Outcome Measures for Beginning Writers with Disabilities Janet M. Sturm, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Central Michigan University [email...
Janet M. Sturm Central Michigan University
Who is a beginning writer?
If I had a million dollars I waed bay a schools. I waed have a bab-q all time. Thaer waed be a spelling school. It waed be...
Who are these beginning writers? Kraz Anems  I like kraz anems. My favoert anem is a meke.  I like to wach thm sweg. I LIK...
Who are these writers? – The choices <ul><li>6 year old who is typically developing </li></ul><ul><li>23 year old with mod...
Who are these beginning writers? 8   year   old   with   CP Typically developing 6 year old 23 year old with moderate DD 1...
Maureen Staskowski Macomb Intermediate School District
Teaching Students with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities to Write <ul><li>Students with DD benefit from writing i...
Common Core State Standards for ELA APPLICATION TO STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
Supplement to  Common Core Standards  Regarding Special Education
Common Core Standards:  Students with Disabilities <ul><li>Challenge, high expectations, rigor </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffoldi...
 
 
Road Map Needed
Tools Needed
Kathleen S. Cali The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
What does the development of a typical student writer look like?
It starts with drawing....
And scribbling...
Gradually becoming intelligible to the reader...
With recognizable words...
And sentences...
Writing for different audiences... DeR  George  W.  B   Us   h, WN R U gO N lKN The  Lk . WON JOSPH NON PIG  NON MY DASK!
And purposes...
Adding more sentences...
And details...
...Moving toward becoming an INDEPENDENT WRITER.
Writing Development –  Beginning Writers  <ul><li>In early development students… </li></ul><ul><li>use pictures to convey ...
What measures are being used in schools to assess beginning writers?
Formal & Informal Assessment Nickola W. Nelson  Western Michigan University
Being Clear about Purpose <ul><li>Diagnosis of language impairment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probably not </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Components of Writing Assessment <ul><li>Gathering a sample of the student’s writing </li></ul><ul><li>Deciding what to ob...
Gathering The Sample  <ul><li>Existing artifacts? Original story? …to a story starter? Some other genre?  Open-ended? No p...
Deciding What To Observe <ul><li>Writing processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning, organizing, drafting,  rereading, revis...
Formal Individualized Assessment Measures <ul><li>Test of Early Written Language – 2  (TEWL-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Oral and ...
Test of Early Written Language – 2  (TEWL-2; Hresko, Herron, & Peak) <ul><li>Ages 4;0 to 10;11 </li></ul><ul><li>Downward ...
Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS; Carrow-Woolfolk) <ul><li>Written Expression Scale, 5-21 </li></ul><ul><li>Oral, wr...
Woodcock Johnson III - Achievement (WJIII ;  Mather & Woodcock) <ul><li>Writing tests (2 - 90+ yr) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7...
Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-III; Wechsler) <ul><li>4 – 85 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Quick Score Guide for Essay...
Informal Measures for Beginning Writers
How to quantify observations?
Informal Measures for  Beginning Writers <ul><li>State/local holistic scoring </li></ul><ul><li>Sulzby (1989): drawing   ...
 
Measuring Beginning Writers
The Outcome Measures Will: <ul><li>Assist in identifying beginning writing skills and abilities in students with disabilit...
Measuring Writing  Quantity and Quality Writing Quantity & Quality Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers Total...
Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers   (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be gr...
Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers   (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be gr...
Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers   (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, & Cali, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission m...
Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers   (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, & Cali, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission m...
Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers   (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, 2010) Developmental Writing Scale for Begi...
Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers   (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, 2010) Developmental Writing Scale for Begi...
Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers   (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, & Cali, 2010) Definitions based on Hallida...
Level 1: Drawing Only © Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginning Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities
Level 2:  Scribble writing which may include letter-like forms but with the majority of shapes not recognizable as letters...
Level 3:  Some recognizable letters in strings but not grouped into words  <ul><li>IYTKTOSMNTHETR </li></ul>© Sturm (2010)...
Level 4:  Strings of letters grouped into “words” (i.e., with spaces between at least two groups of letters) but with no i...
Level 5:  Strings of letters grouped into “words,” with only one possible real word (i.e., two or more letters in length) ...
Level 6:  Two to three different intelligible words embedded in strings, separated by spaces,  or in a list format © Sturm...
Level 7:  More than three different intelligible words in a list format © Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginning Writ...
Level 8:  More than three different intelligible words, with at least two of them in a partially formed sentence (i.e., gr...
Level 9:  One to two complete sentences with a subject phrase and a verb phrase © Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginn...
Level 10:  A minimum of three sentences, but with no coherent topic (i.e., most sentences are not related) © Sturm (2010) ...
Level 11:  Organized writing with three or more sentences on a coherent topic but with limited cohesion between sentences ...
Level 12:  Organized writing with a coherent topic (i.e., on a consistent theme) and use of cohesive devices (e.g., pronou...
Level 13:  Organized writing with a coherent main topic and 2 cohesive subsections (sub-topics or story parts) with at lea...
© Sturm (2010) Level 13:  Organized writing with a coherent main topic and 2 cohesive subsections (sub-topics or story par...
Level 14:  Organized writing with a coherent main topic and at least 3 cohesive subsections (sub-topics or story parts) wi...
Level 14:  Organized writing with a coherent main topic and at least 3 cohesive subsections (sub-topics or story parts) wi...
Practice Sample Level: 9 <ul><li>Drawing  </li></ul><ul><li>Scribbling </li></ul><ul><li>Letter strings (no groups) </li><...
Practice Sample Level: 11 <ul><li>Drawing  </li></ul><ul><li>Scribbling </li></ul><ul><li>Letter strings (no groups) </li>...
Practice Sample Level: 7 <ul><li>Drawing  </li></ul><ul><li>Scribbling </li></ul><ul><li>Letter strings (no groups) </li><...
Total Intelligible Words  in Beginning Writers Purpose of the Measure To quantify number of intelligible words produced by...
Total Intelligible Words  in Beginning Writers Background & Scoring Information <ul><li>This measure requires two reviewer...
Practice Sample Total Words: 8
Practice Sample Total Words: 22
Practice Sample Total Words: 8
Number of Unique Words in Beginning Writers Purpose of the Measure To quantify number of unique words produced by a beginn...
Number of Unique Words in Beginning Writers Purpose of the Measure To quantify number of intelligible words produced by a ...
Number of Unique Words in Beginning Writers Background & Scoring Information <ul><li>The number of different words is base...
Practice Sample Unique Words: 7
Practice Sample Unique Words: 20
Practice Sample Unique Words: 8
Topic Diversity Measure   (Sturm & Cali, 2010) © Sturm (2010) Purpose of the Measure To quantify the variations in self-se...
Topic Diversity  (Sturm & Cali, 2010) © Sturm (2010) Background & Scoring Information <ul><li>Review the picture  and/or  ...
