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e n g n Ef o yr oe hT  i 1/62
Concepts in                        Engineering Designe n g n Ef o yr oe hT                                             2/6...
Engineering                         ... is defined as an activity of overcoming                         difficulties for p...
Engineering                         ... is defined as an activity of overcoming                         difficulties for p...
Remember these figures...                                   NEED                                    NEED                  ...
Engineering Activitiese n g n Ef o yr oe hT                                                 6/62  i
Functions of Engineerse n g n Ef o yr oe hT                                                 7/62  i
Functions of Engineerse n g n Ef o yr oe hT                                                 8/62  i
DEFINITIONS of DESIGNe n g n Ef o yr oe hT                                            9/62  i
Author      Definition                                                       Keywords                        C.          F...
D esign A ctivity                         ... is defined, in general, as the planning                         and realizat...
D esign A ctivity                         ... is defined, in general, as the planning                         and realizat...
P urpose of D esign                          The purpose of design is defined [Mostow, 1985] as the                       ...
Design activities                          Design activities include                         Creativity,                 ...
DEFINITIONS of ENGINEERING DESIGNe n g n Ef o yr oe hT                                                       15/62  i
Engineering and design activities are                                           blended in Engineering Design             ...
T. T. Woodson                        An iterative decision making activity to                        produce the plans by ...
J. P. Vidosic                        The process that uses engineering tools-                        mathematics, graphics...
G. B. R. Fielden                        The use of scientific principles, technical                        information and...
M. Asimow                        A purposeful activity directed toward the                        goal of fulfilling human...
C. Ruiz and F.                                            Koenigsberger                        The complete intellectual p...
J. R. Dixon                        Science-based problem solving with                        social-human awareness, ...  ...
R. E. Parr                        The creative part of Engineering.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT                                  ...
W. H. Middendorf                        The activity wherein various techniques                        and scientific prin...
A. D. Deutschman et al.                        The mechanism whereby a requirement is                        converted to ...
J. B. Reswick                        The essential purpose of engineering.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT                           ...
A B. Rosenstein and J. M.                                                English                        An iterative decis...
T. T. Woodson                       An iterative decision making activity to produce the plans by which resources         ...
TYPES of ENGINEERING DESIGNe n g n Ef o yr oe hT                                                 29/62  i
Pahl and Beitz, 1988                        •   Original design that involves elaborating an original solution            ...
Dieter, 1991                        • One-of-a-kind design; Design of special                          purpose machines, P...
Ullman, 1992                        •   Selection design involves choosing one item from a list of similar                ...
Duffey & Dixon,1990                        •   Functional design,                        •   Phenomenological design,     ...
DEFINITIONS FOR                        MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN OR                                         MACHINE DE...
Machine Design                        ... is described as a creative thinking, planning                        and synthes...
Machine Design                        ... is defined as the transformation of                        parameters influencin...
R. C. Johnson                        The process of creating and selecting                        configurations, shapes, ...
W. Rodenacker                        The transformation of the parameters                        influencing physical proc...
P. Orlov                        •   To abstain from blindly copying the existing prototypes and to                        ...
J. P. Vidosic                        • The formulation of a plan for a mechanism or                          device capabl...
E. Parr                        The application of many of the principles                        of science and technology ...
MACHINE DESIGN =                        MACHINE + ENGINEERING + DESIGNe n g n Ef o yr oe hT                               ...
MACHINE DES IGN                                  MACHINE DESIGN                        MACHINE     ENGINEERING    DESIGNe ...
Engineering Design and other                                                                  disciplines.                ...
DESIRES; Requirements, Needs, Problems                                                                          Effective ...
e n g n Ef o yr oe hT  i 46/62
e n g n Ef o yr oe hT  i 47/62
e n g n Ef o yr oe hT  i 48/62
Design activities                          Design activities include                         Creativity,                 ...
E n g i n e e r i n g C r e a t i v i t y                                       Market        Production                  ...
