Chapter 5


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  • MAKE A T-CHART FOR TAKING NOTES FOR THE CHAPTER: EVENT/CONSEQUENCE Appreciate the influcence of diverse Aboriginal, French, and British peoples on events leading to Confederation: Describes the role of FN, French, British and Canadien peoples in conflicts between Britain and France to control North America, especially the struggle for Acadia and the Seven Years’ War. Covers key pieces of Francophone and Aboriginal perspectives: Francophones in Canada have a distinct identity from France (stayed even when France withdrew from North America after 1763) The Francophone rights have a long history going back to the Quebec Act in 1774 FN were not conquered when Britain defeated France. FN were not French Subjects and did not become British subjects. Britain’s Royal Proclamation of 1763 and the Quebec Act of 1774 recognized the fact of FN sovereignty and rights to land Appreciate the challenges of coexistence among peoples: Mi’kmaq-British war, the deportation of the Acadians, the actions of Chief Pontiac, the Royal Proclamation of 1763, the Quebec Act of 1774 as responses to challenges of coexistence created by conflict Knowledge and Understanding: In what ways did conflicts between the French and the British in Europe impact North America? How did conflicts between the French and British in Europe become factors in the Great Deportation of the Acadians? To what extent was the Battle of the Plains of Abraham the key event in achieving British control over North America What was the role and intent of Chief Pontiac in controlling British fortts? How was the Royal Proclamation of 1763 an attempt to achieve compromise among Aboriginal peoples, the French and the British? How did the Quebec Act of 1774 contribute to the foundations of Canada as an officially bilingual country?
  • Historical Significance – key event: what are the three criteria to be a key or historically significant event? There are 3 CRITERIA for historical significance: DURABILITY: Changes last a long time 2) QUANTITY: Affected many people 3) PROFUNDIDTY: The effects are long lasting Review handout on “Comparing Significance”. Important to consider perspectives when discussing key events because they result in different consequences for different peoples (i.e. Treaty of Utrect in 1713 give Britain permantent control of Acadia which results in war for the Mi’kmaq, deportation for the Acadians, and a new strategic position for the British. Britain took control of North America in 1763 in a treaty with France. This event – la Conquete or Conquest – is an important moment in Canada’s past.
  • #1 – discusses the dikes the Acadians built; tremendous labour involved. Meant they had put down roots Makes them determined to hang on to the land #2 – prediction exercise Use handout 5-5 and fill out as they answer.
  • Using the timeline, find at least one example of cause and effect that illustrates this competition. Examples of answers: Because of the Treaty of Ultrecht (cause), Acadia became the property of Britain in 1713 (effect) Britain takes control of Acadia in 1713 (cause); France builds Louisbourg (effect) France regains Louisbourg in 1748, because of a treaty to end the War of the Austrian Succession (cause); Britain builds Halifax (effect). Using the map, describe how competition influenced the positioning of Louisbourg and Halifax. Louisbourg guarded the gateway to the interior of the continent and the rich fur trade. It also protected French settlements in the St. Lawrence region, such as Quebec and Montreal. Halifax guarded against any navel treat from New France or Europe towards the Thirteen Colonies.
  • Discuss what is an oath
  • I have a handout containing a new school oath and the actual oath of the acadians.
  • Should the Acadians accept the Oath, which meant that they would have to fight in a war against France? Class debate or Socratic seminar, whatever you want to finish off the class to act our the situation the Acadians were in, accept the oath, or be forced off of your land.
  • Read and discuss pages148-152. Watch video and make notes: Look for: How did conflicts between the French and the British in Europe become factors in the Great Deportation of the Acadians in 1755? During conflicts, people sometimes jump to conclusions about others. Britain, in 1755, jumped to conclusions about the Acadians. The Great Deportation is an example from Canada’s past of how conflict can draw out prejudices towards other people. Conflicts happen today, they carry the same risk. Assuming that getting to know people well is a way to break down prejudices, what steps could you personally take to get to know people of diverse cultures in Canada? Celebrate important days on the cultural calendars of diverse peoples, and invite them to celebrate your important days with you. Learn a little of another person’s first language – from the person. Have lunch with a person you don’t know well on a regular basis
  • Assumed they could not trust the Acadians. What has been offered as reparation to them today? Acadians are a recognized part of Canadian society today Many feel emotional about their history The Queen has apologized for the Great Deportation; Young people are less interested than older people Newspaper: The queen has apologized; the apology is extremely important to the Acadians.
  • Answering the question: How important was the Battle of the Plains of Abraham for achieving British conquest of North America?
  • Answering the question: How important was the Battle of the Plains of Abraham for achieving British conquest of North America? Model: Intro: The battle of the Plains of Abraham played a pivotal role in solidifying Britain’s conquest of North America. Concluding: The Battle of the Plains of Abraham removed France’s major center of control in North America and insured that Britain was the only European power operating in North America. Support: The battle meant Britain controlled the strategic fortress of Quebec, and thereby controlled all the inland territory of the Great Lakes region. The battle itself, however, was not the last word in the conflict to control Quebec. The French defeated the British army a few months later, in the Battle of Sainte-Foy. Would the British have captured Quebec anyways, once their reinforcements arrived, even if Wolfe had not captured Quebec? It is difficult to say. Before he captured Quebec, Wolfe had spent three fruitless months shelling it. Quebec may have been too heavily fortified, and too well supplied from surrounding Canadien settlements, for reinforcements to have made much difference.
