Electronic Srvice


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The presentation made during the INDEST Workshop & SIS 2008 Conference held at IIM Indore during 4-6 Dec 08.

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Electronic Srvice

  1. 1. ELECTRONIC SERVICES: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES Ranjita N. Dash Librarian, Babaria Institute of Pharmacy BIT Campus, NH#8, Varnama, Vadodara-391240 (Gujarat) Email: ran_dash2006@yahoo.co.in Mobile: 09427346703(M)
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Library services are facilities, which are provided by a library for the use of books and dissemination of information for the need of the users. </li></ul><ul><li>The well known existing library services are cataloguing, classification, circulation services, reservation, renewal, new arrivals, current contents, current awareness service, selective dissemination of information, indexing and abstracting, reference service, document delivery, inter library loan, externally purchased database, CD-ROM databases, access to other library catalogues, access to online databases, internally published newsletter, reports and journals, bibliographic services, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>All these services have changed their mode to an extent with the advancement of emerging trends in technology. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Electronic information services are attracting users’ attention in today’s network environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate vision of networks of libraries creates a completely digital environment, in which the user identifies the required resources in electronic form. </li></ul><ul><li>Library professionals therefore, increasingly need to provide their services in some electronic form rather than through face to face contacts with their users. </li></ul><ul><li>As academics become more willing and accustomed to using electronic information on regular basis, they will become increasingly dependent upon technology for information access. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, the move to an electronic information environment will radically alter the way in which a library operates and interacts with its users and library professionals will need to consider their own future role as intermediaries. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Evolution of Electronic Library Services : <ul><li>Library collection has ranged from clay tablets to papyrus sheets, paper documents and silicon chips, optical and magnetic disc and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>In every age libraries have used the latest technology. </li></ul><ul><li>The application of information technologies for operation and services in libraries has been increasing. </li></ul><ul><li>Information technology brought in libraries to speed up their activities </li></ul><ul><li>At the beginning, library was just a store house of books and other documents. General people were not allowed to use those documents. </li></ul><ul><li>However, over a period time, libraries started document delivery service and circulation came into picture </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>From the middle of the 19th century there was drastic change in the library services. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer came during the mid-20th century, with which the mode of library services changed dramatically. </li></ul><ul><li>The last decade of the 20th century witnessed a turning point in conventional library services worldwide as the base mode of library operations moved towards electronically handling the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, a time has come when the librarians not only need to equip themselves with the modern technological advances but also feel free to take assistance from subject experts in the field of electronics and communication etc. </li></ul><ul><li>without which the aspiration of developing electronic library services in the country may be extremely difficult. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Electronic Library Services <ul><li>Access to Database: Several publishers today offer web-based, intranet solutions for providing local access to their databases .for example Elsevier, for electronic version of their journals. Large R&D libraries can take advantage of these developments and provide desktop access to key database and electronic publications to their users. </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliographic and Cataloguing Services: This service can also be prepared from different databases available on the Web. For example in physics, the Los Alamos e-print archive is the more productive means of communication for Astrophysics, Quantum Physics, and Considered Matter Theory etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Bulletin Board Services: A bulletin board is a public discussion area where people can post message without sending them to anyone's e-mail address that can be viewed by anyone who enters the area.On CompuServe a bulletin board is called a forum. On the Internet, the equivalent areas are called newsgroups. Separate notice board option can be created though e-mail facility and the latest information of the daily news, job opportunities, admission notice, entrance examination, scholarship and fellowships, new courses etc. can be posted and made available for the users though this bulletin board service. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Current Awareness Services: CAS according to Luhn is an essential function of management to make the members of its organization aware promptly of such new information which will most likely contribute to performing their individual task with the highest possible degree of competence. Modern procedures and techniques of CAS have included individual notification of published information directed to individual professionals, scientists, engineers and others. A library can provide this service through e-mail, which is easiest and common procedure. Otherwise a library can refer or link directly to some location to their WebPages. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Selective Dissemination of Information: In most of the R&D and academic institutes, because of their tight teaching and research schedule, the scientists and faculty members find it extremely difficult to personally visit the library. For such a situation, an electronic SDI service has been formulated to deliver current information of interest to faculty members on their desktop. For promoting E-SDI services on the web, library should create a link from the existing library environment . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>E-mail: At the outset, it should be cleared that e-mail is not at all a web based library service. It is an excellent and most popular web based media. And for the library professionals, this web medium can be of use for various purposes specially for delivering some web based services. The most easy and convenient method to access the web sources is the e-mail. The most easy and convenient method to access the web sources is the e-mail. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ): FAQ stands for Frequently Asked Questions.A compilation of Frequently Asked Questions and their answer is referred to as a FAQ list or FAQ article. FAQs are compilations of information which are the result of certain questions constantly being asked hence, the name FAQ. There are thousands of FAQs on the World Wide Web. Ask ERIC is an Internet question answering services run buy the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology at Syracuse University, New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Subject Gateways: Subject based Information Gateways are subject entrances (clearing houses) to quality assessed Internet resources. This can be contrasted with gateways where resources are arranged according to where they are physically placed or &quot;geographically&quot; like W3 servers or according to what type of resource they are, such as InterNIC. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>A link BUBL (http://bubl.ac.uk/) is a famous LIS subject gateway gives BUBL Journals Abstracts, full text, over 200 titles with other various links. BUBL LINK / 5:15 Catalogue 150 Internet Resources link for Library and Information Science. </li></ul><ul><li>WWW Gateways: http://www.actlab.utexas.edu/gateways.html </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Gateways, Electronic Journals and Search tools: http://www.ull.ac.uk./ull/webres.html </li></ul><ul><li>ListServe: This is an automatic mailing list server developed by Eric Thomas for BITNET in 1986.When email is addressed to a LISTSERVE mailing list, it is automatically broadcast to everyone in the list. List serve is a wonderful communication tool that offers its members the opportunity to post suggestions or questions to large number of people at the same time. Each List serve has two different addresses. </li></ul><ul><li>List address: This is the address used to submit a query or share knowledge with the entire group. The message is distributed to all on the list serve. This known as “sending mail to the list”. </li></ul><ul><li>LISTSERVE address : This is the address that one sends commands to subscribe or unsubscribe. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>News Clipping Services: News clip service is one of the CAS provided in many libraries in print/photocopy form. To provide this service, news items from selected news papers are first marked and then the clippings are pasted on a white sheet. These filed clippings are then circulated among the users. </li></ul><ul><li>News Group/Discussion Forum: They are on-line discussion groups on many topics of varied interest. A programme called newsreader is required to view and post message in newsgroups. Unlike mail lists and chats, newsgroups allow readers to choose the topics to discuss. </li></ul><ul><li>Newsletter Services: It is a very good service, listing available Internet services, sites, new additions, publications, information on conferences, workshops, training programmes etc. A catalogue of Internet base information sources is an useful asset for all R&D libraries if given at regular intervals through e-mail or they can host it in their website. </li></ul><ul><li>OPAC: The Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) is one of the manifestations of the massive changes that are taking place in this information age.OPACs are the gateways to information in libraries and provide facilities to browse search and locate information. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Usenet: Usenet stands for users’ network. It is the largest discussion forum throughout the world. Thousands of discussion groups make Usenet. These are called Newsgroups. </li></ul><ul><li>Telenet: The Internet’s remote login service is called a TELENET. It is a facility by which one can telenet into huge databases to do research or even telenet into the Libraries around the world to check their catalogues. It can also be used to access commercial databases to search the resources available on Internet through its navigation tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Archie, Veronica, and Mosaic: Archie is a collection of severs which can easily search for information at a different anonymous FTP site on the Internet and make that information available to users. Veronica Very Easy rodent-Orient Net-Wide Index to Computerized Archive ) is a search tool that allows one to quickly scan Gopher for particular files and directories. Mosaic is a Web Browser which provides an easy way to access audio, video, text and graphics. