Digital rights management an essential feature in the digital era
29th National Convention and Conference of29th National Convention and Conference of SIS SIS on onInformation-Innovation-Technology ::Information-Innovation-Technology Creating Seamless Linkages Creating Seamless Linkages Organised By :: Organised By Central Library, NIT, Silchar Central Library, NIT, Silchar 26th – 28th November, 2012 26th – 28th November, 2012
DIGITAL RIGHTS MANAGEMENT :AN ESSENTIAL FEATURE IN THE DIGITAL ERA by JAYANTI CHAKRAVORTY & LANGMUANJOHN TONSING LIBRARY & INFORMATION ASSISTANTS CENTRAL LIBRARY, NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SILCHAR
Introduction Advent of Digital Revolution since thelater part of the 20th Century, coupled with invention of advanced ICT has brought in an integrated knowledge linkage and sharing mechanism around the world.It has opened up new opportunities to academicians, research scholars, students, information scientists, industrialists, business groups, others.
But unfortunately, it has also brought in the menace of Digital Piracy and Violation of Copyright Laws. Digital Rights Management aims to stopthis practice of piracy and help copyright holders safeguard their digital content. Back-Drop Prior to arrival of digital or electronicmedia, owners of copyright products andmaterials had business-legal objections to copying their D-products and D- materials.
In early days of recorded sound in the1960s, piracy was not a serious threat.But, introduction of magnetic tapes as a recording medium changed the situation. Arrival of digital media and analog /digital conversion technologies greatly increased the concern of copyright owners, particularly in music andmotion picture industry, because theyare much dependent on the revenue of their copyrighted works.
Since early 1980s, software were being evolved to control Digital Piracy and in 1990s, laws started coming up. DRM was first popularized when Digital Millennium Copyright Act, was enacted in USA in 1998, which implemented two treaties of 1996 of World Intellectual Property Organization : WIPO Copyright Treaty, andWIPO Performance and Phonogram Treaty. Other WIPO Member-countries enacted similar laws subsequently.
Definition Digital Rights Management is a combination of control devices and technologies that are used by : hardware manufacturers, softwareengineers, publishers, writers, dramatic and musical performers, individuals and copyright-holderswith the intent to limit the use of digital content and devices after sale or publication.
Historical OverviewEarliest implementation of DRM was in the formof a concept, invented in 1983 by Ryoichi Mori,aJapanese-scientist. Named as ‘Software Service System’-SSS, it was the 1st generation of DRM.It attached focus on security and encryption as a measure to curb unauthorized copying.2nd generation DRM came as SuperdistributionArchitecture - SdA, developed by Mori himself.An improvement over SSS, it covers trackingand monitoring of all form of rights, usagesover both tangible and intangible assets andmanagement of relationship with right holders.
Evolution of DRM Architecture Development of DRM was in 4 specific stages :Level Key Concept Remarks0 No physical protection Laws and ethics1 Hardware protection Controlling Execution : Hardware Key Inhibiting Duplication : Copy Protection Non-compatible ROM2 Customizing Software Customizing Deciphering key with Computer ID 1982 – GB Purdy, SPS 1984 – DJ Albert 1986 – A Herzberg, PPS3 Execution Privileges SSS, 1983, Ryoichi Mori ABYSS, 1987, IBM4 Superdistribution SdA, 1987, Ryoichi Mori
Chronology of Development of DRM 1G DRM, SSS had the following components : A cryptographic wrapper for digital products that cannot be removed and remains in place whenever the product is copied. 2G DRM, SdA had the following properties : Software products are distributed withoutrestriction, the user pays for the products. The vendor sets the terms and conditions of use.Products can be executed by any user havingproper equipment, provided that, he adheres to the set terms.Proper operation of the system is ensured by temper resistant e-devices as digitally protected modules.