Practice Sample Topic: Bike
Practice Sample Topic: Faith Hill
Practice Sample Topic: Clifford
Genre Diversity Measure   (Cali & Sturm, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be granted for clinical application,  with a...
Why do students use different genres? To recount a personal experience: I cach frogs with my cosin. I cote a tod in my gra...
Genre Diversity  (Cali & Sturm, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be granted for clinical application, with an email to...
Genre Diversity  (Cali & Sturm, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be granted for clinical application,  with an email t...
Genre Diversity  (Cali & Sturm, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be granted for clinical application,  with an email t...
Emergent Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Beginning Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Emergent...
Narrative Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Story The lost Gi...
Narrative Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Recount On monday...
Narrative Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Plan The egg ra g...
Narrative Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Procedure Little ...
Expository   Genres O © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Description ...
Expository Genres O © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Report Cats ha...
Expository Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Opinion I do not...
Expository Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Explanation I LI...
Poetic Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Poetry Pumpkins Oran...
Practice Sample Genre: Description <ul><li>Emergent  – early writer (cannot classify) </li></ul><ul><li>Label  – describes...
Practice Sample Genre: Report  <ul><li>Emergent  – early writer (cannot classify) </li></ul><ul><li>Label  – describes dra...
Dakota <ul><li>Age: 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Presents with moderate  </li></ul><ul><li>cognitive impairments </li></ul><ul><li...
 
First Week in Writer’s Workshop Level = 8 Total Words = 7 Unique Words = 6 Topic = Alvin & Thomas Genre = Label
Week Two in Writer’s Workshop Level = 9 Total Words = 8 Unique Words = 7 Topic = Alvin & the Chipmunks Genre = Description
Spring Semester in Writer’s Workshop (February 2010) Level = 12 Total Words = 36 Unique Words = 22 Topic = Big Wheel Truck...
Fall 2010 in Writer’s Workshop (October 7, 2010) Level = 12 Total Words = 40 Unique Words = 24 Topic = Cars Movie Genre = ...
Fall 2010 in Writer’s Workshop (October 7, 2010) Level = 12 Total Words = 32 Unique Words = 24 Topic = Chipmunks Genre = R...
Dakota’s Outcomes for the Developmental  Writing Scale  (September 2009-November 2010)
Dakota’s Outcomes for Word Intelligibility  & Word Diversity  (September 2009-November 2010)
Dakota’s Outcomes for Topic Diversity (September 2009-November 2010) Total Topics = 33 Different Topics = 22
Dakota’s Outcomes for Genre Diversity (September 2009-November 2010) Total Writing  Samples = 33 Number of Different Genre...
Writers live their lives differently because they write.  (Atwell, 1987)
References <ul><li>Applebee, A. (1978).  The child's concept of st ory . Chicago: University  of Chicago Press. </li></ul>...
References <ul><li>Martin, J. R. (1984).  Types of writing in infants in primary school. Reading, writing, spelling: Proce...
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Asha Beginning Writing Outcomes Measure

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  • Picture these students in your mind…. Can they be any age? Which populations of students identified for special education might be beginning writers?
  • (pretty bird like they eat worms) (I like Lee Ann because she is nice.)
  • Not comparing students with disabilities to students who are typically developing to limit our perceptions of them!
  • In case you want to do transition slides between speakers. The following look like a lot of slides, but I practiced and I can do it in 5-6 minutes.
  • This is all about communication - Writing is about communicating &amp; sharing Show us that these students can write Message – The students we’ll be focusing on today may have been thought of as a nonwriter. Or it may be a student with LD or EI or who is a second language learner
  • Typically developing four-year-old: Note the scribbles in lower right-hand corner. Drawing vs. scribbling
  • Scribble writing which may include letter-like forms but with the majority of shapes not recognizable as letters Typically developing four-year-old: Note the scribbles in lower right-hand corner. Drawing vs. scribbling
  • Typically developing kindergartener: T02S03W7: A dragon
  • hewas she was pokemon mewtwostrikesback mewtworeturns lucarioandthemystery ofmew themastermindofmirage pokemon thebirthof mewtwo mew vs mewtwo mewtwo and amber dr fuijigiovanni and dryung the mirage master mewtwos story thestoryofmewtwo
  • Typically developing kindergartener: T02S05W5 Me and my daddy are playing with Mounika.
  • Connections there… still have to work for it
  • If I had a million dollars I waed bay a schools. I waed have a bab-q all time. Thaer waed be a spelling school. It waed be a art school for kids. once upon there was a squirrel. The squirrel got dead. The squirrel got to get surgery. The squirrel had to get his tail cut off. The squirrel had to get some popcorn. The squirrel did not brush his teeth at all. The squirrel had to go to the girls bathroom The squirrel had to drive a car.
  • We&apos;ve giet eggs. Do you know why the have to be warm? The chicks mantr is sopos to be up to 99 peot 5 degre. The chicks are going to hatch on May 5.
  • Yesterday I wock out it was a good. I did my bicups I did 70 rerps and 2 sets of it.   I went to big boy yesterday I had the big boy burger it was good and i had some some cream and brilaey soups   Today I am going to the wight room. Iam going to do bench prass and my amse today.   Tomourrow I am playing hocket it will be fun. and that is what I am going to do this weekend. B) Typically developing kindergartener: T03S17W3: We&apos;ve got eggs. Do you know why they have to be warm? The chick&apos;s monitor is supposed to be up to ninety-nine point five degrees. The chicks are going to hatch on May fifth.
  • Typically developing first grader: The pool at my house opened up. It was called the pig picking and we went swimming there and it was very very very fun to me. My baby sitter took me to the store and I got some &amp;quot;spra&amp;quot; candy and some wax coke bottles with some dark candy. It was very very very good candy. We eat food and food and food. I eat my food then I felt the water and it was very very very cold so I stood on the top step of the pool. My friends Chris and Darice were there and I stayed there a little bit and then I rode my bike back home and I went to bed and I went to sleep!
  • Typically developing second grade student
  • Writing 12 times…. Chooses his own topic with little to no support Now interacts while writing… turns to his clinician when he gets stuck, makes eye contact, and turns his palms up for spelling help. He then says the word out loud &amp; we write it down. What’s great about this sample… Spelled his own last name on his own Choose Picture on his own – Making a choice was random almost all last fall
  • Writing about 25 times
  • Communicative intent: Why do students use different genres?
  • So you differentiate “story” as imaginary and use “recount” for personal narrative. According to Westby (and whoever she cites), a recount is a scaffolded personal narrative, and an “account” is an unscaffolded one. Could you call these “imaginary story” versus “personal narrative”? Couldn’t a description be of a thing or person as well as an event? [oh, I see—is that in “report”?] Report: Give/provide information about a central topic. Like the definition of poetry I like the way you group the genre on subsequent slides into emergent, narrative, and expository. Could you use color coding on this slide to show that they can be grouped?
  • Function of Poetry: Poetry is literary language used to represent the writer’s [real or imaginary] experiences and to create a virtual experience for readers (Britton, Burgess, Martin, McLeod &amp; Rosen, 1975).