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>File Transfer Protocol (FTP): FTP permits a user to transfer a copy of data file across the Internet from one computer to another. Information is stored on thousands of computers all around the world in their own file system. These files can be transferred from the remote computers to the personal computers by a programme in Internet called File Transfer Protocol (FTP). </li></ul><ul><li>Gopher: Gopher is also an Internet service, which is very important to distance learners for enriching their knowledge. It is a server, which allows users to freely browse through the Internet sites and their wide range of resources. Gopher space helps in ‘Bookmarks’, WS Gopher helps in reading documents on ‘Home Page’. </li></ul><ul><li>WAIS (Wide Area Information System): It is a full text indexing software that is used to index large text files, documents and periodicals. When a word is typed in, WAIS searches internet libraries. It returns a master index providing links to all the sites related to the requests. The index is weighted, identifying which links are most closely related to the topic. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>WWW (World Wide Web or W3): The ‘WWW’ is one of the latest tools which has got tremendous advantages. It is a multi media hyperlink database that spans the globe. The WEB combines text, pictures, sound and even animation ands lets one move around with a CLICK at your computer mouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet: The internet has brought in revolutionary changes to the contemporary world. Through the Internet information is brought to the fingertips of every individual with access to a computer and modem. With access to the Internet, libraries can offer a variety of services used to create, browse, access, search, view and communicate information on a diverse set of topics.Libraries are getting the vast electronic resources and benefiting from the access, organization, storage and publishing opportunities provided by the Internet. </li></ul>
  14. 15. The Internet – Features © Inspiring Education 2006 The World Wide Web E-Mail Instant Messaging Discussion Groups THE INTERNET Mailing Lists
  15. 16. <ul><li>The Internet – Features </li></ul>The Internet – Features library user environments resource environment lab books exhibitions PDAs learning management systems campus portal course material text book personal collections reading lists Institutional repository Digital collections E-reserve Catalog Licensed collections Aggregations Virtual reference Cataloging ILL
  16. 17. <ul><li>E-Print Archives: An E-Print is a reprint in electronic or Web-based format. It looks the same as a hard copy reprint but is posted on Website, giving the research article tremendous exposure-Prints may include preprints, reprints, technical reports, conference publications or other means of electronic communication. The E-Print are archived either in repository format which is generally being developed to house the research publications of researchers in a particular institute. The aim of such E-Print repositories is to make research freely available. A researcher can self-archive his/her article on the website and enhance its accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Video Conferencing services:Video conferencing in its most basic form is the transmission of synchronized image (video) and speech (audio) back and forth between two or more physically separate locations, simulating an exchange as if the participants were in the physical conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Teleconferencing: Teleconferencing denotes an interactive electronic communication technology among two or more people at or more sites that are geographically separated from each other. The teleconferencing technology is quite distinct from that of video phone which, displays only the other person on the screen, that is, the calling party . </li></ul>
  17. 19. Some Relevant Free Web sites <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org </li></ul><ul><li>This is a web encyclopedia covering a vast area of knowledge, available free of cost. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.lii.org </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians’ Internet Index started in California. It categorizes evaluated websites according to subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.doaj.org </li></ul><ul><li>This service covers free, full text, quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals. There are now 3577 journals in the directory. Currently 1226 journals are searchable at article level. As of today, 199472 articles are included in the DOAJ service. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Some Relevant Free Web sites <ul><li>http://www.askoxford.com </li></ul><ul><li>It provides searchable access to Compact Oxford English Dictionary. </li></ul><ul><li>http://federalreserve.gov </li></ul><ul><li>It is a gateway for the Federal Reserve System relevant for bankers and economists. </li></ul><ul><li>http://earthtrends.wri.org </li></ul><ul><li>This is a site created by World Resource Institute, which focuses on issues pertaining to sustainable development and the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>http://lu.com/odlis </li></ul><ul><li>It is an online dictionary for library science. