Chapter 8Mental Disorder Part I: Mary Young Part II: Anne (Philamena) Casey
Popular Beliefs Myth #1: Mental illness is essentially incurable; most mental patients will never recover. Myth #2: The mentally ill are no longer stigmatized and are treated with respect and understanding. Myth #3: The mentally ill are mostly crazed, violent, and therefore dangerous. (MY)
Popular Beliefs (cont’d.) Reality #1: The majority of mental patients can recover and live relatively normal lives (Thio, p. 170). Reality #2: Most people, regardless of age and education, feel that the mentally ill are somehow dangerous, violent, unpredictable, or worthless (Thio, p. 184). Reality #3: The great majority (about 90%) of mental patients are not prone to violence and criminality. They are more likely to hurt themselves than others (Thio, p. 170). (MY)
Types of Mental Disorder Traditional Classification 1.) Organic Disorders 2.) Functional Disorders (MY)
Types of Mental Disorder (cont’d.) DSM-IV Classification The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (Thio, p. 174) Each mental disorder is listed along with its defining symptoms/criteria. (MY)
Incidence of mental disorder is generally higher in modern industrial societies such as the United States, France and England. (Thio, p.181)
Lower incidence of mental disorder in traditional agricultural societies such as China and Nigeria. (Thio, p.181)
Many different mental disorders occur in only specific areas which are attributed to the specific culture of the area.
A current events impact on Mental Health. September 11th, 2001. Three to Five days following September 11th , approximately 44% of Americans experienced symptoms of PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) such as irritability, difficulty sleeping etc. (Thio, p.181) Five to Nine weeks after September 11th, 10% of New Yorkers came down with symptoms of major depression. To provide perspective, the serious stress suffered by 2.7% to 11.2% of Americans was considered a significant public health problem. (Thio, p. 181) (Schlenger et al., 2002) PC
Societal Response to Mental Disorder In ancient Greece mental illness was viewed with awe. (Thio, p.182) In the middle ages, mental patients were portrayed by artists as the only ones in touch with reality (Thio, p. 183) In biblical times mental patients were perceived as demons and put to death. In 1600 Germany a man proclaimed to be God, his tongue was cut out, he was beheaded and his body was burned. (Thio, p. 183) In 1793 a revolutionary change in attitude toward mentally ill occurred in Paris, they were treated with respect or moral treatment. (Thio, p.183) By 1955 new alternatives to mental institutions began to emerge, these included hospitals, outpatient clinics, private clinics and community mental health clinics. (Thio, p.184) PC
Community responsibility for mental health services PC Reducing suicide rates requires a collective, concerted effort from all groups in society: health, social services, other professionals, communities and community leaders, voluntary and statutory agencies and organizations, parents, friends, neighbors, and individuals. (Horizon, 2007 p.54) Suicide is an issue which affects every element of our society. The frequent clustering of suicides leaves not just individuals bereaved – families, friends, neighbors, and colleagues – but also devastates entire communities, leaving a legacy of hurt, confusion, insecurity, and fear. (Horizon, 2007 p.54)
Mental health courts a misguided attempt PC People with mental illness are falling through the cracks of this country’s social safety net and are landing in the criminal justice system at an alarming rate. (Seltzer 2005, p.572) Adults with mental illnesses are arrested for the same behavior twice as often as people who do not have a mental illness. (Seltzer 2005, p.573) Half of all arrests of people with mental illnesses are for nonviolent crimes such as trespassing or disorderly conduct. (Seltzer 2005, p.577)
PC Courts can hospitalize the mentally ill against their will for an indefinite period of time. Insanity defense , if judged insane sent to an institution , if judged sane is sent to prison.
References for Part I Bos, A., Kanner, D., Muris, P., Janssen, B., & Mayer B. (2009). Mental illness stigma and disclosure: Consequences of coming out of the closet. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 30(8), 509-513. doi:10.1080/01612840802601382. Kinderman, P. (2005). A psychological model of mental disorder. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 13(4), 206-207. doi:10.1080/10673220500243349. Thio, Alex. (2010). Deviant Behavior (10th ed.). Boston: Pearson. (MY)
References Part II (2008). Remarks by Mary McAleese, President of Ireland : Made at the International Association of Suicide Prevention XXIV Biennial Conference, August 31, 2007, Irish National Events Centre, Killarney, Co. Kerry, Ireland. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 29(1), 53-55. doi:10.1027/0227-5910.29.1.53. Seltzer, T. (2005). Mental health courts: A misguided attempt to address the criminal justice system's unfair treatment of people with mental illnesses. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 11, 570-586. Thio, A. (2010). Deviant behavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. PC