ID 501SOCIAL IDENTITY & SOCIAL CONTROL The Social Science Encylopedia Selma Kadiroğlu 1561729
• Social identity is a self definition in terms of one’s membership of various social groups.• Personal identity is based on physical attributes, personality traits, interpersonal styles and the like.
• Erikson(1960) worked on identity conflicts and identity diffusion in the individual life cycle.• A subsystem of personality and assigned a major role in determining a person’s participation in the social system (Parson’s ‘general theory of action’)
• Researches focussed on: self-esteem, locus of control and level of aspiration (not social identity)• Kuhn and McPartland(1954) devised the Twenty Statements Test• Zavalloni (1974), it allows to attach different valence and meaning to different subgroup identification.• Driedger(1976), short scale in which the respondent is allowed to affirm or deny different aspects of ingroup membership.
• Social identity theory proposed a casual link between social identity needs and various forms of intergroup behaviour (Tajfel,1978).• Social identities are sustained through social comparisons, which differentiate the ingroup from relevant outgroups.
• The processes that help produce and maintain social order• the concept to explore the problem of social order was developed in the industrialized and urbanized societies• it is a subject of continuing contestation and tied into political debates
• Disruptive and antisocial human nature can be reined in by the imposition of group controls and sanctions.• Social controls operates in and through the individual rather than over against individuality• Internal self control is important as the rules and regulations
• Positive: elicit and evoke action• Negative: restrain and repress• It was adressed as part of a controversy about social organization of primitive societies. Social control involved not only individual internalization of norms, but also active pursuits of self interest and the operation of coercive sanctions.
• Three modes of control (Malinowski) Coercive controls Utilitarian controls of remuneration Normative commitment• 1970s, consolidation of subordination and control of lower classes• 1980s, developmental forms and functioning of control apparatus
• There has been an increasing expansion, widening and invisibility of the ‘net of social control’ (Orwell,1984 and Huxley,Brave New World ).• Diverse strategies and practices of governance can be said to share a common source and a common purpose.
• Each unit has a right and the duty to constitute itself as a state.• “A nation is a historically evolved, stable community of language, territory, economic life and psychological make-up manifested in a community of culture.”(Stalin)• Granting a nation to any group of people who regard themselves as one is the recipe for anarchy.
Nature of nationalism• The “good” kind is confined, meaning that nationalists are merely striving to create, or maintain their own nation.• The “bad” kind of nationalism pitted own’s “superior” nation or race against all others in a struggle for survival of the fittest.
• France: rally the entire nation to fight its enemies in the aftermath of the French Revolution• Italy and Germany: become unifying• Habsburg and Ottoman empires: become disintegrating
History of nationalism• French Revolution(1789): first nation-state is created• 19th century : the spread of literacy expenses of language of empires economic reasons
• National consciousness has been a much more important influence on people than international class- consciousness.• Romantic: arguing for the self-determination of peoples• Racist: positioning one’s own people above all others• This idea emerged as a reaction to alien rule and caused end of the age of empires.
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