  • Function of Poetry: Poetry is literary language used to represent the writer’s [real or imaginary] experiences and to create a virtual experience for readers (Britton, Burgess, Martin, McLeod &amp; Rosen, 1975).
  • Function of Poetry: Poetry is literary language used to represent the writer’s [real or imaginary] experiences and to create a virtual experience for readers (Britton, Burgess, Martin, McLeod &amp; Rosen, 1975).
  • Function of Poetry: Poetry is literary language used to represent the writer’s [real or imaginary] experiences and to create a virtual experience for readers (Britton, Burgess, Martin, McLeod &amp; Rosen, 1975).
  • Function of Poetry: Poetry is literary language used to represent the writer’s [real or imaginary] experiences and to create a virtual experience for readers (Britton, Burgess, Martin, McLeod &amp; Rosen, 1975).
  • Function of Poetry: Poetry is literary language used to represent the writer’s [real or imaginary] experiences and to create a virtual experience for readers (Britton, Burgess, Martin, McLeod &amp; Rosen, 1975).
  • Function of Poetry: Poetry is literary language used to represent the writer’s [real or imaginary] experiences and to create a virtual experience for readers (Britton, Burgess, Martin, McLeod &amp; Rosen, 1975).
  • Function of Poetry: Poetry is literary language used to represent the writer’s [real or imaginary] experiences and to create a virtual experience for readers (Britton, Burgess, Martin, McLeod &amp; Rosen, 1975).
  • Function of Poetry: Poetry is literary language used to represent the writer’s [real or imaginary] experiences and to create a virtual experience for readers (Britton, Burgess, Martin, McLeod &amp; Rosen, 1975). Twinkle stars The stars twinkle brightly in the night sky; Draco the Dragon, Leo the Lion, and the Behive When the sun shines they disappear and hide. And when they finally come back I’m stuck in bed inside!
  • 12 years 7 months in November
  • We need these students to see the power of communication , both oral and written, in their every day lives For children with DD and those who use AAC , they live their lives differently because they can write. I want all of us to think about a world where the students shared today , and others like them, get rich literacy and communication opportunities every day, in the best quality instruction… I wonder about what kinds of literacy abilities we would see in the adolescent &amp; adult students shared today if they received the rich, consistent writing opportunities since the first day of school.
  • Picture these students in your mind…. Can they be any age? Which populations of students identified for special education might be beginning writers?
  • Picture these students in your mind…. Can they be any age? Which populations of students identified for special education might be beginning writers?
  • Asha Beginning Writing Outcomes Measure

    1. 1. Outcome Measures for Beginning Writers with Disabilities Janet M. Sturm, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Central Michigan University [email_address] Nickola W. Nelson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Western Michigan University Maureen Staskowski, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Macomb Intermediate School District Kathleen S. Cali, M.A. Doctoral Candidate, UNC-Chapel Hill Presentation for the American Speech, Language, Hearing Association Annual Convention, Philadelphia, PA
    2. 2. Janet M. Sturm Central Michigan University
    3. 3. Who is a beginning writer?
    4. 4. If I had a million dollars I waed bay a schools. I waed have a bab-q all time. Thaer waed be a spelling school. It waed be a art school for kids.
    5. 5. Who are these beginning writers? Kraz Anems I like kraz anems. My favoert anem is a meke. I like to wach thm sweg. I LIKE LA BKSISN Per brid Like tre eat wor I have a to dogs Darnames Luke and Prekss Day are my frends and I play with vam.
    6. 6. Who are these writers? – The choices <ul><li>6 year old who is typically developing </li></ul><ul><li>23 year old with moderate developmental disabilities (DD) </li></ul><ul><li>8 year old with cerebral palsy (CP) </li></ul><ul><li>14 year old with moderate DD </li></ul>
    7. 7. Who are these beginning writers? 8 year old with CP Typically developing 6 year old 23 year old with moderate DD 14 year old with moderate DD Kraz Anems I like kraz anems. My favoert anem is a meke. I like to wach thm sweg. I LIKE LA BKSISN Per brid Like tre eat wor I have a to dogs Darnames Luke and Prekss Day are my frends and I play with vam.
    8. 8. Maureen Staskowski Macomb Intermediate School District
    9. 9. Teaching Students with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities to Write <ul><li>Students with DD benefit from writing instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Students with DD can learn strategies to improve quantity and quality of their writing </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers of students with DD should embed writing instruction into their daily curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>With modifications/accommodations such as increased opportunities to write and assistive technology, writing instructional methods that have worked for other students are likely to work for students with DD </li></ul>(Joseph & Konrad, 2009)
    10. 10. Common Core State Standards for ELA APPLICATION TO STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
    11. 11. Supplement to Common Core Standards Regarding Special Education
    12. 12. Common Core Standards: Students with Disabilities <ul><li>Challenge, high expectations, rigor </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding, accommodations, and AT devices </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure students receive access to multiple means of learning and opportunities to demonstrate knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Retain the rigor and high expectations of the Common Core Standards. </li></ul>
    13. 15. Road Map Needed
    14. 16. Tools Needed
    15. 17. Kathleen S. Cali The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    16. 18. What does the development of a typical student writer look like?
    17. 19. It starts with drawing....
    18. 20. And scribbling...
    19. 21. Gradually becoming intelligible to the reader...
    20. 22. With recognizable words...
    21. 23. And sentences...
    22. 24. Writing for different audiences... DeR George W. B Us h, WN R U gO N lKN The Lk . WON JOSPH NON PIG NON MY DASK!
    23. 25. And purposes...
    24. 26. Adding more sentences...
    25. 27. And details...
    26. 28. ...Moving toward becoming an INDEPENDENT WRITER.
    27. 29. Writing Development – Beginning Writers <ul><li>In early development students… </li></ul><ul><li>use pictures to convey meaning </li></ul><ul><li>move from drawing to scribbling to inventive spelling </li></ul><ul><li>move from speaking to writing to convey meaning </li></ul><ul><li>are learning conventions of writing such as spaces and punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>are starting to develop a sense of audience </li></ul><ul><li>naturally choose a variety of genres & topics </li></ul><ul><li>develop conventional spelling over time (after lots of opportunities) </li></ul><ul><li>They focus on…. </li></ul><ul><li>feeling good about writing & sharing </li></ul><ul><li>writing and saying more </li></ul><ul><li>planning, composing, and sharing (not editing) </li></ul>
    28. 30. What measures are being used in schools to assess beginning writers?