Engineering creativity is a process in which a set of                        machine components is selected to perform a  ...
Engineering creativity is a process in which a set of                        machine components is selected to perform a  ...
e n g n Ef o yr oe hT  i 53/62
Creativity                        Among the many factors which effect                        creativity in design are; des...
e n g n Ef o yr oe hT  i 55/62
A product should be designed to function                                 under all of the possible severe                 ...
Remember                         The stage and level of industrialization of the                          society is a fa...
Limitations of Design                         Design should not violate scientific rules,                         Design...
Scientific Principles      Design                        and Technology              Process   Evaluation                 ...
to reach a perfect level ...                                                 100 % Perfection                          Lev...
Work hard,                        Think soft...e n g n Ef o yr oe hT                                    61/62  i
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Lecture 02 engineering design

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Transcript of "Lecture 02 engineering design"

  1. 1. e n g n Ef o yr oe hT i 1/62
  2. 2. Concepts in Engineering Designe n g n Ef o yr oe hT 2/62 i
  3. 3. Engineering ... is defined as an activity of overcoming difficulties for practical applications of concepts that are proved to be true theoretically. This activity is composed of mental activities, paperwork, human power and machine power.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 3/62 i
  4. 4. Engineering ... is defined as an activity of overcoming difficulties for practical applications of concepts that are proved to be true theoretically. This activity is composed of mental activities, paperwork, human power and machine power.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 4/62 i
  5. 5. Remember these figures... NEED NEED People, ENGINEERING PROCESS Society, Nature PRODUCT PRODUCTe n g n Ef o yr oe hT 5/62 i
  6. 6. Engineering Activitiese n g n Ef o yr oe hT 6/62 i
  7. 7. Functions of Engineerse n g n Ef o yr oe hT 7/62 i
  8. 8. Functions of Engineerse n g n Ef o yr oe hT 8/62 i
  9. 9. DEFINITIONS of DESIGNe n g n Ef o yr oe hT 9/62 i
  10. 10. Author Definition Keywords C. Finding the right physical components of a physical structure. Finding, physical Alexander L. B. A goal-directed problem solving activity. Goal-directed, solving activity Archer M. Decision making in the face of uncertainty with high penalties Decision making, uncertainty, Asimow for error. high penalties for error P. J. Simulating what we want to make (or do) before we make (or Simulating to feel confident Booker do) it as many time as may be necessary to feel confident in the final result. M. Farr The conditioning factor for those parts of the product which Contact with people come into contact with people. S. Relating product with situation to give satisfaction. Product, satisfaction Gregory J. C. The performing of a very complicated act of faith Act of faith Jones E. The optimum solution to the sum of the true needs of a True needs Matchett particular set o circumstances. J. K. The imaginative jump from present facts to future Imaginative jump, Presente n g n Ef o yr oe hT Page possibilities. facts; future possibility J. B. A creative activity-it involves bringing into being something Creative activity, useful not Reswick new and useful that not existed has not existed previously. existed previously J. P. The creation of an end result that satisfies a human need by Creation, Result satisfies Vidosic taking definite action. human need, action 10/62 i
  11. 11. D esign A ctivity ... is defined, in general, as the planning and realization of a creative strategy to accomplish a physical, mental, moral or artistic task or to satisfy a real need.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 11/62 i
  12. 12. D esign A ctivity ... is defined, in general, as the planning and realization of a creative strategy to accomplish a physical, mental, moral or artistic task or to satisfy a real need. This is engineering!..e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 12/62 i
  13. 13. P urpose of D esign The purpose of design is defined [Mostow, 1985] as the construction of a structure (artifact) description that;  Satisfies a given (probably informal) functional specification,  Conforms to the limitations of the target medium,  Meets implicit or explicit requirements on performance (time, space, power, cost etc.) and structure (style, simplicity etc.),  Satisfies restrictions on the design process itself.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 13/62 i
  14. 14. Design activities Design activities include  Creativity,  Decision-making,  Modeling.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 14/62 i
