We have all been mentally ill at one time or another, just as we have been physically ill at one time or another.Most mental illnesses are typically not severe and are extremely common.Problems of everyday life can bring about symptoms such as sadness, anxiety, irritability, and depression (Thio, p. 169).
Hospitalization – The majority (70-80%) of hospitalized mental patients can recover and live relatively normal lives with successful treatment.Violence – The great majority (about 90%) of mental patients are not prone to violence and criminality.Winter Blues – Typically viewed as depression caused by lack of sunshine and coldness; however, depression is actually more likely to strike people in the summer than winter. Depression is a very common occurrence.Autism – The rate of autism has risen 657% over the past decade, partly due to broader definitions of the disorder and the inclusion of mild symptoms that were not previously included (Thio, p. 170).
Studies have shown a “link between mental disorder and genetics, biochemical abnormalities, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and the structure and functioning of the brain” (Kinderman, 2005). A variety of mental health conditions – such as depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia – have been linked to genetic heritability.There is a scientifically proven association between mental disorders and psychological issues, such as life-shaping experiences or circumstances, childhood sexual abuse, bullying, assault, and interpersonal conflict (Kinderman, 2005).Studies have also shown a connection between mental disorders and social factors, such as poverty and unemployment (Kinderman, 2005).
These are two broad categories of mental disorder that both show the same symptoms: hallucination, delusion, impaired judgment, and other behavioral disturbances (Thio, p. 171).Organic Disorders – Result from damage to the brain. Examples: tumor, head injury, viral meningitis, brain syphilis, lead poisoning, deterioration from old age, drug abuse, or other acute physical damageFunctional Disorders – Result from psychological and social factors.Examples: unpleasant childhood experiences, interpersonal conflict, social stress (Thio, p. 171)These two categories are differentiated by their underlying cause.
According to Freud, “Psychosis denies reality and tries to substitute something else for it; neurosis does not deny reality, it merely tries to ignore it” (Thio, p. 171).Psychosis – Loses touch with reality. Does not recognize they are mentally ill (Thio, p. 171).Neurosis – Inability to face reality. Worried, terrified, or obsessed about reality (Thio, p. 173).Personality Disorder – Too self-absorbed, unsociable, or antisocial (Thio, p. 174).
Schizophrenia is the most common type of psychosis. Symptoms of Schizophrenia include: Loss of touch with reality Problems or inability to attend work or school Inappropriate expression of emotions Withdrawal from others Unresponsiveness to surroundings Delusions of grandeur or persecution Hallucinations (Thio, p. 172)
Manic-Depressive Disorder -aka Bipolar Disorder - is another common type of psychosis. Manic-Depressive Disorder is characterized by a fluctuation between opposite extreme of mood:mania vs. depression (Thio, p. 172).Symptoms of mania include: elation, exuberance, confidence, or excitement, hyperactivity, and grandiose delusions (Thio, p. 172).Symptoms of depression include: overwhelming despair, delusions of worthlessness, and suicidal ideation (Thio, p. 173).
Anxiety reaction -- Examples: Apprehension, nervousness, panic sensation, phobiasObsession/Compulsion:Obsession – Bothersome interruptions of normal train of thought.Compulsion – Ritualistic actions and the need to perform them.Depressive reaction -- Examples: Sadness, dejection, self-deprecationPsychophysiologic Disorder aka Psychosomatic illness --Symptoms that have no physical or neurologic cause (Thio, p. 173-174).
Personality Disorder is characterized by:* Blatant disregard for society’s rules * Lack of conscience and compassion * Self-centered nonconformists (Thio, p. 174).
Social stigmatization can have a tremendous impact on the lives of people with mental disorders. According to the labeling theory, “stereotypes about the mentally ill become personally relevant for persons with a mental disorder. These beliefs may act as a self-fulfilling prophecy and lead to lowered self-esteem” (Box, et al., 2009).To disclose or not disclose … that is the question. Disclosure may lead to stigmatization and contribute negatively towards psychological well-being. However, nondisclosure reduces the availability of social supports and can contribute to additional psychological stressors and challenges (Box, et al., 2009).