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wipo.int </li></ul><ul><li>Much information about Intellectual Property Rights can be retrieved from this site. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Emerging Library Tools <ul><li>Library 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>With Library 2.0 library services are constantly updated and reevaluated to best serve library users. It also attempts to harness the library user in the design and implementation of library services by encouraging feed back and participation. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Library 2.0 is the application of interactive, collaborative and multi media web based technologies to web based library services and collection” </li></ul><ul><li>The basic idea of Library 2.0 is to transform library service by making them more personalize, more interactive, collaborative, more web-based, driven by community needs </li></ul><ul><li>en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>A very different communication environment for providing </li></ul><ul><li>more personalized services to users making librarians more competent. </li></ul>
  20. 23. Components of Library 2.0 <ul><li>Wiki </li></ul><ul><li>Blog </li></ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Instant Messaging </li></ul><ul><li>SMS </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking </li></ul>
  21. 24. Components of Library 2.0 <ul><li>Wiki - from the Hawaiian wiki, to hurry, swift. </li></ul><ul><li>A collaborative website whose content can be edited by any one who has access to it. It is a web application that allows users to add content, as on an Internet forum, but also refers to the collaborative software used to create such a website. </li></ul><ul><li>Blog- </li></ul><ul><li>A blog (WEBLOG) is a website that contains dated entries in reverse chronological order (most recent first) about a particular topic. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.answers.com/topic/blog </li></ul><ul><li>One person or groups of contributors can write them. Entries containing commentaries and links to other websites, images contributed by one person or group of people. Some times search facility may also be included. </li></ul><ul><li>en.wikipedia.org /wik i/Blogs </li></ul>
  22. 25. Components of Library 2.0 <ul><li>RSS Feeds: RSS is a family of XML file format for web syndication used by news websites and web logs. They are used to provide items containing short descriptions of web content together with a link to the full version of the content. This information is delivered as XML file called RRS Feed, web feed, RSS Stream or RSS channel. </li></ul><ul><li>en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSS </li></ul><ul><li>Podcast : A portmanteau of Apple’s “I Pod” and “broadcasting” is a method of publishing files to the Internet allowing users to subscribe to a feed and receive new files automatically by subscription, usually at no cost. It first became popular in late 2004, used largely for audio files. </li></ul><ul><li>en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Podcast </li></ul>
  23. 26. Components of Library 2.0 <ul><li>Synchronous Messaging: This technology has already been embraced quite rapidly by the library community. More widely known as Instant Messaging (IM), it allows real-time text communication between individuals. Libraries have begun employing it to provide ‘chat reference’ services, where participants can synchronously communicate with librarians much as they would in a face-to-face reference context. </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming Media : The streaming of video and audio media is another application was widely employed before many of the following technologies had even been invented. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Networks : Social networks are perhaps the most promising and embracing technology. They enable messaging, blogging, streaming media, and tagging. Different categories of social networks such as, MySpace , FaceBook , Del.icio.us , Frappr , Orkut and Flickr are networks that have enjoyed massive popularity in Web 2.0 </li></ul>
  24. 27. Components of Library 2.0 <ul><li>Tagging: Tagging essentially enables users to create subject headings for the object at hand. Tagging is essentially Web 2.0 and it enables users to add and change not only content (data), but content describing content (metadata). Tagging simply makes lateral searching easier. The often-cited example of the U.S. Library of Congress's Subject Heading “cookery,” which no English speaker would use when referring to “cookbooks,” illustrates the problem of standardised classification. </li></ul><ul><li>Mashups: Mashups are ostensibly hybrid applications, where two or more technologies or services are conflated into a completely new, novel service. Users search for images by sketching images. In some ways, many of the technologies discussed above are mashups in their very nature. Library 2.0 is a mashup. It is a hybrid of blogs, wikis, streaming media, content aggregators, instant messaging, and social networks </li></ul>
  25. 28. Blogs http://www.mrrl.org/blogs/wordpress/libblog http://www.mrrl.org/blogs/wordpress/readerseye
  26. 29. Search Engines libworm.com