  15. 15. DEFINITIONS of ENGINEERING DESIGNe n g n Ef o yr oe hT 15/62 i
  16. 16. Engineering and design activities are blended in Engineering Design ENGINEERING DESIGN ENGINEERING DESIGN Time consuming activity Mental activity Mentally initiated time consuming activity Physical Conceptual Conceptually developed physical products Close to science Close to art Creative work based on scientific principles Methodological Intuitive Intuitive started methodologye n g n Ef o yr oe hT Solves problems Creates problems Solution-Problem, Problem- Solution chains are unbreakable 16/62 i
  17. 17. T. T. Woodson An iterative decision making activity to produce the plans by which resources are converted: preferably optimally, into systems or devices to meet human needs.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 17/62 i
  18. 18. J. P. Vidosic The process that uses engineering tools- mathematics, graphics, language-and scientific principles to evolve a plan, which when fully carried out will satisfy a human need.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 18/62 i
  19. 19. G. B. R. Fielden The use of scientific principles, technical information and imagination in the definition of a mechanical structure, machine or system to perform pre- specified functions with the maximum economy and efficiency.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 19/62 i
  20. 20. M. Asimow A purposeful activity directed toward the goal of fulfilling human needs, particularly those which can be met by the technological factors of our culture.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 20/62 i
  21. 21. C. Ruiz and F. Koenigsberger The complete intellectual process from the conception of an idea based on inspiration, knowledge and experience to its final technical and commercial realization.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 21/62 i
  22. 22. J. R. Dixon Science-based problem solving with social-human awareness, ... a high level intellectual activity.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 22/62 i
  23. 23. R. E. Parr The creative part of Engineering.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 23/62 i
  24. 24. W. H. Middendorf The activity wherein various techniques and scientific principles, are employed to make decisions regarding the selection of materials and the placement of these materials to form a system or device, which satisfies a set of specified and implied requirements.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 24/62 i
  25. 25. A. D. Deutschman et al. The mechanism whereby a requirement is converted to a meaningful and functional plan. The formulation into a satisfactorily functioning device that satisfies the original need.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 25/62 i
  26. 26. J. B. Reswick The essential purpose of engineering.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 26/62 i
  27. 27. A B. Rosenstein and J. M. English An iterative decision making process for developing engineering system or devices whereby resources are optimally converted into desired ends.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 27/62 i
  28. 28. T. T. Woodson An iterative decision making activity to produce the plans by which resources are converted: preferably optimally, into systems or devices to meet human needs. J. P. Vidosic The process that uses engineering tools-mathematics, graphics, language-and scientific principles to evolve a plan, which when fully carried out will satisfy a human need. G. B. R. Fielden The use of scientific principles, technical information and imagination in the definition of a mechanical structure, machine or system to perform pre-specified functions with the maximum economy and efficiency. M. Asimow A purposeful activity directed toward the goal of fulfilling human needs, particularly those which can be met by the technological factors of our culture. C. Ruiz and F. Koenigsberger The complete intellectual process from the conception of an idea based on inspiration, knowledge and experience to its final technical and commercial realization. J. R. Dixon Science-based problem solving with social-human awareness, ...a high level intellectual activity. R. E. Parr The creative part of Engineering. W. H. Middendorf The activity wherein various techniques and scientific principles, are employed to make decisions regarding the selection of materials and the placement of these materials to farm a system or device which satisfies a set of specified and implied requirements. A. D. Deutschman et al. The mechanism whereby a requirement is converted to a meaningful ande n g n Ef o yr oe hT functional plan. The formulation into a satisfactorily functioning device that satisfies the original need. J. B. Reswick The essential purpose of engineering. A B. Rosenstein and J. M. English An iterative decision making process for developing engineering system or devices whereby resources are optimally converted into desired ends. 28/62 i
