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Internet

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    • 1. The Internet is the world’s largest public computer network; a network of networks that provides a vast array of services to individuals, businesses, and organizations around the world. Internet • Internet Technologies • Web • Internet and Web Applications CT3g > Concepts > Internet In this section:
    • 2. Many different Internet technologies work together to provide information and services over the Internet, including a variety of protocols, hardware, and software. Internet Technologies • Internet Backbone • TCP/IP • Internet Service Provider CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies • Domain Name System (DNS) • Port • Internet2 • Client/Server • Peer-to-Peer • Router In this section:
    • 3. Internet Backbone The Internet backbone refers to the main Internet pathways and connections, made up of the many national and international communication networks that are owned by major telecom companies, such as Verizon, AT&T, and Sprint—the same companies and networks that provide telephone service. Links: Gartner, Inc.: Magic Quadrant for U.S. Network Service Providers Mapnet: View Internet backbone AT&T international backbone CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies > Internet Backbone
    • 4. TCP/IP The protocols on which the Internet is based are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP); together referred to as TCP/IP. Links: Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) PBS: Packet Switching Demo W3Schools: TCP/IP Tutorial IP version 6 (IPv6) CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies > TCP / IP Internet applications divide up information, such as an email message, into small packets to make efficient use of the network. Upon arriving at their destination, the packets are reconstructed into the original message.
    • 5. Internet Service Provider A company that provides individuals and organizations with access to the Internet is called an Internet service provider (ISP). Links: ISP-Planet: Top 23 U.S. ISPs by Subscriber CNET: Internet access tools CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies > Internet Service Provider Internet service providers have been under the scrutiny of privacy advocates and government regulators for analyzing the data packets that flow over their networks. In a practice called traffic shaping, or packet shaping, ISPs analyze data packets and inhibit packets from sources that are hogging bandwidth, so that all customers have more equal use of the bandwidth.
    • 6. Router A router is a network device that manages network traffic by evaluating messages and routing them over the fastest path to their destination. Links: Princeton University: Traceroute Tool Visualware: VisualRoute tool CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies > Router Although routers play a crucial role on the Internet backbone, they also are used on smaller networks. Routers are used on business and home networks to allow computers on the network to communicate.
    • 7. Domain Name System (DNS) The Domain Name System (DNS) maintains a database of all domain names and IP addresses used on the Internet and acts like a phonebook, supplying information to Internet nodes and routers working to get data packets to their destination. CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies > Domain Name System (DNS) Links: The TCP/IP Guide Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) ICANN: Accredited Registrars InformationWeek:
    • 8. Port In a computer network context, a port is an address used by clients and servers that is associated with a specific service. Links: Listing of port numbers Webopedia: Well-Known TCP Port NumbersCT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies > Port Just as the post office sorts mail by zip code, Internet servers sort data packets by port number to deliver them to the intended service.
    • 9. Internet2 Links: Internet2 National LambdaRail Internet2 Applications Access Grid CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet Technologies > Internet2 Internet2 is a research and development consortium led by more than 200 U.S. universities and supported by partnerships with industry and government to develop and deploy advanced network applications and technologies for tomorrow’s Internet
    • 10. The Web, short for World Wide Web, is an Internet service that provides convenient access to information and services through hyperlinks. Web Technologies • Web Browser • Web Server • URL • HTML CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web • Cookie • Plug-in • Web Programming • XML • CSS • Web Development Software In this section:
    • 11. Web Browser A Web client, usually called a Web browser, such as Internet Explorer, Safari, and Firefox, is used to request Web pages from Web servers, interpret the HTML code in the Web page that is delivered, and display it onscreen. Links: TopTenREVIEWS: Internet Browser Software Review Firefox Web browser (Windows, Mac, Linux) Internet Explorer Web browser (Windows) Safari Web browser (Windows and Mac) http://www.opera.com/ Google Chrome Web browser (Windows) CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > Web Browser