    29. 31. Formal & Informal Assessment Nickola W. Nelson Western Michigan University
    30. 32. Being Clear about Purpose <ul><li>Diagnosis of language impairment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probably not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to standardize scoring (although a few try) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too unreliable from day to day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone is a beginner in the early grades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Welcoming errors as signs of growth” (Weaver, 1982) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessing learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic probes to document progress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify individual strengths and learning needs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 33. Components of Writing Assessment <ul><li>Gathering a sample of the student’s writing </li></ul><ul><li>Deciding what to observe </li></ul><ul><li>Deciding how to measure </li></ul>
    32. 34. Gathering The Sample <ul><li>Existing artifacts? Original story? …to a story starter? Some other genre? Open-ended? No prompt? </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulating single sentences, making edits, combining sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Allow dictation, edits, technology? </li></ul>
    33. 35. Deciding What To Observe <ul><li>Writing processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning, organizing, drafting, rereading, revising, editing, presenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive self-regulatory functions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Written products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genre, topic, sense making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrostructure and coherence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intra and inter-sentence cohesion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence structure and grammatical agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary choices (mature, diverse) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word structure/spelling, letter formation, writing conventions </li></ul></ul>
    34. 36. Formal Individualized Assessment Measures <ul><li>Test of Early Written Language – 2 (TEWL-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS) </li></ul><ul><li>Woodcock-Johnson </li></ul><ul><li>WIAT </li></ul>
    35. 37. Test of Early Written Language – 2 (TEWL-2; Hresko, Herron, & Peak) <ul><li>Ages 4;0 to 10;11 </li></ul><ul><li>Downward extension of the TOWL – 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic writing quotient: spelling, capitalization, punctuation, sentence construction, and metacognitive knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual writing quotient: story construction to picture prompt scored for story format, cohesion, thematic maturity, ideation, and story structure </li></ul>
    36. 38. Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS; Carrow-Woolfolk) <ul><li>Written Expression Scale, 5-21 </li></ul><ul><li>Oral, written, pictorial prompts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15, structured and open ended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Answers in a Response Booklet, scored for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventions: (spelling, punctuation/capitalization, letter formation, conventional structures) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistics: (vocabulary, grammatical morphemes, and sentence structure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content: (meaningful content, details, relevance, coherence, supporting ideas, word choice, unity) </li></ul></ul>
    37. 39. Woodcock Johnson III - Achievement (WJIII ; Mather & Woodcock) <ul><li>Writing tests (2 - 90+ yr) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 Spelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 Writing fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 Writing samples (score each 2, 1, 0) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. My name is ________. (name) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12. Write a good sentence that tells what the seal is doing. (picture of seal bouncing a ball) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>29. The second sentence is missing from this paragraph. Write a good sentence the writer might have used. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 Editing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 Spelling of sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22 Punctuation and capitalization </li></ul></ul>
    38. 40. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-III; Wechsler) <ul><li>4 – 85 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Quick Score Guide for Essay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-2 Read essay & Score introduction (0, 1, 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Score conclusion (0, 1, 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Score paragraphs by counting them (based on spacing and punctuation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 Score transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6-7 Find and Score reasons why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8-9 Score elaborations and remaining reasons why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Check scoring </li></ul></ul>
    39. 41. Informal Measures for Beginning Writers
    40. 42. How to quantify observations?
    41. 43. Informal Measures for Beginning Writers <ul><li>State/local holistic scoring </li></ul><ul><li>Sulzby (1989): drawing  scribbling  letters  spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Clay (2005) Writing Sample Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Level, Message Quality, and Directional Principles, Writing Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fitzgerald & Spiegel (1986; 1990): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coherence and cohesion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WE-CBM (Powell-Smith & Shinn, 2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total wds; correct writing sequences; wds spelled correctly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Six-Traits Scoring Rubric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea development, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, conventions </li></ul></ul>
    42. 45. Measuring Beginning Writers
    43. 46. The Outcome Measures Will: <ul><li>Assist in identifying beginning writing skills and abilities in students with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Help in identifying what students might need instructionally to move to the next level </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in measuring functional outcomes in quantity and quality of student writing </li></ul><ul><li>Help in celebrating when students make positive changes as writers! </li></ul>
    44. 47. Measuring Writing Quantity and Quality Writing Quantity & Quality Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers Total Intelligible Words Number of Unique Words Topic Diversity Genre Diversity
    45. 48. Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be granted for clinical application, with an email to sturm1j@cmich.edu Background & Scoring Information <ul><li>This developmental scale does not specify genre and will be useful for assigning a level to any beginning writing sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Review the writing sample and use the descriptions fore each level to assign a single level to the sample. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are debating between two levels, assign the lower level. </li></ul>
    46. 49. Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be granted for clinical application, with an email to sturm1j@cmich.edu Purpose of the Measure To identify the overall developmental writing level of the student writer.
    47. 50. Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, & Cali, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be granted for clinical application, with an email to sturm1j@cmich.edu Level 1 Drawing only 2 Scribble writing which may include letter-like forms but with the majority of shapes not recognizable as letters 3 Some recognizable letters in strings but not grouped into words 4 Strings of letters grouped into “words” (i.e., with spaces between at least two groups of letters) but with no intelligible words 5 Strings of letters grouped into “words,” with only one possible real word (i.e., two or more letters in length) set apart, written repeatedly (e.g., dog, dog, dog), or embedded in a string of letters 6 Two to three different intelligible words embedded in strings, separated by spaces, or in a list format 7 More than three different intelligible words in a list format 8 More than three different intelligible words, with at least two of them in a partially formed sentence (i.e., grammatically related parts of a phrase, clause or sentence)
    48. 51. Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, & Cali, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be granted for clinical application, with an email to sturm1j@cmich.edu Level 9 One to two complete sentences with a subject phrase and a verb phrase 10 A minimum of three sentences, but with no coherent topic (i.e., most sentences are not related) 11 Organized writing with three or more sentences on a coherent topic but  with limited cohesion between sentences (i.e., sentences can be reordered without changing meaning) 12 Organized writing with a coherent topic (i.e., on a consistent theme) and use of cohesive devices (e.g., pronoun or synonym replacement, logical connectors, subordinating conjunctions, conclusions that refer to prior content) across three or more sentences, so that sentences cannot be reordered without changing meaning 13 Organized writing with a coherent main topic and 2 cohesive subsections (sub-topics or story parts) with at least two sentences elaborating the meaning of each 14 Organized writing with a coherent main topic and at least 3 cohesive subsections (sub-topics or story parts) with at least two sentences elaborating the meaning of each
    49. 52. Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, 2010) Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, & Cali, 2010) Definitions based on Halliday & Hasan (1976); Newkirk (1978); Ninio & Bruner (1978); Sulzby (1989) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be granted for clinical application, with an email to sturm1j@cmich.edu Additional Definitions Drawings A line drawing or photo representing an event, object, person, or place. Scribbles A wavy, circular, or continuous line that may, or may not, show directionality. Letter-like Forms One or more forms representing or resembling printed or cursive alphabetic letters. Words A group of letters written in a sequence set off by spaces. An intelligible word that is not separated by a space and is adjacent to random letters or other intelligible words is also counted as a word.
    50. 53. Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, 2010) Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, & Cali, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be granted for clinical application, with an email to sturm1j@cmich.edu Additional Definitions Partially-formed sentence At least two words in proximity that appear to be related grammatically as parts of a sentence. Complete sentence A set of words organized grammatically with a subject and a verb. Punctuation is not required to be considered a sentence. Organized Discourse that conveys temporal, causal, categorical, or other logical relationships that are consistent with the author’s apparent purpose in conveying information, narrating a story, making a persuasive argument or some other emergent discourse form.
