if you where to explore space, what might be your reasons? What would worry you the most about exploring space? What would intrigue you most? You might be gone for months or years, how you prepare to leave, what would be your priorities?
Europe had developed a large economy based on trading goods with Asia However with the fall of the Mongol Empire, these trade routes where no longer protected over land based travel This caused:
Disruption of trade drove up prices and diminished the amount of goods from Asia yet the demand remained high Opportunity to make some money finding reliable trade routes
No planes, no cars, lots of water and boats means….you take a boat to Asia to get your goods › however ships where slow and hard to steer and if you lost sight of land you got lost and probably would die
1400’s in Europe saw innovations in ship design which created faster more maneuverable ships › They also developed the compass and the astrolabe › They could sail without fear of becoming lost
1488 a Portuguese explorer named Bartolomeu Dias sailed south around Africa and arrived in India › The Portuguese protected this water way they discovered with bases and prevented other European powers from using it
The Portuguese prevented other European nations from sailing around Africa to Asia Christopher Columbus the Italian sailor and business man convinced King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to sponsor him on a trip to sail across the ocean to Asia
Someone who funds an exploration Usually Kings or Queens, or someone else with lots of money › expensive, have to build the boat , hire a crew, feed the crew and be able to take the loss if the crew did not find trade opportunities › In return sponsors would take 90% of the trade profits
Christopher Columbus discovered the Caribbean in 1492 › Columbus made trillions of dollars for the Spanish Monarchy, enough for them to become the powerhouse of Europe for the next century Britain, France and the Netherlands wanted to cash in on the “New World” money train, but Spain owned the south, so they sailed north into North America
The King of England sponsored Giovanni Caboto to sail North of Spain’s New world territory in the Bahamas Caboto discovered Newfoundland in 1497 › He also discovered Cod fishing “Fish can be scooped from the water by the basketfull”
What are the characteristics of an explorer? › brainstorm at least 3 sentences that could describe a explorer
Brainstorm at least 3 characteristics of an invader › give me at least 3 thought out ideas or concepts
Decide if Giovani Caboto was an explorer or an invader › write down why in a paragraph
Debate rules: › Avoid the use of Never. › Avoid the use of Always. › Refrain from saying you are wrong. › You can say your idea is mistaken. › Dont disagree with obvious truths. › Attack the idea not the person. › Use many rather than most. › Avoid exaggeration. › Use some rather than many. › The use of often allows for exceptions. › The use of generally allows for exceptions.
› Quote sources and numbers.› If it is just an opinion, admit it.› Do not present opinion as facts.› Smile when disagreeing.› Stress the positive.› You do not need to win every battle to win the war.› Concede minor or trivial points.› Avoid bickering, quarreling, and wrangling.› Watch your tone of voice.› Dont win a debate and lose a friend.› Keep your perspective - Youre just debating.
Convince each other: › Hands up who thinks he is an invader? › Who thinks he is a explorer › Why REMEMBER CLASS ROOM RULES ABOUT NOT INTERUPTING AND RAISING YOUR HAND!!!!!
The Beothuk lived in Newfoundland before European explorers arrived They first came into contact with European fisherman in the 1500’s › We know that the last of the Beothuk peoples died in 1829
We know very little about the Beothuk because they had an oral history and none survive today We have a limited history based on Mi’kmaq and European history on their encounters with the Beothuk
The French and British did not question their right to establish settlements in Newfoundland (ethnocentrisim) These settlements overlapped with Beothuk hunting, fishing and camp sites The Beothuk stole equipment from the French and British fishing camps in 1713 Newfoundland became a British colony and more settlers arrived, increasing conflict and contact with the Beothuk
The RCMP has hired you (7A) because of your background knowledge on First Nation tribes to help us solve this cold case file You need to come up with areas of investigation that the RCMP can follow up on to determine why the last of the Beothuk died in 1829 and put this cold case to rest
Page 50 › Historical context is about circumstances and accepted values and attitudes, that shaped events in the past. When Shawnadithit died, her whole people where gone. List at least 3 important factors about the historical context of this tragic event.
What’s a movie review What’s a movie › have you ever read a movie review you disagreed with? › Why do people disagree about how good movies are? › how are both useful information?