    • 12. The term Web server refers to software that fulfills Web page requests from Web clients, and the computers that run such software. CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > Web Server Links: The Register: Apache rules web server landscape Web Hosting Choice: Best 10 Web Hosting Sites Apache Software Foundation WebServUSB Web hosting companies provide Web service and Web storage services to individuals and businesses for an annual fee. Web Server
    • 13. A Uniform Resource Locator, more commonly called a URL, acts as a Web page address, incorporating the domain name of the Web server and the location of the Web page file on the server. CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > URL URL The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is responsible for managing URLs and IP addresses. ICANN authorizes businesses known as accredited registrars to register new domain names. Links: ICANN ICANN: Top-Level Domains ICANN: Accredited Registrars name domains
    • 14. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the primary markup language used to specify the formatting of a Web page. Links: W3Schools: HTML Tutorial W3C: XHTML2 Working Group Home Page CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > HTML HTML
    • 15. XML XML (Extensible Markup Language) provides a method for describing and classifying Internet-delivered data so that it is easier to organize and manage. Links: W3C: The Semantic Web W3Schools: XML Tutorial W3C: Extensible Markup Language (XML) Microsoft: XML Developer CenterCT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > XML
    • 16. Cascading Style Sheets or CSS allows easy application of visual styles for fonts, colors, layout, and other page attributes to create a visual theme for Web pages and sites. CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > CSS CSS Links: W3C: Cascading Style Sheets http://www.w3schools.com/css/ CSS Zen Garden
    • 17. Web-Development Software Links: Adobe Dreamweaver CS4 software Aptana software Web Developer’s Journal Web development software allows developers to create Web pages more easily using a word- processing-style environment and automating complex coding activities. WYSIWYG (pronounced “wizzie- wig”) implies that the Web page you design with the Web development software will look the same when published on the Web. CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > Web-Development Software
    • 18. Cookie Links: Cookie Central Microsoft: Information About Cookies Firefox: Cookies A cookie, sometimes called an HTTP cookie, is a small text file placed on a user’s computer by a Web server in order to identify the user whenever he or she returns to visit a Web site. Cookie files can contain data or perhaps a unique identifier that is used to look up your personal profile in a database on the server. CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > Cookie
    • 19. Plug-In A plug-in works with a Web browser to offer extended services such as audio players, video, animation, 3D graphics viewers, and interactive media. CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > Plug-In Links: Internet Explorer Add-ons Download.com: Plug-ins Firefox Add-ons
    • 20. Web Programming Web programming refers to the development of software written to run either in a Web browser or on a Web server, using Web-based input and output. Links: Java + You JavaScript, The Definitive JavaScript Resource W3Schools: JavaScript Tutorial Adaptive Path – Ajax: A New Approach to Web Applications )CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Web > Web Programming
    • 21. Internet and Web applications are varied and many, assisting individuals, businesses, and organizations with all facets of life including education, news and information sharing, communication, travel, commerce, and entertainment. Internet and Web Applications • Search Engine • Portal • Internet Communications • Online Information • Online News CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications • Online Education • Online Travel • Online Employment Support • Online Music In this section: • Online TV and Video • Online Games • Web 2.0 • Web 3.0
    • 22. Search Engine A search engine is a valuable software tool that enables users to find information on the Web by specifying words that are key to their topics of interest—keywords. Links: Google Live Yahoo! AOL Search Ask Dogpile Mahalo Wikia Search A9 Search Engine Showdown Google: Improve Your Search Experience CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Search Engine 63% 20% 3%
    • 23. Portal A Web portal is a Web page that combines useful information and links, and acts as an entry point to the Web—the first page you open when you begin browsing the Web. Links: iGoogle My Yahoo! MSN AOL About.com: The Top Personalized Start Pages Killer Startups: Start-page Review VerticalPortals.com Main Directory IBM: Portals and dashboardsCT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Portal
    • 24. Internet Communications Internet communications include text- based communications such as email and instant messaging, voice communications such as Voice over IP (VoIP), video communications, and a variety of group and community forums. Links: Wikipedia: Emoticon Wikipedia: List of common emoticons NetLingo: The List of Chat Acronyms & Text Message Shorthand AIM Instant Messenger Internet Relay Chat Yahoo! Web Chat Spin Chat Skype Second Life Vonage VoIP Internet Phone Service TokBox Live Video Calling Cisco TelePresence HP Halo telepresence & video conferencingCT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Internet Communications