    51. 54. Developmental Writing Scale for Beginning Writers (Sturm, Nelson, Staskowski, & Cali, 2010) Definitions based on Halliday & Hasan (1976); Newkirk (1978); Ninio & Bruner (1978); Sulzby (1989) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be granted for clinical application, with an email to sturm1j@cmich.edu Additional Definitions Cohesion Sentence-to-sentence language connections are made using cohesive devices (e.g., pronoun or synonym replacement, logical connectors, conclusions that refer to prior content); a test of cohesion is that the sentences cannot be reordered without changing meaning. Coherence A central main theme or topic is maintained across multiple sentences.
    52. 55. Level 1: Drawing Only © Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginning Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities
    53. 56. Level 2: Scribble writing which may include letter-like forms but with the majority of shapes not recognizable as letters © Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginning Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities
    54. 57. Level 3: Some recognizable letters in strings but not grouped into words <ul><li>IYTKTOSMNTHETR </li></ul>© Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginning Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities
    55. 58. Level 4: Strings of letters grouped into “words” (i.e., with spaces between at least two groups of letters) but with no intelligible words <ul><li>IYTKTOSMNTHETR </li></ul>© Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginning Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities iLCR6a iLKVKC CPRSB WRKe BRKe Hya L kirio s pDriD
    56. 59. Level 5: Strings of letters grouped into “words,” with only one possible real word (i.e., two or more letters in length) set apart, written repeatedly (e.g., dog, dog, dog), or embedded in a string of letters <ul><li>IYTKTOSMNTHETR </li></ul>© Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginning Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities IMPlCOTheC MyIuonipwlois omoqleyos Myeollioritewois
    57. 60. Level 6: Two to three different intelligible words embedded in strings, separated by spaces, or in a list format © Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginning Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities A DRAGIN Lunch Time work
    58. 61. Level 7: More than three different intelligible words in a list format © Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginning Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Lltons Football Dethott Lbons This
    59. 62. Level 8: More than three different intelligible words, with at least two of them in a partially formed sentence (i.e., grammatically related parts of a phrase, clause or sentence) © Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginning Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Me at HRHe. On BRtDoY. APRIL25. Tom car cars red fast. Faster fun cars. mom mom. cars, blue, yellow blue orange. Love cars. The end.
    60. 63. Level 9: One to two complete sentences with a subject phrase and a verb phrase © Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginning Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities We Ro gowg to The Big SLiDe To SLiDon A FASD onthefewtrrep Me And My Daddy R Play with Mounika. Alvin and the Chimpmuks They sing and dance
    61. 64. Level 10: A minimum of three sentences, but with no coherent topic (i.e., most sentences are not related) © Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginning Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities I play a game. I went to my fnid house. I went to get a egg to eat. I went to chansh on Sun day. I kiss my momer sun day. I can walk my dog. I sat in my house. I went to the saing in ring. Happy Birthday Matthew. I like chocolate please Mom. I have a new school. Am 14. A new pet is a puppies and a dog and a cat and a shirt and a new baby.
    62. 65. Level 11: Organized writing with three or more sentences on a coherent topic but with limited cohesion between sentences (i.e., sentences can be reordered without changing meaning)   © Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginning Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Frogs are eggs. Frog are cool. I no how a frog grows egg then grow mory. Frog eat lot of things that we don’t eat like bugs. I want a frog to play with. I thak frogs are mumloss because thae swim. I love to watch the garbageman to pick up our trash can to. I don’t watch the garman out to my window to. I love to watch the recycling person to get my recycling from my house to. Kristen I went on a pane so did I wish I was sleeping flying, My Mom was with me
    63. 66. Level 12: Organized writing with a coherent topic (i.e., on a consistent theme) and use of cohesive devices (e.g., pronoun or synonym replacement, logical connectors, subordinating conjunctions, conclusions that refer to prior content) across three or more sentences, so that sentences cannot be reordered without changing meaning © Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginning Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities On monday my frid came over my house. We played and we had fun. She lath. She what houm I clin up my mast. I Love the move cars because is my faris move because Lighting Mcqueen is on the move Lightirgmcqueen ges stuck in the dith. and lightingmcqueen has friends sally and lightingmcqueen goes fast and hehasa fnind Mater.
    64. 67. Level 13: Organized writing with a coherent main topic and 2 cohesive subsections (sub-topics or story parts) with at least two sentences elaborating the meaning of each © Sturm (2010) Writer with Developmental Disabilities My dad got the New IPad it’s like a iPod but it’s tiwse as big it mostley for work but you can wath moves and Play games I like how it feels it’s alsom be cost you can also wath youtub I like how the scaren size it’s Medom size it also fun to yose be cost my dad bot u cast for it and it can hold it up or if you are working you can put it done but the oley thang I don’t like is the wate it’s a praty have IPad but if you want to see it’s size you can turn the paepre ourond
    65. 68. © Sturm (2010) Level 13: Organized writing with a coherent main topic and 2 cohesive subsections (sub-topics or story parts) with at least two sentences elaborating the meaning of each Typically Developing Beginning Writer The poll at my house opende up it was callde the pig picin and we went swiming ther and it was very very very fun to me. My babey seter took me to the stoer at I got so spra cande and some wacs coke bodolls with some drek cande it was very very very good cande.We eat food and food and food. I eat my food then I fellt the woder and it was very very very coold so I stod and the top step of the poll. My friends cris and darice wer ther and I stad ther a lidoll bit and then I rode my bike bake home and I went to bed and I went to slep!
    66. 69. Level 14: Organized writing with a coherent main topic and at least 3 cohesive subsections (sub-topics or story parts) with at least two sentences elaborating the meaning of each © Sturm (2010) Typically Developing Beginning Writer One morning my mom told me where mooveing tomorrow. I was scared. That night I dramed that a dragon swooped down and ate the car. The next day I said gooby to my freinbsand left. I was releved wen wegothere. I helped onpack. This time I was wored about school. It started tomorrow. That night I braned the teacher was the menest teacher im all the land. The naxt morning I got up got breseb and went to school. Wan I god there the teacher gave us cookies. Indsted of the menest teacher in all the land she was niceisd teacher in the hole intir world. The End.
    67. 70. Level 14: Organized writing with a coherent main topic and at least 3 cohesive subsections (sub-topics or story parts) with at least two sentences elaborating the meaning of each Writer with Developmental Disabilities Me and my mom are going shopping for school clothes. For next year. When me and my mom go clothes shopping and sometimes we buy some new shoes. I like to go shopping with my Aunt Mandy. She buys me whatever I want. Like last time I went shopping with her. Last time I went shopping with her she brante me some new earrings and they are so cool for me. I like going shopping with my grandma singer she likes to go shopping with her and when I go shopping with my grandma she buys me a ring that is red. I love it so much. I like to take my cousins shopping to They love it when I take them shopping I buy them everthing they want. But I tell them that if They do not listen to me or their mom and dad I will not take them shopping ever again. I go shopping by myself and when I do I buy my mom and dad something and they love it. Before my grandpa passed away we used to go shopping all the time but now its just me and my mom, grandma, Aunt mandy and my cousins going shopping. I want to go shopping so bad with my mom and my grandma when I go home today I am going to ask my mom and see if we can go shopping with my grandma singer. And if we can we are going shopping so bad.