Documents and Artifacts about the past = the movie › They are the primary sources about history › they aren’t interpretted, they are what they are History books and the internet are the movie review › They are secondary sources about history › They are someone’s interpretation of primary sources
June 24, 1534: Cartier’s First Encounter With First Nations Peoples › …a man came into sight who ran after our long-boats along the coast, making frequent signs to go towards land. Seeing these signs we row towards him, but when he saw that we where coming, he started to run away. We landed where he was previously and placed a knife and a woolen sash on a branch, and then returned to our ships
Simply that he thought a Mi’kmaq man came to trade but became scared and ran away I can write a “review” of this primary source by inferring: › The Mi’kmaq had been trading with European fisherman for years before Cartier arrived, so it is plausible the man came to trade › The man may have become afraid because he saw a boat with many European crew members rowing towards himself and he was alone › What else could you infer?
Read the red print on pages 53 and 55 and fill out the handout (not page 54) You are writing secondary sources of history in this activity Keep in mind the concepts of imperialism, ethnocentrism and hermeneutics
1534 King Henri II of France sponsored Jacques Cartier to find a passage to Asia through North America and find profitable Islands upon the way He gave Cartier power to claim lands for France
Cartier Sailed up the St. Lawrence river
Cartier’s first encounter with First Nations can barely be called contact His second contact started out positively and ended up with miscommunication and distrust
In 1534 Cartier raised a large Cross on the Gaspe Peninsula › The Stadacona people watched as the Cross was raised › The Stadacona Chief came and made a speech indicating this was his land › Cartier told the Chief that the Cross was a sign post › The Chief promised not to tear down the Cross
Historians agree that Cartier mislead the Stadacona Can you find the “fib”
The Cross was used by explorers to mark territory claimed for home countries Cartier claimed the land for France Why did Cartier lie?
Cartier makes some assumptions about what the people of Stadacona are thinking, what are they? Do they seem like good assumptions? why or why not?
The Stadacona are impressed by his Cross and God … on page 55 Cartier states “They showed many marks of admiration” › They where communicating through signs and gestures, could you convey religious ideas without language? Cartier assumed the Chief’s gestures indicated he owned the land › The Stadacona did not believe anyone could own land just as you and I believe no one can own the air › Shows Ethnocentrisim
Cartier sailed back to Canada and the St.Lawrence in 1536 › Ice forced Cartier to anchor in Stadacona › He did not want to do this because he had disrespected the people of Stadacona by travelling to Hochelaga (montreal) against their wishes
Cartier’s crew became sick with scurvy › He tried to hide it › The Stadacona found out and cured his crew by giving them tea rich in vitamin C › Cartier decided in the spring time to seize 4 Stadacona to take them back to France as evidence of the riches to be found in the New World as Donnacona assured Cartier of immense gold and rubies to be found in the west › They all died soon after arriving in France due to a lack of immunity to European diseases
1541Cartier sailed back to Canada to bring back riches and establish a fort › He established a fort at present day Cap- Rouge Quebec › Eventually the Iroquois had enough of him and attacked › Cartier Fled back to France with some Gold and Diamonds he found › They ended up being Quartz and Pyrite › He was disgraced
read pages 56-59 to fill out the handout on Champlain To fill in the handout, focus on the diary entries
The French monarchy along with wealthy aristocrat Sieur de Monts sponsored Champlain in exchange for exclusive trade rights His sponsors wanted: › A route to China › Conversion of pagans to Christians › Settlements established in the New World or “New France”
He established 2 colonies › Port-Royal in 1604 › Colony of Quebec in 1608 › see page 56 of textbook
Champlain was the first European explorer to explore in-land › He did so with the help of First Nations tribes › Without their help he most likely would have been killed by more hostile nations › They also provided him with the technology and provisions to survive in North America (canoes, knowledge of the land and food)
Do you think it was accurate of Samuel de Champlain to describe the First Nations bands as “savages”? Why do you think he did it?
Read page 60 and answer the respond statement › This is practice for the essay we will write about this chapter › After you chose the speaker you agree with, write a paragraph explaining why you agree with that speaker remember to include hard evidence for your beliefs from primary sources Primary source = document or artifact from the past
Tells the reader the subject material at hand Provides a road map for what is to come Directly answers your position for the paper
Answer the following questions: › Do you answer the question? › Have you taken a position? › Is it specific? › Passes the so what? test › does it pass the how? and why test? reader must be forced to care, know how your going to explain your argument and why! If it doesn’t pass those 2 tests, it’s because it is too vague or open-ended