    • 25. Online information refers to information of all kinds—business, personal, governmental, factual, opinionated, even inaccurate—that is delivered over the Internet and Web. CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online Information Links: Wikipedia Purdue University: Searching the World Wide Web Naperville (IL) Central High School: Research Tips for the Internet Wikipedia provides a platform for Internet users to share information on every topic. Online Information
    • 26. Online News Online news refers to newspapers, magazines, journals, news radio and television, and blogs that deliver news and information about current events on the Web. CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online News Links: Technorati Blogs.com Google Reader Google News Yahoo! News Digg Newsvine Reuters AP BBC ABC News Newsvine MSNBC The Boston Globe The Miami Herald Chicago Tribune PBS NPR Google News Yahoo! News The New York Times Yahoo!: News By Industry San Francisco Chronicle Citizen Journalism Report
    • 27. Online education refers to Web sites designed to educate or support education and training. CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online Education Online Education In a program it calls OpenCourseWare, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is offering all of its courses free online. Students who take courses via OpenCourseWare will not earn credit toward a degree or have access to teachers, but they can benefit from the knowledge gained. Links: MIT: OpenCourseWare Open Courseware Consortium Blackboard Learning Management System SkillSoft Yale University: Open Yale Courses eHow Certiport
    • 28. Online travel refers to Web sites and services that support various travel activities such as preparing for travel, finding your way around new environments, reserving flights and lodging, booking tours and activities, and renting vehicles. Links: Google Maps Google Earth Microsoft Virtual Earth Microsoft Live Search Maps MapQuest Travelocity Expedia Priceline iPhone GPS Loopt Yahoo! Travel CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online Travel Online Travel
    • 29. Online Employment Support Online employment support refers to Web-delivered information and services that support researching employment options and finding employment. CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online Employment Support Links: JobWeb Yahoo! HotJobs Monster CareerBuilder College Board Career Browser CareerOverview.com U.S. Department of Labor: Occupational Outlook Handbook •Select a career. •Discover who the players are in your chosen career •Learn about the companies that interest you •Network with others in the field. •View job listings at general employment Web sites. •View job listings at industry-specific employment Web sites •Create an impressive Web site to represent yourself.
    • 30. Online Music Online music refers to music delivered through Internet-based or Web- based services and includes Internet radio, music subscription services, and music download services. Links: Live365 Pandora Last.fm Apple iTunes Microsoft’s Zune Amazon MP3 Downloads Napster Rhapsody Podcast Alley CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online Music Pandora is a unique online music service that builds radio stations around the listener’s musical tastes.
    • 31. Online TV and Video Links: Hulu Joost ABC CBS NBC Netflix YouTube Google Video CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online TV and Video Online TV and video refers to television programming, motion pictures, movies, and user-generated video available on the Web.
    • 32. Online games are the many different types of single-user, multiuser, and massively multiuser games played on the Internet and the Web. CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Online Games Online Games Links: Ferion MSN Games Massively Multi-Player Online Role Playing Games Top 100 Game Sites XBox LIVE World of Warcraft The Lord of the Rings Online •Action •Board •Card •Flight Simulation •MultiUser Dimension or MultiUser Dungeon (MUD) Multiplayer online games can be categorized into the following genres: •Role-Playing Games (RPG) •Sims •Sports •Strategy •Trivia/Puzzle
    • 33. Web 2.0 Links: List of Links Web 2.0 refers to Web resources that allow average users to collaborate and contribute to Web content, and to the transition of the Web from an information resource to a computing platform. CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Web 2.0
    • 34. • Rich Internet Apps: – Google Docs – Google Apps – 37signals – Zoho – Flypaper – SlideRocket – icloud – eyeOS – Buzzword – Todoist – Adobe Photoshop Express, • Other: – Plaxo Web 2.0 aggregator – Swurl Web 2.0 aggregator – SecondLife virtual world social network Web 2.0 Links • Social networks: – Facebook – MySpace – LinkedIn • Social bookmarking: – Digg – Delicious • Crowdsourcing: – Wikipedia – Epinions • Media sharing: – Flickr – SmugMug – YouTube • Blogging: – WordPress – Blogger – Twitter – Jaiku – Pownce – Plurk – Spoink
    • 35. Web 3.0 Links: The New York Times: Entrepreneurs See a Web Guided by Common Sense Web 3.0 refers to the next major change that will take place in Web technology, and as such is speculation at this point. CT3 > Concepts > Internet > Internet and Web Applications > Web 3.0