    68. 71. Practice Sample Level: 9 <ul><li>Drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Scribbling </li></ul><ul><li>Letter strings (no groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Letters grouped in words </li></ul><ul><li>One real word </li></ul><ul><li>Two to three words </li></ul><ul><li>More than 3 words in list </li></ul><ul><li>Partial sentence </li></ul><ul><li>One to two sentences </li></ul><ul><li>3+ sentences (not coherent) </li></ul><ul><li>3+ sentences (coherent but limited cohesive) </li></ul><ul><li>Organized + cohesive & coherent </li></ul><ul><li>Organized + 2 cohesive subsections </li></ul><ul><li>Organized + 3 cohesive subsections </li></ul>© Sturm (2010)
    69. 72. Practice Sample Level: 11 <ul><li>Drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Scribbling </li></ul><ul><li>Letter strings (no groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Letters grouped in words </li></ul><ul><li>One real word </li></ul><ul><li>Two to three words </li></ul><ul><li>More than 3 words in list </li></ul><ul><li>Partial sentence </li></ul><ul><li>One to two sentences </li></ul><ul><li>3+ sentences (not coherent) </li></ul><ul><li>3+ sentences (coherent but limited cohesive) </li></ul><ul><li>Organized + cohesive & coherent </li></ul><ul><li>Organized + 2 cohesive subsections </li></ul><ul><li>Organized + 3 cohesive subsections </li></ul>© Sturm (2010)
    70. 73. Practice Sample Level: 7 <ul><li>Drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Scribbling </li></ul><ul><li>Letter strings (no groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Letters grouped in words </li></ul><ul><li>One real word </li></ul><ul><li>Two to three words </li></ul><ul><li>More than 3 words in list </li></ul><ul><li>Partial sentence </li></ul><ul><li>One to two sentences </li></ul><ul><li>3+ sentences (not coherent) </li></ul><ul><li>3+ sentences (coherent but limited cohesive) </li></ul><ul><li>Organized + cohesive & coherent </li></ul><ul><li>Organized + 2 cohesive subsections </li></ul><ul><li>Organized + 3 cohesive subsections </li></ul>© Sturm (2010)
    71. 74. Total Intelligible Words in Beginning Writers Purpose of the Measure To quantify number of intelligible words produced by a beginning student writer. Measurement of Total Intelligible Words The number of correctly and/or phonetically spelled words in a written product. Intelligible words are defined as words of at least 2 letters that can be identified by two independent raters. The average number of total intelligible words across multiple writing samples will be measured.
    72. 75. Total Intelligible Words in Beginning Writers Background & Scoring Information <ul><li>This measure requires two reviewers. Special qualifications are not needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewer 1: Review the student’s writing sample – While reading, transcribe on a separate piece of paper any words you can identify as intelligible. Take your best guess. </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewer 2: Complete the same steps as reviewer 1. </li></ul><ul><li>The total intelligible words is based on the intelligible words identified by both reviewers one and two. </li></ul><ul><li>Average the number of intelligible words across multiple writing samples. </li></ul>
    73. 76. Practice Sample Total Words: 8
    74. 77. Practice Sample Total Words: 22
    75. 78. Practice Sample Total Words: 8
    76. 79. Number of Unique Words in Beginning Writers Purpose of the Measure To quantify number of unique words produced by a beginning student writer.
    77. 80. Number of Unique Words in Beginning Writers Purpose of the Measure To quantify number of intelligible words produced by a beginning student writer. Measurement of Number of Unique Words The total number of different words in the students writing sample that follows conventional or phonetic spelling. The average number of unique words across multiple writing samples will be measured.
    78. 81. Number of Unique Words in Beginning Writers Background & Scoring Information <ul><li>The number of different words is based on the number of intelligible words identified by reviewers 1 and 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the list of total intelligible words in a student sample count the number of unique (different) words within that writing sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Average the number of unique words across multiple writing samples. </li></ul>
    79. 82. Practice Sample Unique Words: 7
    80. 83. Practice Sample Unique Words: 20
    81. 84. Practice Sample Unique Words: 8
    82. 85. Topic Diversity Measure (Sturm & Cali, 2010) © Sturm (2010) Purpose of the Measure To quantify the variations in self-selected topics chosen by student writers. Measurement of Topic Diversity Each writing sample will be assigned a topic (overall gist). The number of different types of topics composed across multiple writing samples will be measured.
    83. 86. Topic Diversity (Sturm & Cali, 2010) © Sturm (2010) Background & Scoring Information <ul><li>Review the picture and/or words used by the student in the writing sample. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the main topic or gist (What is it about?) of the writing sample? </li></ul><ul><li>Label the topic by creating a key word or phrase that represents the overall gist. </li></ul><ul><li>If the picture and text do not match use the text as your primary source for coding topic. </li></ul><ul><li>If the student topic is unidentifiable – Code the topic as “unclear ” </li></ul><ul><li>If the student writing is in a list with many topics – Code as unconnected list . </li></ul>
    84. 87. Practice Sample Topic: Bike
    85. 88. Practice Sample Topic: Faith Hill
    86. 89. Practice Sample Topic: Clifford
    87. 90. Genre Diversity Measure (Cali & Sturm, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be granted for clinical application, with an email to sturm1j@cmich.edu Purpose of the Measure To quantify the variations in self-selected genres chosen by student writers. Measurement of Genre Diversity <ul><li>Each writing sample will be assigned a type of genre. </li></ul><ul><li>The genre assigned will be the predominate genre used in the sample (greater than 50%). </li></ul><ul><li>The number of different types of genres composed across multiple writing samples will be measured. </li></ul>
    88. 91. Why do students use different genres? To recount a personal experience: I cach frogs with my cosin. I cote a tod in my gradma's pool. I got a cup and cote him. I keep him for a wile and then I put hem back in the pool. I cote a frog at my other grandmas house with my cosin. He was sticky on his back we put him in a cool wipe thing. He looked like a lafe. To describe a process: Little egg's hach in to tadpol's. The tadpol's groe back lag's. Thin they groe font lag's. The taol gits smolr Thairis yor frog. To retell a favorite story: There once was a wide-math frog. He saw a bird. He said…Whort do you like to eat? The bird said…I like to eat worms. And then the wide-math frog hoped to a cradile. The wide math frog said to the cradile What do you like to eat? The cradile said I like to eat wide math frogs. Then the wide math frog made his math small and jumed into the pond and he made a big Splash! To explain why two things are different: You can tell the deffrent of a toad and a frog because a toad has brown skin and a frog has green skin. A toad has bumpy skin very bumpy skin. I like frogs the best because green is beateter then brown. Toads are aguley to me. Frogs are prettyer then a toad. I wish that frogs and toad could go to scool like us.