  • Look at the words of Minweweh. How does he see the relationship of his people to the French and the British? Draw a graphic representation of this relationship, or restate in your own words. Students’ responses should acknowledge that the Odawa and Anishinabe did not consider themselves defeated by Britain. Britain’s victory over France was not a victory over them. NOTE: Students can respond with illustrations, in writing, or by talking in groups or with partners. In what way did the actions of Pontiac and Minweweh to control British forst express this perspective? Their actions showed that they did not consider themselves subject to the treaty that ended the war with France – the Reaty of Paris. Britain had not made peace with the. If you were trying to explain this perspective to someone who did not know about Canada’s past, what would you say? Choose three key points from your knowledge of First Nations history. Possible points: First Nations had societies and governments long before Europeans came to North America Their societies had close connections to the land. They regarded the land as integral to their societies. The objective of European imperialism – to dominate and control traditional lands of First Nations – was not an objective shared by First Nations or negotiated with First Nations. Britain generally viewed First Nations as obstacles to their own uses for land (farms, for example) First Nations became partners and allies with France during the fur trade, but they did not become French subjects.
  • Chapter 5

    1. 1. War and British Conquest Chapter 5
    2. 2. Conquest of North America• What is conquest• When we speak of conquest of North America, do we speak of the land or the peoples?• Who are the peoples?
    3. 3. Acadia• Acadia was the central location of the War between Britain and France for the Control of North America in North America• Where is Acadia?• Who originally settled here?
    4. 4. The Mi’kmaq• Acadia was originally home to the Mi’kmaq• They had established a trading partner with the French and allowed the French to settle on their lands  The French settled in salt marshes they drained themselves and the Mi’kmaq did not use this land so it was of no consequence to them
    5. 5. Read page 141-143• Did France consider Acadia conquered?• When they drew maps (page 61) did they label Acadia as French or Mi’kmaq territory?• Did the French ever receive a surrender from the Mi’kmaq?• How might have European ethnocentrism and imperialism contributed to this?• Why did France never resolve this issue with the Mi’kmaq?• How would First Nations world views have contributed to this problem?
    6. 6. • What do we have to write about Acadia, Mi’kmaq and France in our charts?• Read page 144-145 History Happens  Write answers to the 2 respond questions at the end
    7. 7. British Conquest of Acadia• France settled Acadia starting in 1604  By the 1700’s many generations of French lived in this area and called themselves Acadians  They has intermarried and become friendly with the Mi’kmaq• Britain won the War of Spanish Succession  In the Treaty of Utrecht signed after the war Britain gained control of Acadia
    8. 8. • The treaty did not end conflict over Acadia  In 1720 France built the military base at Louisbourg on the Island of Cape Breton  1745 Britain captured Louisbourg  1748 France regains Louisbourg  1749 Britain builds military base at Halifax • One of the worlds largest natural harbors and an excellent site for a military base, most of the coastland of eastern Canada contains few suitable natural harbors
    9. 9. • 1758 Britain captures Louisbourg during the Seven Year’s war, a war sparked by events in North America• 1763 France cedes nearly all it’s claims in North America under the Treaty of Paris• What events happened in Acadia that we need to document in our T-chart?
    10. 10. If the conquest of Acadia is occurring in the mid 1700’s, which phase of the fur trade does this match?
    11. 11. • Phase 3 and 4  The establishment of the HBC and the eventual take over of New France and the creation of the North West Fur Trade Company
    12. 12. New School OathI am a student of St. Marguerite Catholic School, as such I am loyal. I will always wear my TIGER uniform, I will always address my classmates as “cohorts” and my teachers as “Revered Ones”. I will not talk unless spoken too, I will not walk unless told too. I will follow all school rules or I will cease to be a member of the school.
    13. 13. • If you do not recite the new school Oath, You will not be allowed to stay here. You will never be allowed to come back, you will not be allowed to take any of your belongings home with you and you will have to repeat grade 7 at some other school.
    14. 14. • In 1713 Britain took control of Acadia and told everyone to move  The Acadians refused to move• In 1730 The British required the Acadians to take an oath of neutrality of war should occur in North America  What is an oath?
