2. Who are the People of the Sun? Who are we? In what ways do a group’s beliefs and experiences contribute to their identity? – Traditions – Food – Celebrations – Christmas – Moving
3. Who are the People of the Sun? What do you know about them? Where are they from? www.partt.org/ mexican_flag.html
4. Geography Can you imagine an Alberta without mountains? Without oil? What would our culture be like?
5. What did the Aztecs do? They left their old home and came to a completely new one They built in the mountains on very swampy land Mexico City (Tenochtitlan) is sinking now because of the land and human error What else is sinking?
6. The Leaning Tower of Pisa
7. Venice www.wikinfo.org/index.php/Venice
8. Mexico City is sinking! Mid century: 48 cm per a year! Currently, 2.5 cm per a year on average Since 1900, it has sunk 9 meters! That’s a 3 storey building Natural springs under city were exhausted, the soil collapsed because the aquifer under the city was drained faster than it was filled Subway system built in the 1960’s is now more like a roller coaster track
9. Aqueducts Needed to bring fresh water into the city for the Aztecs to survive Built aqueducts These were also used in Ancient RomeGoogle.com
10. Elevation Edmonton is 668 M above sea level Tenochtitlan is 2240 M above sea level – How could this affect their living?  Flash floods  Violent weather  What else? Built a dam to avoid flash flooding Terraced their fields, which kept water from running off and made use of space
11. Agriculture Chinampa: “Floating islands” – In the mountains – Stakes were put into soil – Then reed mats were stacked on top and soil was piled on top of that until it became a mini farm. Trees were planted in the corners to anchor it in place – Then they planted flowers and vegetables  Corn, chili peppers, squash, beans, tomatos
12. Make a table: Break into groups of 3 Aztec CanadaMaps and mapmakingWar andempireAgricultureTrade
13. What did you come up with? Aztec CanadaMaps and map - Believed they were center of world - North on maps, 2nd biggest country inmaking worldWar and - Location allowed them to defeat - Canada has challenges with a longempire neighbours undefended coastline - Spanish made - During Cold War, alliance with Aztec’s between USA and neighbors Soviet UnionAgriculture - Location allowed them to produce - Vast agricultural lands allowed massive surplus foods agricultural sectorTrade - Trade both - Connected to Atlantic necessitated and made and Pacific possible by limited range of food and goods available
14. The Sacred Landscape Aztec gods – Believed the gods controlled all aspects of their lives – Looked at them for how to live – Four main gods – There was over 100 gods – Polytheistic society
15. Huitzilopochtli Pronounced “whets-eel-oh-POCH-tlee” – He encouraged the Aztecs to leave their homeland and settle in the valley of Mexico – The sign he gave them was an eagle perched on a cactus (flag of Mexico) – He needs the blood of sacrificial victims to give him strength – Battled with Tezcatlipoca
17. Tezcatlipoca Pronounced “Tez-cah-tlee-POH-kah” – Considered most powerful of the gods – Saw visions of the future – Ruler of the night sky – Often involved in creation myths – In a constant struggle with Huitz – Main temple in Tenochtitlan was for him
19. Quetzalcoatl Pronounced “ket-zal-COH-ahtl” – God of wind – “Feathered serpent” – Was to come back in the year “One-reed” and this year would be the destruction of the Aztec Empire – God of priests
21. Tlaloc Pronounced “TLAH-lzok” – God of rain – Unleashed the floods or cause droughts – Gave life and substance, but could destroy it easily with weather – Needed to keep him happy so they could survive
22. Tlaloc http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tlaloc
23. Human Sacrifice Why? – To the Aztecs, killing another person as a sacrifice was an honor – The victim’s blood nourished the gods and appeased them, without it, they would get angry or die: World would end! – From 1446-1453: numerous natural disasters affected the people (droughts, early frosts, floods, etc)  Aztecs were starving, emigrated from Mexico, sold their children, anything to get food  Tlacaelel (ruler at time) announced that human sacrifice would save them. In 1453, abundant rain followed.
24. Tenochtitlan: Centre of the World Like many ancient philosophers: the earth was believed to be a round flat disc – In the very middle, sat Tenochtitlan, courtesy of the Aztec gods – In four sections: connected to mainland by three large causeways – Acqueducts and canals ran through it – Did not require animals for transport – Sat in the mountains, because they believed it was closer to the gods
25. Tenochtitlan: Center of the World In the center of the city was the Great Temple – Dedicated to Tlaloc and Huitzilopochtli – Wealth came into city because of wars and tributes from neighbouring cities
26. Expanding the Empire The Aztecs had an attitude – Attitude to other cultures that is – Believed they were centre of the world, so they came into conflicts – Very disciplined, independent, and resourceful – Used conquering through war and trade to expand their empire
27. Expanding through trade Why would the Aztecs need to trade? – Haven’t we seen their superior farming methods? – Think about what you eat on a daily basis and what you like to eat as a luxury Tenochtitlan was high in the mountains, 2000 metres above sea level – Even with their skills, they could not produce avocados, papayas, and cacao to name a few. These grew by the coast, something they didn’t have – Nor did they have their colorful birds, gold or silver
28. Expanding through trade Needed to trade! – Took hundreds of slaves with them on trading expeditions to carry everything back – Could be gone for months! – Also acted as spies, drawing maps of cities that could be conquered – Helped to expand Page 166: FastForward
29. Expanding through war http://www.precolumbianjade.com/images/aztec_26 .jpg
30. Expanding through war Huitzilopochtil ancient prophecy: – “We shall conquer all the people in the universe. I will make you lords and kings of every place in the world.” – By the time the Spanish came, the Aztecs had an empire larger than any other in North America – Their society was more important than the individual in it. – FOR THE GREATER GOOD!
31. Expanding through war Warrior society – Prepared from birth to be warriors (boys) – Compulsory service in military – Lack of courage threatened the state, it was unacceptable What is conscription? – Military Act 1917 in Canada – 1944: Conscription if necessary, but not necessarily conscription (Mackenzie King)
32. Expanding through war Are young Canadians willing to die for Canada in a war? How do Canadians respond when Canadian peacekeepers are killed while carrying out UN duties? Would young Canadians consider it an honour to die as a human sacrifice meant to appease a violent god?
33. Tribute Collected tributes from conquered groups – Gifts, taxes, food, etc. – Cotton blankets, strings of jade beans, cocoa beans Cocoa beans were very important – Made a drink from it with chili peppers – Used as currency – Would grind it to a paste, then mix with water: called “xocoatl”--> Spanish changed it to chocolate, which they brought back to Europe