HOW MIGHT THE LOCATION OF A COUNTRYINFLUENCE ITS RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCES?
AL-ANDALUS, MUSLIM SPAIN Most of Spain was Christian at the beginning of the middles ages. Spain was ruled by the Visigoths (invaded Spain from the north at the end of the Roman Empire). Spain became vulnerable (allowing Muslims to take control) due to: Internalstruggles A series of weak rulers
YEAR 711: MUSLIM FORCES Tariq ibn-Ziyad landed in Spain with his Muslim forces. Conquered almost the entire Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). In 785 began building the Aljama Mosque of Cordoba (expanded over the next 200 years). Many Christian converted to Islam, but some did not.
LIFE AND SOCIETY Spain was part of the Islamic world for the next five centuries. The Arab Islamic world was part of the largest economic trade zone in the world. Goods and ideas were exchanged between places as far as Spain, Egypt, Syria, Zanzibar and Indonesia. Muslim rulers supported the arts (reflected Islamic values).
CENTRES OF LEARNING Learning was greatly valued (understand the universe; aid in living an ethical life). World’s first university was established in Cairo in 971. Muslim scholars studied medicine and science. Muslim and Jewish scholars translated books and essays of the ancient Greeks.
RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE Tolerant of religious minorities. Read religious Tolerance on p. 198
The area of jurisdictionof Islamic rulers.In 1000s, Spain began todecline due to ineffectiverulers which led to civilunrest and thesectioning of Al-Andaluzinto a number ofindependentprincipalities (states)CALIPHATE
RECONQUISTA Began as a way for the Christian kingdoms to expand their power and influence. Was also a war based on religious differences During this time the Spanish developed a new way of fighting on the battlefield. Read p. 199
TIMELINE: Because of its location, Spain was influenced by the Arab world and the Muslim religion.
TIMELINE: Tariq ibn-Ziyad crossing the Sait of Gibraltar and landing in Spain.
TIMELINE: Muslims expand across the Iberian Peninsula and conquer all of it.
TIMELINE: New rulers construct mosque at Cordoba to help create national identity.
TIMELINE: Exchange of goods and ideas to and from Spain
TIMELINE: Music, art and architecture reflect Islamic values
TIMELINE: Cordoba and Granada become centres of learning
TIMELINE: Muslim Spain was largely tolerant of minority religions.
TIMELINE: Number of independent states replace a unified Spanish nation
TIMELINE: Quarrelling among local leaders weakens the country.
TIMELINE: Christian kingdoms begin to expand across Spain (The Reconquista)
VOCABULARY Mosque: a sacred place of worship in the Islamic faith Hadith: the authenticated sayings of the Prophet Muhammed Caliph: a supreme ruler under the Islamic faith Caliphate: the area of jurisdiction of Islamic rulers Principalities: small areas often ruled by princes Martyr: a person who is willing to die for his convictions or beliefs Reconquista: the Christian reconquest of Spain from the Muslims
CREATING A CHRISTIAN SPAIN King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella (declared Christian Monarchs by the pope in Rome) Wanted to create unity in Spain by; Unifying religions or outlaw any that competed with the Catholic Church. Distributing economic wealth more uniformly throughout regions Go to war to create a common enemy
RECONQUISTA Long process Christian crusaders (European) helped the Spanish Christian forces win territory from the Muslims. Granada was captured on January 2, 1492. From the Pyrenees Mountains in the north to the Rock of Gibraltar in the south, Spain was now a Christian land.
THE SPANISH INQUISITION King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella Catholic Monarchs Christian Crusaders from Europe Helped Spanish Christian forces regain land from Muslims Took over the Spanish Inquisition from the Church
THE SPANISH INQUISITION State-run system of courts Church officials put non-Christian believers on trial Convert or be exiled Some left Spain; some pretended to convert Muslims/Jews lived in fear
THE SPANISH INQUISITION – NEGATIVE EFFECTS Spanish Jews/Muslims – large part of educated middle class (financiers/business people/economic)
SAVING SOULS King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella believed it was their duty of convert people to Catholicism Supported Columbus Missionaries
GOLD AND GLORY Key motivation for European explorers Personal Country – economic Buy the things they lacked Pay for wars (protection) Take over other territories
WEATH IN SPAIN 1492 – Spain used up its gold and silver reserves Crusades had been expensive Read p. 208 – 209 Handout Group activities on Columbus for remainder of week.