Social causation:* Mental disorder caused by social stressors. * Most prevalent in lower-class people.Social selection:* Higher-class people shift towards lower-class as lower-class status is a consequence of mental disorder (Thio, p. 176-177)
* Gender roles influence gender difference in mental disorder.* Women are more likely to have depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder.* Men are more likely to have antisocial personality, paranoia, drug and alcohol disorders (Thio, p. 177).
* The elderly are the least likely to become mentally ill.* People aged 25-34 have the highest rate of mental illness.* Youth depression rates have increased significantly in recent decades (Thio, p. 178).
* Mild depression – SAD - (short-term)* Situational depression – MORE SAD -(intermediate)* Major Depression – SEVERE SADNESS -(long-term) (Thio, p. 178-179)
* Increased rates of psychiatric distress among American blacks, Hispanics, and Asians.* Minorities experience more social stress due to discrimination, poverty, and cultural conflict (Thio, p. 179-180).
* Increased rates of mental disorder in urban areas, particularly inner city.* Produces abundance of physical and social stressors. Examples: traffic, noise, crowding, social tension, lack of social support (Thio, p. 180)
* Geographic proximity to terror attack correlates with posttraumatic stress disorder occurrence and severity.* More exposure to media coverage of terror attack correlates with increased posttraumatic stress disorder occurrence and severity (Thio, p. 181).
Younmar soc chapter_8_mental_health_presentation
Chapter 8Mental Disorder<br /> Part I: Mary Young<br /> Part II: Anne (Philamena) Casey<br />
Popular Beliefs<br />Myth #1: Mental illness is essentially incurable; most mental patients will never recover.<br />Myth #2: The mentally ill are no longer stigmatized and are treated with respect and understanding.<br />Myth #3: The mentally ill are mostly crazed, violent, and therefore dangerous. (MY)<br />
Popular Beliefs (cont’d.)<br />Reality #1: The majority of mental patients can recover and live relatively normal lives (Thio, p. 170).<br />Reality #2: Most people, regardless of age and education, feel that the mentally ill are somehow dangerous, violent, unpredictable, or worthless (Thio, p. 184).<br />Reality #3: The great majority (about 90%) of mental patients are not prone to violence and criminality. They are more likely to hurt themselves than others (Thio, p. 170). (MY)<br />
“Mentally Healthy” vs. “Mentally Ill”<br /><ul><li>Mild depression has been referred to as “the common cold of mental illness” (Thio, p. 169).</li></ul>(MY)<br />
Types of Mental Disorder (cont’d.)<br />DSM-IV Classification<br /> The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (Thio, p. 174)<br /> Each mental disorder is listed along with its defining symptoms/criteria.<br />(MY)<br />
Social Factors in Mental Disorders<br />1.) Social Class<br /> Most influential factor on mental disorder.<br />(MY)<br />
Social Factors in Mental Disorders (cont’d.)<br />2.) Gender<br />(MY)<br />
Social Factors in Mental Disorders (cont’d.)<br />3.) Young Age<br />(MY)<br />
Social Factors in Mental Disorders (cont’d.)<br />4.) Social Profile <br />of <br />Depressed Teens<br />(MY)<br />
Social Factors in Mental Disorders (cont’d.)<br />5.) Race and Ethnicity<br />(MY)<br />
Social Factors in Mental Disorders (cont’d.)<br />6.) Urban Environment<br />(MY)<br />
Social Factors in Mental Disorders (cont’d.)<br />7.) September 11<br />(MY)<br />
References for Part I<br />Bos, A., Kanner, D., Muris, P., Janssen, B., & Mayer B. (2009). Mental illness stigma and disclosure: Consequences of coming out of the closet. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 30(8), 509-513. doi:10.1080/01612840802601382.<br />Kinderman, P. (2005). A psychological model of mental disorder. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 13(4), 206-207. doi:10.1080/10673220500243349.<br />Thio, Alex. (2010). Deviant Behavior (10th ed.). Boston: Pearson. (MY)<br />