    89. 92. Genre Diversity (Cali & Sturm, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be granted for clinical application, with an email to sturm1j@cmich.edu Genre Function Emergent Graphic expression using drawings, pencil marks, scribbles, a string of letters, or letter-like forms. Label Describe elements of a drawing. Story Create an imaginary event. Recount Recount a past event. Plan Plan a future event. Procedure Explain how an event happens. Explanation Explain why an event happened or happens. Description Explain why an event happened or happens. Report Describe a group or category of things. Opinion Express an opinion about a thing or event. Poetry Use carefully chosen words to create meaning or share emotion (May employ word order, connotation, imagery, figures of speech, sound, or rhythm.)
    90. 93. Genre Diversity (Cali & Sturm, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be granted for clinical application, with an email to sturm1j@cmich.edu Background & Scoring Information <ul><li>Is it a graphic expression using drawings, pencil marks, scribbles, a string of letters, or letter-like forms? If yes, it’s emergent . </li></ul><ul><li>Are the words focused on the drawing? If yes, it’s a label (e.g., “Me and mom at the store.”) </li></ul><ul><li>Is the verb in the past tense? If yes, is it : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fictional ( story ) (e.g., One day Charlie went to the store.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>factual ( recount ) (e.g., Yesterday I went to the store. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is the verb in the future tense? If yes, it’s a plan . (e.g., After school I am going to the store.) </li></ul>
    91. 94. Genre Diversity (Cali & Sturm, 2010) © Sturm (2010). Permission may be granted for clinical application, with an email to sturm1j@cmich.edu Background & Scoring Information <ul><li>Is it about a factual thing written in the present tense? If yes, does it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the specific attributes of a person or thing - It is a description ) (e.g., My dog is black and white.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe a general group or category of things – It is a report (e.g., Dogs are carnivores.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explain how an event happens – It is a procedure (e.g., I go to the store every day after school.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Express an opinion about a thing or event – It is an opinion (e.g., use of evaluative verbs and adjectives – “I like my dog.” OR “School is boring.”). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is it about a factual thing written in the past or present? If yes, does it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain why an event happened or happens – It is an explanation (e.g., uses “because” and/or a statement/reason structure – “I went to the store because I was hungry.” OR “I love dogs. They are fun to play with.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is it using carefully chosen words to create meaning or share emotion (May employ word order, connotation, imagery, figures of speech, sound, or rhythm.) If yes, it’s a poem (e.g., (e.g., “One fish, two fish, Red fish, blue fish.”) </li></ul>
    92. 95. Emergent Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Beginning Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Emergent OIXHFUTYYIDBON I My Cum is not he see Ball From yes we said to and longe big tR Label A DRAGIN Me at HRHe. On BRtDoY. APRIL25 Me And My Daddy R Play with Mounika. Car Red
    93. 96. Narrative Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Story The lost Girl. Once upon atime there was a girl and her name was Stacy. Once when Stacy's mother took her to the toy store her mother told her to hold her hand so she wouldn't get lost. When her mother was paying for the toy's Stacy saw what she realy wanted but it was a little far away but she realy wanted it badly so she let go of her mothers hand and went to get it then her was done. Her mother thought Stacy was behind her so she kept going. When Stacy came back she didn't see her mother. Stacy started to cry. Then a lady that worked there said to Stacy don't cry. once upon there was a squirrel. The squirrel got dead. The squirrel got to get surgery. The squirrel had to get his tail cut off. The squirrel had to get some popcorn. The squirrel did not brush his teeth at all. The squirrel had to go to the girls bathroom The squirrel had to drive a car.
    94. 97. Narrative Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Recount On monday my frid came over my house. We played and we had fun. She lath. She what houm I clin up my mas We went camping. My Grandpa and Grandma were there . my Mom and Dad were there. My brother was there  WE slept in tents and had a camp fire and we had  a  picnic.
    95. 98. Narrative Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Plan The egg ra going to hatch. It will be fn. I am going to hav some new ketes. Thar mother is namd Prashes. My dad and mom prdet that sh is going to hav 7. I want a thomas toy box for christmis des year. I am haveng my Brthday Prte at the rolrskating rekn I am ging to have Brthday CAK I am goingtohave whit CAK with vuniu frostingfrnds Name Dallas Bill Seth Larry Kahl Tristan Jared Jesse Dominic Cherry Cory Andy
    96. 99. Narrative Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Procedure Little egg's hach in to tadpol's. The tadpol's groe back lag's. Thin they groe font lag's. The taol gits smolr Thairis yor frog. Did you know that a a pond at night there is a lif saicl. First the watre plants grow with sun, watre and soil. Then the bugs eat the watre plants. Nixct the frogs, todes and trdls eat the bugs. Last the rakcons eat's frogs and todes when the racoons die thay tren into soil and it all hapis agin.
    97. 100. Expository Genres O © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Description I have a dog named nutmeg. Nutmeg jumps on her fence a lot. My dog runs fast. My dog is specail to me. My dog wondreds aornd. My dog is a shatepnad. My dog is two years old. I love my dog. Alvin and the Chimpmuks They sing and dance I have a to dogs Darnames Luke and Prekss Day are my frends and I play with vam.
    98. 101. Expository Genres O © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Report Cats have four paws. Cats eat cat food. Some cats can be nice or mean. People buy cats. Cats are orange, brown, black, white. Cats drink milk. People take care of their cats. Cats have four legs. Cats have kittens. Bird's Birr's are pretty and colr fol. There fer is sauf. They pataks ther safe with ther beck. They eat worm's And bug's. They live in a bird house. in a tree The is lets of cise of bird's in the wode Penguins live in Alaska and they in live in the north Pole Penguins are black and wite and theylive in the water and they aso swim in the water and penguin also laugh and get hungry and penguins also grow and also go in the sand Penguins have wings and they can' fly and they do traks
    99. 102. Expository Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Opinion I do not like school. I am glad we got 5 mor days in school. onley I like part of the school. I like birds Like a canary. Canarys sing pretty. Canarys are tellow and they fly very good. I thank brids are very good pets to have in your house. Birds stat to be a egg then they crate then little birds.Humming birds bon't jumt eat flerow they eat one flerow. I like cat Cat are nice I want a cat I love to watch the garbageman to pick up our trash can to. I don’t watch the garman out to my window to. I love to watch the recycling person to get my recycling from my house to.