  29. 29. TYPES of ENGINEERING DESIGNe n g n Ef o yr oe hT 29/62 i
  30. 30. Pahl and Beitz, 1988 • Original design that involves elaborating an original solution principle for a system with the same task, a similar task or a new task. This may be the case of using a four-bar mechanism in the development of a walking machine. • Adaptive design, which involves adapting a known solution principle to a changing task. Example: Design of a new gearbox, based on the known gear trains. • Variant design, which involves varying the size and/or arrangement of certain aspects of the chosen system, while the function and solution of the system remain, unchanged. Example: Belt Conveyor design; Size of drum and belt width can be computed for a given loading with no change on the design configuration.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 30/62 i
  31. 31. Dieter, 1991 • One-of-a-kind design; Design of special purpose machines, Prototype machines, • Design for mass production; Design of washing machine, • Large, expensive system design; Design of a production line,e n g n Ef o yr oe hT • Design to code; Shaft design, Boiler design. 31/62 i
  32. 32. Ullman, 1992 • Selection design involves choosing one item from a list of similar items; Selection of bearing for a shaft. • Configuration design in which all the components have been designed and the problem is how to assemble them into the complete product; Plant design, Conveyor layout design • Parametric design involves finding values for the variables or parameters that characterize the object being studied; Conveyor design, Crane design. • Original design is the development of a process, component or assembly not previously existing; Design of a machine with a specific purpose. • Others (such as redesign, routine design)e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 32/62 i
  33. 33. Duffey & Dixon,1990 • Functional design, • Phenomenological design, • Embodiment design, • Attribute or configuration design, • Parametric design.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 33/62 i
  34. 34. DEFINITIONS FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN OR MACHINE DESIGNe n g n Ef o yr oe hT 34/62 i
  35. 35. Machine Design ... is described as a creative thinking, planning and synthesis supported by analyses in order to produce a machine or system that will accomplish a predefined physical work. Besides, having the properties of the general design concept, an important additional characteristic of the machine design therefore is that, the artifact to be designed should have a certain functionality in terms of physical work.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 35/62 i
  36. 36. Machine Design ... is defined as the transformation of parameters influencing a physical process into concrete machine components,e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 36/62 i
  37. 37. R. C. Johnson The process of creating and selecting configurations, shapes, materials, and dimensions for something which is physical in nature.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 37/62 i
  38. 38. W. Rodenacker The transformation of the parameters influencing physical process into concrete machine components.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 38/62 i
  39. 39. P. Orlov • To abstain from blindly copying the existing prototypes and to design meaningfully, selecting from the entire store of the design solutions offered by the present day mechanical engineering the ones that are most suitable under given conditions. • To be able to combine various solutions and find new, better ones, i.e. display initiative and put vim in the work. • To continually improve the machines characteristics and to contribute to the progress in the given branch of mechanical engineering. • To follow the dynamic development of the industry and devise versatile machines of long life amenable to further modernization and capable of meeting the every growing demands of the national economy without running the risks of obsolescent for a long time toe n g n Ef o yr oe hT came. 39/62 i
  40. 40. J. P. Vidosic • The formulation of a plan for a mechanism or device capable of transmitting forces and motions, and doing work or accomplishing a specific function that must be done to satisfy a human need as economically as possible. • The formulation of plans to satisfy human needs using the disciplines-engineering, sciences, techniques, and other mental processes-that are studied by mechanical engineers.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 40/62 i
  41. 41. E. Parr The application of many of the principles of science and technology in the creation of a product and the consideration of the various factors that effect its production and use.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 41/62 i
  42. 42. MACHINE DESIGN = MACHINE + ENGINEERING + DESIGNe n g n Ef o yr oe hT 42/62 i