    15. 15. • In 1755 war seemed immenint between Britian and France.• Acadia was in a stratigic location and would be a major fighting spot in the war so the British required the Acadians to take an Oath of Allegiance• Handout 5-7 on strategic position of Quebec
    16. 16. Oath of AllegianceOath Taken by Acadians31st May 1768I do swear, that I will bear faithful and true Allegiance to His Most Sacred Britanick MajestyKing GEORGE the Third, and him will defend to the utmost of my Power against alltraiterous Conspiracies, and all Attempts whatsoever, against his Person, Crown and Dignity.And I will do my utmost Endeavours to disclose or make known to His Majesty, and hisSuccessors, all Treasons and traiterous Conspiracies, or any Attempts whatever, which I shall[know to] be against him, or any of them.And these Things I do plainly and sincerely promise and swear, according to the expressWords by me spoken, and according to the plain and Common Sense and Understanding ofthe same Words, without any Equivocation, mental Evasion, or secret Reservationwhatsoever: And I do make this Acknowledgment and promise heartily, willingly, and truly,upon the true Faith [of a] Christian.So Help me G O D.
    17. 17. • Did the Acadians accept the Oath, which meant that they would have to fight in a war against France?• class debate?
    18. 18. • The Acadians refused, some escaped to New France and others hid with the Mi’kmaq• During 1755-1763 during “The Great Deportation” Britain captured and shipped 11 000 Acadians to the 13 Colonies, England or France  This was how French speaking parts of the USA started in Louisiana (Cajun) and French parts of Carolina  Québec History 10 - The Acadians Deportation
    19. 19. • What is the important information we have to put in our charts?
    20. 20. Why did Britain Chose to deport the Acadians?• Acadia would be drawn into the war because of it’s central location• Acadians were descendants of France, spoke French, and were catholic, more in common culturally with France than Britain• In Acadia in 1755, there were 12 000 Acadian settlers and 6000 British settlers, even though it was in British rule for the past 50 years• The Acadians refused to fight the French• What would the British assume?
    21. 21. • What needs to be written in your charts?
    22. 22. Seven Year’s War• learn about the 7 years war (Europe) or in the U.S., the French and Indian War, and the battle of the Plains of Abraham.• By watching a movie• However, while the movie is on you will be taking notes• to answer the following question• Québec History 8 - French and Indian War• Québec History 15 - Battle Plains of Abraham
    23. 23. • Which does a better job of providing an adequate account of the Plains of Abraham, the textbook or the movie and why?• TB pages 155-157• take notes during the movie  background info  conflict details (who won, casualties)  results of the battle...what did it lead to?
    24. 24. Paragraph• intro sentence (position statement)• support for your position• concluding sentence
    25. 25. Treaty of Paris• England is winning the war but no longer wishes to fight• France has been demolished, can still fight, but not a traditional war• What are they going to agree to stop the fighting?
    26. 26. Treaty of Paris• France agreed give up almost all it’s claims to North America  They still “own” 2 islands still off of the coast of Labrador (Saint Pierre and Miquelon)  The rest of North America belonged to Britain  France also negotiated that Britain not retaliate against French allies in North America and allow the people of New France to practice Catholicism
    27. 27. • what goes into our chart?
    28. 28. Uncertain times• Now have British (protestant) rulers in New France and Acadia• The peoples living there are Catholic peoples of European decent• The First Nations living there are used to interacting with a tolerant group of peoples and have established a coexistence with the French
    29. 29. First Nations and the British• Read Pages 159 – 160• answer questions 1-3 on page 160• what should we add to our chart?
    30. 30. How would Britain Control New France?• Britain does not want further fighting  How are they going to still dominate New France, but prevent fighting?
    31. 31. Royal Proclamation of 1763• Royal set of Laws for New France in 1763 following the attacks of Pontiac• Assimilation of Canadians via:  Establishment of the province of Quebec with a British style government similar to the 13 colonies • govener, and appointed council • elected assembly (took 30 years to happen even though it was promised) • Catholics can not hold government offices
    32. 32. • Abolished French civil law  abolished relationships between seigneurs and habitants and taxes (which helped to support the church) • Encouragement of settlers from the 13 colonies to move to Quebec  would not allow settlers to move west into “Indian Territory” Proclamation aimed for peace with First Nations as well • Identified a proclamation line which outlined “Indian Territory” and not allowing settlement into it
    33. 33. • what goes into our chart?• look at the map on page 164 and answer the 3 respond questions?
    34. 34. Quebec Act of 1774• The 13 colonies are rebelling• conflicts between the British and French were occurring regularly starting in the 1770’s, and the American Revolutionary War started in 1776• The Royal Proclamation was move to force Canadian assimilation, the 13 colonies revolted, would the Canadiens?
    35. 35. Quebec Act of 1774• 70 000 Canadians lived in New France, very few British people did• The Canadiens still had no elected assembly• Britain decided to give Canadiens some rights back in the Quebec Act
    36. 36. Quebec Act of 1774• Allowed the Catholic Church to resume operations• Allowed Canadiens to hold government positions after taking oaths of loyalty to Britain• Reinstated French civil law (still in effect today)• Extended the boundaries of Quebec  did not consult First Nations even though they where supposed to according to the Royal Proclamation
    37. 37. • What do we have to add to our charts?• How important is the Quebec Act in shaping what Canada’s identity is now?????????
    38. 38. Pamphlet• Revisiting the Plains of Abraham