    100. 103. Expository Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Explanation I LIKE LA BKSISN I can not go at scheol because is halodays. My Mom. My mom is nice. She is prety, frindly and cute! She is speshl! She is speshl becauase she takes care of me and my family! My mom takes me plases. She cooks me and my family brekfest and diner. I love my mom very very very much!! I want a thomas bed because I want oun so bad for my birthday. My dad got the New IPad it’s like a iPod but it’s tiwse as big it mostley for work but you can wath moves and Play games I like how it feels it’s alsom be cost you can also wath youtub I like how the scaren size it’s Medom size it also fun to yose be cost my dad bot u cast for it and it can hold it up or if you are working you can put it done but the oley thang I don’t like is the wate it’s a praty have IPad but if you want to see it’s size you can turn the paepre ourond
    101. 104. Poetic Genres © Sturm (2010) Genre Typically Developing Writer Writer with Developmental Disabilities Poetry Pumpkins Orange, round Carve, seeds, slimy Light, glow Jack-O-Lantern Eagle Big special Fly glide attack Good exciting wondering thankful Bird
    102. 105. Practice Sample Genre: Description <ul><li>Emergent – early writer (cannot classify) </li></ul><ul><li>Label – describes drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Story – imaginary event </li></ul><ul><li>Recount – personal past event </li></ul><ul><li>Plan – plan future event </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure – how an event happens </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation – why an event happens (because) </li></ul><ul><li>Description – description of person or thing (specific) </li></ul><ul><li>Report – description of group or category (general) </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion – express an opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry – use words to share meaning or emotion (e.g., word order, sound, rhythm) </li></ul>© Sturm (2010)
    103. 106. Practice Sample Genre: Report <ul><li>Emergent – early writer (cannot classify) </li></ul><ul><li>Label – describes drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Story – imaginary event </li></ul><ul><li>Recount – personal past event </li></ul><ul><li>Plan – plan future event </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure – how an event happens </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation – why an event happens (because) </li></ul><ul><li>Description – description of person or thing (specific) </li></ul><ul><li>Report – description of group or category (general) </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion – express an opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry – use words to share meaning or emotion (e.g., word order, sound, rhythm) </li></ul>© Sturm (2010)
    104. 107. Dakota <ul><li>Age: 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Presents with moderate </li></ul><ul><li>cognitive impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active communicator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressive language skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>are a relative strength </li></ul>
    105. 109. First Week in Writer’s Workshop Level = 8 Total Words = 7 Unique Words = 6 Topic = Alvin & Thomas Genre = Label
    106. 110. Week Two in Writer’s Workshop Level = 9 Total Words = 8 Unique Words = 7 Topic = Alvin & the Chipmunks Genre = Description
    107. 111. Spring Semester in Writer’s Workshop (February 2010) Level = 12 Total Words = 36 Unique Words = 22 Topic = Big Wheel Trucks Genre = Report
    108. 112. Fall 2010 in Writer’s Workshop (October 7, 2010) Level = 12 Total Words = 40 Unique Words = 24 Topic = Cars Movie Genre = Explanation
    109. 113. Fall 2010 in Writer’s Workshop (October 7, 2010) Level = 12 Total Words = 32 Unique Words = 24 Topic = Chipmunks Genre = Report
    110. 114. Dakota’s Outcomes for the Developmental Writing Scale (September 2009-November 2010)
    111. 115. Dakota’s Outcomes for Word Intelligibility & Word Diversity (September 2009-November 2010)
    112. 116. Dakota’s Outcomes for Topic Diversity (September 2009-November 2010) Total Topics = 33 Different Topics = 22
    113. 117. Dakota’s Outcomes for Genre Diversity (September 2009-November 2010) Total Writing Samples = 33 Number of Different Genres = 7
    114. 118. Writers live their lives differently because they write. (Atwell, 1987)
    115. 119. References <ul><li>Applebee, A. (1978). The child's concept of st ory . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Botvin, G. & Sutton-Smith, B., (1977). The.development of structural complexity in children's </li></ul><ul><li>fantasy narratives. Developmental Psychology, 13, 377-388. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapman, M. L. (1994). The emergence of genres: Some findings from an examination of first-grade writing. Written Communication, 11(3), 348-380. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapman, M. L. (1995). The sociocognitive construction of written genres in first grade. Research in the Teaching of English, 29, 164-192. </li></ul><ul><li>Donovan, C. (2001). Children's development and control of written story and informational genres: Insights from one elementary school. Research in the Teaching of English, 35 (3), 394-447. </li></ul><ul><li>Fitzgerald, J., & Spiegel, D. L. (1986). Textual cohesion and coherence in children's writing. Research in the Teaching of English, 20, 263-280. </li></ul><ul><li>Fitzgerald, J. and D.L. Spiegel. 1990. Textual Cohesion and Coherence in Children's Writing. Revisited. Research in the Teaching of English 24, 48-66. </li></ul><ul><li>Halliday, M., & Hasan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English . London: Longman. </li></ul><ul><li>Hedberg, N. L., & Westby, C. E. (1993). Analyzing storytelling skills: Theory to practice. Tucson, AZ: Communication Skill Builders. </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph, L. M., & Konrad, M. (2009). Teaching students with intellectual or developmental disabilities to write: a review of the literature. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 30 (1),1-19. </li></ul><ul><li>Kamberelis, G. (1999). Genre development and learning: Children writing stories, science reports, and poems. Research in the Teaching of English, 33, 403-463. </li></ul><ul><li>J </li></ul>
    116. 120. References <ul><li>Martin, J. R. (1984). Types of writing in infants in primary school. Reading, writing, spelling: Proceedings of the Fifth MacArthur Reading/Language Symposium. Sydney: MacArthur Institute of Higher Education, 34-55. </li></ul><ul><li>Martin, J. R. (1989). Factual writing: Exploring and challenging social reality. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Nelson, N. W. (2010). Language and Literacy Disorders: Infancy through Adolescence. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon/Pearson </li></ul><ul><li>Newkirk, T. (1987). The non-narrative writing of young children. Research in the Teaching of English (21) 2, 121-144. </li></ul><ul><li>Newkirk, T. (1989). More than stories: The range of children's writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Ninio, A. and Bruner, J. (1978). The achievement and antecedents of labelling. Journal of Child Language, 5 , 1-15. </li></ul><ul><li>Peterson, C., & McCabe, A. (1983). Developmental Psycholinguistics. New York: Plenum. </li></ul><ul><li>Powell-Smith, K.A., & Shinn, M.R. ( 2004). Administration and scoring of Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement (WE-CBM) for use in general outcome measurement. Eden Prairie, MN: EdFormation. </li></ul><ul><li>Sulzby, E., Barnhart, J., & Hieshima, J. (1989). Forms of writing and re-rereading from writing: A preliminary report (Technical Report No. 20). Berkeley, CA: National Center for the Study of Writing and Literacy. Retrieved </li></ul><ul><li>November 15, 2010 from http://www.nwp.org/cs/public/print/resource/606. </li></ul><ul><li>Sulzby, E. (1992). Transitions from emergent to conventional writing. Language Arts , 69 (1), 290-297. </li></ul><ul><li>Wollman-Bonilla, J. E. (2000). Teaching science writing to first-graders: Genre learning and recontextualization. </li></ul><ul><li>Research in the Teaching of English (35) 1, 35-65. </li></ul>

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