Atmosphere 1
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Atmosphere 1



8th grade brief overview of atmosphere

8th grade brief overview of atmosphere



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Atmosphere 1 Atmosphere 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Atmosphere Presentation –Period 1 Grade 8 Taconic Hills Central Middle School Science Class June 2009
  • Weather By Nick and Sara
  • Weather is all of the events in the atmosphere at a given time. Forms of weather are precipitation cloud types and temperatures. Clouds in the Troposphere Most Weather occurs in the Troposphere, the lowest layer of the atmosphere
  • Bibliography • All information from • User Wyatts @ Wikipedia, article Severe weather terminology (United States)- PPP opening background • User Nick81Aku @ Wikipedia, article Troposphere- PPP clouds in the atmosphere • Lipton sale @ • Images from q=weather&FORM=BILH#
  • Arial
  • The atmosphere surrounds Earth and protects us by blocking out dangerous rays from the sun. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that becomes thinner • Troposphere until it gradually reaches space. It is • Stratosphere composed of Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), and other gases (1%). • Mesosphere • Thermosphere • Exosphere Scientists divide the Earth’s atmosphere into four main layers, classified according to changes of temp.
  • Bibliography 1. 2.'s_atmosphere 3. Brooks Simmons, Barbara, (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer, Boston, MA.
  • Composition of the Atmosphere Mrs. S.
  • The atmosphere explained…  The atmosphere is made up of mixture of atoms and molecules of different kinds.  Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, other gases, water vapor and particles of liquids and solids make up the atmosphere.  Nitrogen is the most abundant (78%)
  • Bibliography-Composition of the Atmosphere    https:/.../earthspace/Atmosphere/earth_pie.gif  Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Importance of the Atmosphere
  • The importance of the atmosphere  The Earth’s atmosphere makes the conditions on Earth suitable for living things. It contains oxygen and other gases needed to survive. Many living things affect the atmosphere, constantly changing with gases moving in and out of living things, land and water.
  • Bibliography-Importance of the Atmosphere   Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • By: Alisha
  • Air consists of atoms called molecules which have mass. Because air has mass, it also has other properties, including density and pressure. Air pressure can change from day to day. Air pressure is the result of the weight of a column of air pushing down on an area. The force pushing down on an area or surface is known as pressure.
  • 1. 2.
  • Measuring air pressure
  • Measuring air pressure  A barometer is an instrument that is used to measure air pressure. Two common kinds of barometers are mercury and aneroid barometers.  Mercury barometer-a glass tube open at the bottom end and partially filled with mercury. Greater air pressure forces the column of mercury higher.  Aneroid barometer- an airtight metal chamber without liquid. When air pressure increases, the thin walls of the chamber are pushed in.
  • Bibliography-Measuring air pressure  Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall.  
  • BY: Brandon and Justin
  • Air pressure is measured with a barometer. There are two kinds of barometers; a aneroid barometer and mercury barometer. Air pressure decreases as density decreases as altitude increases. The higher you are, the harder it is to breathe because there are fewer air molecules.
  • • crosswords/hprweatherjcxword.html&usg=__bKVEBe4LuM3e1PFh07R8FRgC_aE=&h=320&w=320&sz=14&hl=en&start=1&um= 1&tbnid=z2TX4pXWteE5sM:&tbnh=118&tbnw=118&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dclouds%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1 imgurl= url= -wBeeq59lgUNXz- BmFdrI=&h=287&w=290&sz=19&hl=en&start=4&um=1&tbnid=LlbLPZiF6pmWdM:&tbnh=114&tbnw=115&prev=/ images%3Fq%3Dbarometer%26hl%3Den%26um%3D1 Brooks SImons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston, MA. imX5wrM:&tbnh=130&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbarometer%26hl%3Den%26um%3D1