  43. 43. MACHINE DES IGN MACHINE DESIGN MACHINE ENGINEERING DESIGNe n g n Ef o yr oe hT 43/62 i
  44. 44. Engineering Design and other disciplines. Requirements, Needs, Problems DESIRES Politics Sociology, Psychology Economy Methods and Procedures Engineering Engineering Engineering Production TOOLS Mathematics Science REALITIES Science Design Technology Construction Industrial Limitations Design Architectural Design Artistice n g n Ef o yr oe hT Design Art CONCEPTS Intuition, Creation 44/62 i
  45. 45. DESIRES; Requirements, Needs, Problems Effective as design criteria, and design rules Legal codes, Standards, Politics Decisions regarding use of coal, or natural gas, Promotion of a industrial sector. Traditions should be carefully analyzed by the designers. A slaughterhouse should be designed according to local religious factors. Sociology, Psychology Social preferences cannot be overcome easily. Cooking kitchenware is an example. Design user is a human. His/her preferences amy be the same as the designer himself/herself. Engineering design mainly deals to produce products to sell somebody else. Therefore economical conditions are of utmost importance that determine the demand on the particular Economy product. It is not only demand to be considered, also the group of people who has developed this demand is also important. CONCEPTS; Intuition, Creativity More focused on the user preferences, and ergonomic design to some extend. They Industrial Design developed kind of empty shells wherein some machine components and machine elements are placed by the engineering designers. Architectural design Aesthetic design criteria are more overwhelming. Satisfaction of the humans are more pronounced. Surface finish, selection of colors are Artistic Design examples. Art Gives the basic rules like the color effect, etc. TOOLS; Methods and Procedures Statics, Dynamics, Strength of materials, Thermodynamics, Heat transfer, Fluid mechanics, Engineering Science Elasticity, Plasticity.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT Science Physics, Chemistry, n r ee n gn E Mathematics Calculus, Differential equations, Algorithms, Numerical analysis, REALITIES; Limitations Engineering Technology Machine elements, Manufacturing technology, quality control, reliability, i Production Production shop, 45/62 i i
  46. 46. e n g n Ef o yr oe hT i 46/62
  47. 47. e n g n Ef o yr oe hT i 47/62
  48. 48. e n g n Ef o yr oe hT i 48/62
  49. 49. Design activities Design activities include  Creativity,  Decision-making,  Modeling.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 49/62 i
  50. 50. E n g i n e e r i n g C r e a t i v i t y Market Production Technology Conditions Facilitye n g n Ef o yr oe hT 50/62 i
  51. 51. Engineering creativity is a process in which a set of machine components is selected to perform a predetermined function. It is mainly a mental activity; assistance by computer technology is suggested. Designers experience is also a determining factor.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 51/62 i
  52. 52. Engineering creativity is a process in which a set of machine components is selected to perform a predetermined function. It is mainly a mental activity; assistance by computer technology is suggested. Designers experience is also a determining factor.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 52/62 i
  53. 53. e n g n Ef o yr oe hT i 53/62
  54. 54. Creativity Among the many factors which effect creativity in design are; designer’s experience, designer’s ability, economic factors, and designer’s own preference.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 54/62 i
  55. 55. e n g n Ef o yr oe hT i 55/62
  56. 56. A product should be designed to function under all of the possible severe environmental conditions.e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 56/62 i
  57. 57. Remember  The stage and level of industrialization of the society is a factor in design,  The social traditions cannot be overcome easily,  Sophistication and complexity of the design product is to be determined by the user,e n g n Ef o yr oe hT  Economical conditions,  Geographical and climatic conditions. 57/62 i
  58. 58. Limitations of Design  Design should not violate scientific rules,  Design should be economical,  Design should be compatible to psychology and ergonomics,  Design must satisfy requirements stated in standards, laws, regulations,e n g n Ef o yr oe hT  Level of education and capabilities of the user,  Production facilities. 58/62 i
  59. 59. Scientific Principles Design and Technology Process Evaluation Design Information Feedback Work Product Philosophy of Designe n g n Ef o yr oe hT 59/62 i
  60. 60. to reach a perfect level ... 100 % Perfection Level of Perfectione n g n Ef o yr oe hT Time / Effort Improvement of Level of Design with Time / Effort 60/62 i
  61. 61. Work hard, Think soft...e n g n Ef o yr oe hT 61/62 i
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