  27. 30. Staff Skills and Competencies <ul><li>In the information age, new era librarians require two main types of competencies, i. e. professional and personal. </li></ul><ul><li>Professional competencies relate to the librarian’s knowledge in the area of information resources, information access, technology, management and research. It also includes the ability to use these areas of knowledge as a basis for providing library and information services. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal competencies represent a set of skills, attitudes and values that enable librarians to work efficiently; be good communicators; focus continuing learning throughout their careers; demonstrate the value added nature of their contributions; and survive in the new world of work </li></ul>
  28. 31. Professional competencies (from the Special Libraries Association) <ul><li>has expert knowledge of the content of information resources, including the ability to critically evaluate and filter them. </li></ul><ul><li>has specialized subject knowledge appropriate to the business of the organisation or client. </li></ul><ul><li>develops and manages convenient, accessible and cost-effective information services that are aligned with the strategic directions of the organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>provides excellent instruction and support for library and information services users. </li></ul><ul><li>assesses information needs and designs and markets value-added information services and products to meet identified needs. </li></ul>
  29. 32. More Professional competencies: Librarians must be able to <ul><li>uses appropriate information technology to acquire, organize and disseminate information. </li></ul><ul><li>uses appropriate business and management approaches to communicate the importance of information services to senior management. </li></ul><ul><li>develops specialized information products for use or outside the organisation or by individual clients. </li></ul><ul><li>evaluates the outcomes of information use and conducts research related to the solution of information management problems. </li></ul><ul><li>continually improves information services in response to changing needs. </li></ul><ul><li>is an effective member of the senior management team and a consultant to the organisation on information issues. </li></ul>
  30. 33. personal competencies <ul><li>is committed to service excellence. </li></ul><ul><li>seeks out challenges and sees new opportunities both inside and outside the library. </li></ul><ul><li>creates an environment of mutual respect and trust. </li></ul><ul><li>has effective communications skills. </li></ul><ul><li>works well with others in a team. </li></ul><ul><li>provides leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>is committed to lifelong learning and personal career planning. </li></ul>
  31. 34. Challenges and Opportunities <ul><li>The print on paper is slowly shifting to electronic publishing due to advances in science & technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up digitized knowledge services has been therefore the actual development trend of libraries in the 21st century. </li></ul><ul><li>With the emergence of Digital library, it is important to address the role the library professionals in the transition from traditional to digital environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The librarian has started to play the role of information provider to the users in the electronic library systems. </li></ul><ul><li>However, more and more services are being built in electronic library for self-accessing modes. </li></ul>
  32. 35. Challenges and Opportunities <ul><li>The library without walls has become reality, while the delivery of services and resources has changed formats. </li></ul><ul><li>In the environment of electronic library systems the users are doing their jobs themselves from their desktop PCs. </li></ul><ul><li>As digital storage costs go down relative to cost of library shelf space, and as electronic services become more usefull, affordable, available and usable, there is a move towards the grand challenge of a world digital library system. </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians are in a position to meet the challenges and provide the information resources to the users with the help of modern technology. </li></ul>
  33. 36. Conclusion <ul><li>Contemporary developments in the information technology have been all pervasive. </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries of the present times can not be conceived in isolation of such a situation. </li></ul><ul><li>As repositories of information and knowledge, the libraries need to revamp themselves in tune with the changing circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping in view the dynamism of the technological innovations, the libraries and the library professionals need to update every now and then to cater efficiently to the increasing demands of their clientele. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic library services are the need of the day and are feasible with efficient and continuous training of the professionals and creation of awareness among the users. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, Library professionals have a number of tools at their disposal allowing them to search cyberspace, ‘the giant library in the sky’. And they work with some of the great search tools: Google, AltaVista, Yahoo, and the like. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspite of the initiatives taken by INFLIBNET, NISCAIR, NIC and Refreshers courses provided by universities, more such kind of training programmes are to be conducted both to the library and information professionals as well as to the users. </li></ul>
  34. 38. Electronic Services within Reference and Information Section:
  35. 39. Electronic Library Services:   click on the service you wish to use
  36. 40. Thank You