  • Troposphere Harold & George
  • About the Troposphere The troposphere is the layer of the atmosphere that we live on. This is also where Earth’s weather occurs. It’s the smallest of all the layers @ 14km. Troposphere
  • Bibliography Brooks Simons,Barbara(2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston ,MA: Pearson Prentice Hall
  • Stratosphere
  • Stratosphere  Extend from the top of the troposphere to about 50 kilometers above the Earth’s atmosphere.  Second layer of the atmosphere and contains the ozone layer.  Lower stratosphere is cold, around -60 C and upper stratosphere is warmer than the lower stratosphere  The ozone layer protects the Earth’s living things from dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
  • Bibliography-Stratosphere  Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall.  PG 
  • Mesosphere
  • Mesosphere  Above the stratosphere, a drop in temperature starts the beginning of the mesosphere.  “Meso” means middle  This layer protects the Earth’s surface from being hit by most meteoroids.  Begins 50 km above Earth and ends @ 80 km
  • Bibliography-Mesosphere   es  Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Thermosphere
  • Thermosphere The outermost layer of the atmosphere. Extends from 80 km above Earth’s surface and has no definite outer layer. “thermo” means heat. Up to 1800 Celsius and a very thin layer, due to the sunlight hitting this layer first
  • Bibliography-Thermosphere Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • Ionospher e
  • Ionospher e  Thermosphere is divided into 2 layers-ionosphere & exosphere.  80 km above the surface and extends to 400 km.  Radio waves bounce off electrically charged ions in the atmosphere back to the surface of Earth.  Aurora borealis caused by light particles from the sun that enter the Ionosphere through the poles
  • Bibliog r aphy- Ionospher e  Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall.  
  • •The exosphere is the last layer before space. •The exosphere is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere. •The exosphere has low density. •Very high up, the Earth's atmosphere becomes very thin. •Lightest gases, mainly hydrogen, with some helium, carbon dioxide, and atomic oxygen near the exobase.
  • • q=exosphere+layer&page=1&qsrc=178&ab=0&u= %2FExosphere • • ges/pgnav/newsandevents.jpg • m/cloudsrus/images/atmos %20layers_ds.jpg • q=Facts+about+the+Exosphere&page=1 &qsrc=6&ab=1&u=http%3A%2F %2Fexosphere
  • Pollution
  • Pollution • Some pollution occurs naturally. Many are caused by the activities of humans. • Pollutants are harmful substances in the air, water or soil. • Some sources are: natural ,human activities, such as factories, farming, fires, soil erosion.
  • Bibliography-Pollution • Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall . • •
  • Air Pollution is the material, whether chemicals, particulates, or biological materials, that are introduced into the atmosphere by humans or human products. The aftermath results in smog, CFCs, acid rain, global warming, and indoor air pollutants. Aaron
  • • Fossil Fuels • Industrialization • Pollutants (Acid, Ozone, etc.) • Chemicals • Power Plants • Other Wastes THESE ARE THE MAIN CAUSES!
  • • • •
  • By: Emily and Taylor
  • Smog Acid Rain The burning of fossil fuels can cause smog and acid rain. • Smog is a mixture of smoke • Acid rain is rain that contains and fog. more acid than normal. • London-type smog~ in London • Acid rain forms when nitrogen an air pollution called smog oxides and sulfur oxides made the city dark and dirty. combine with water in the air to People have now stopped form nitric acid and sulfuric burning coal to make the city acid. more clean. • Acid rain is sometimes strong • Photochemical smog~ the enough to destroy the surfaces brown haze that develops in of buildings and statues. sunny cities. formed when the • Acid rain can make water so action of sunlight on pollutants acidic that plants, amphibians, such as hydrocarbons and fish, and insects can no longer nitrogen oxides. survive in it.
  • Bibliography • Brooks Simmons, Barbara (2007). Prentice Hall Science Explorer. Boston, MA: Pearson Prentice Hall. • • DAM9RqkZYVU/S660/nc_acid_rain_071009_ms.jpg