresу уборка or writing lines.Internal examinations are held at the end of the Michaelmas term for all pupils, and in the Summer term forthose in the first year and those in the second year. These internal examinations are called "Trials".The Independent Schools Inspectorates latest report says, "Eton College provides an exceptionally good qualityof education for all its pupils. They achieve high academic standards as a result of stimulating teaching,challenging expectations and first-class resources."