DRM Framework An ideal DRM system is flexible, sufficiently transparent and a complex system, which a computer program generally cannot crack.The scheme operates on three parameters : Establishing copyright for a Digital Content Managing its proper distribution, and Controlling its application by the user.For effective implementation, a DRM Program has to define and describe three entities : The User, the Content and the Usage Rights
DRM ArchitectureDRM Architecture consists of two vital components : Functional Architecture & Information Architecture as shown in the following diagram. DRM ARCHITECTURE FUNCTIONAL INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE ARCHITECTURE IP Assets Creation IP Assets IP Usage and Capture Management Modeling of Entities Identifying & describing Expressing statements entities sequentially regarding rights
Functional Architecture covers three modules :Intellectual Property Assets Creation and Capture Intellectual Property Assets Management, and Intellectual Property Usage Information Architecture is concerned with : Modeling, Identifying and Describing the Entitiessequentially and expressing statements of Rights.Information Architecture Core Entity Model is depicted in the following figure : Digital Contents Over Create/use Rights Own Users
Application of DRM DRM Technologies are now used in the form of Restrictive Licensing Agreements.Technologies like, encryption, embedding of a tag and scrambling of expressive materials are used to control access and reproduction of on-line information. DRM Technologies are used for protecting digital contents like, film, television, recorded music, computer games, software packages, metadata, e-books, documents and others.
Application of DRM in e-books Mainly four e-book formats, Mobipocket, Topaz, ePub and PDF are used to limit copying, printing and sharing of e-books. The Amazon Kindle uses Mobipocket and Topaz. Three main e-book DRM schemes in common use are, one each from Adobe, Apple and the Marlin Trust. Widely used sofware to view e-books are Adobe Reader and Microsoft Reader. Generally when an e-book reader opens a file, he finds the right statement outlining the pre-conditions for viewing, copying and printing etc.In Microsoft reader, there are three different levels of access control : sealed e-books, inscribed e- books and owner exclusive e-books.
Application DRM in Documents Now-a-days, majority of the government agencies, financial institutions and professional companies store and process their information in digital format. Enterprise Digital Rights Management (E-DRM)is an improvised application of DRM Scheme to control access to these corporate digital documents which remain in various formats and in e-mails and internet web pages. E-DRM protects sensitive information by enforcing access and usage rights to the information throughout its lifecycle. There are three main phases of data lifecycle management that is considered in developing a viable security strategy :protection of data at rest, protection of data in transit and protection of data in use.
Application DRM in Libraries Electronic Resource Management (ERM) poises to be an advancement indicator for modern Library functioning.ERM is the software used by Libraries to keep track of important information about e- resources, especially the internet-based ones, like e-journals, e- books and others.The development of ERM became necessary in the early 2000s, as it was evident that traditional Library Catalogues and Library systems were not designed to handle metadata and many other online products. Libraries receiving e-resources from publishers, vendors and copyright owners must understand, record and inform their users about the financial, legal, and access aspects of the resources.
Features of ERMThe main features of ERM systems include :Supporting acquisition and management of licensed e-resources.Providing descriptions of resources at thepackage (database) level and relate package contents (say an e-journal) to the package record.Encoding and perhaps publicly displayinglicensed rights such as e-reserves, course- packs, and inter-library loan. Tracking e-resources from point of order through licensing and final access.
DRM : The Task Ahead for the Library PeopleLibraries are the Repositories of Information and Knowledge. Over the centuries, libraries have been helping hundreds of millions of people meet their work, study, research and other needs. They preserve our history and cultural heritage and promote our right to access information.In the present context, to achieve these goals, libraries need international copyright norms, together with limitations and exceptions. Legal flexibilities in copyright, known as limitations and exceptions, provide balance in a copyright system between users and creators of protected works.
IFLA holds the view that :Copyright limitations and exceptions are fundamental for access of knowledge and thus for human and social development.IFLA and other Library organizations are working actively with WIPO Member Nations to foster support for enacting a binding international legal instrument on copyright limitations and exceptions enabling libraries to preserve their collections and support their users with the needed documents. It is time for the Library people, knowledge professionals, information scientists, scholars and students to get involved in mobilizing their respective National Governments and the world communities to shape an international law on copyright, that could satisfy the needs of the 21 st century libraries and could build up a seamless linkage across the world, dedicated to achieve common human welfare and prosperity through academic, scientific and social development.