Assault involves the unlawful use of physical force against another person. (Thio, 57)Aggravated assault involves an atrocious attack with the intent to kill or the use of a deadly weapon. All other assaults are simple. Aggravated assault is similar to homicide, but the victim lives instead of dying. (Thio, 57)In comparison to homicide, like murderers, assaulters are likely to be male, poor, black, and assault victims of the same race. They are also likely to be from the South, have a violent past, and commit crimes during the weekend. (Thio, p. 57)
There are many different characteristics of homicide. “Most killings are carried out against family members, friends, or acquaintances rather than strangers. Some killings happen as if the victim asks to be put to death. Some involve an attempt to win a seemingly trivial argument. Some serve as an adjunct to suicide….“Compared with other major crimes, such as robbery, rape, and assault, homicide is the least likely to involve strangers.” (Thio, 63)Murder is a way for the poor to settle their trifles and win a trivial argument, because it is the only way they can defend their dignity as a man. (Thio, p. 65)The so-called victims in victim-precipitated homicide speculates that they may have wanted to die and may have had a great amount of involvement in their own deaths. (Thio, p. 66)Mass murder involves killing a large number of people all around the same time frame and same place. (Thio, p. 66) 70-75% of serial killers commit their crime in one city alone. (Thio, p. 67)
Most victims know their killers. (Thio, p. 64)
“The poor, African Americans, men, and young adults, of southern regions of the U.S., in large cities and rural areas.” (Thio, p. 79)
Over 90 percent of murderers in the U.S. are semiskilled workers, unskilled laborers, and welfare recipients. Compared with people of higher classes, the poor are more likely to have financial, marital, and other stressful problems, which in turn tend to cause interpersonal conflict. The poor also tend more to resort to physical violence as a way of dealing with interpersonal and to gain respect. (Thio, p. 58)African American’s higher rate of homicide reflects their higher rate of poverty, which, along with racial discrimination, generates greater frustration and alienation. (Thio, p. 58)Same race killings are the most common.
Men are concerned about defending their manhood. Women kill for self-preservation or in self-defense. When killing, people are more likely to target others of the same age group than older or younger victims. Most homicides involve relatives and acquaintances, the younger killers are more likely than older peers to target strangers and commit murder and robbery together. (Thio, p. 60)
As for the United States, it is reported that 30% to 40% of all boys growing up in urban areas in the United States will be arrested before their 18th birthday. (Palemo, 2002, pg. 628)Most will not be arrested more than once. The chronic offenders, however, will be 6% of all boys who offend, and they will perpetrate 50%of all arrested crimes. (Palemo, 2002, pg. 628)Nevertheless, juvenile crime, such as theft, burglary, assault and battery, and rape—whether committed by individuals or committed by gangs—has fluctuated somewhat during the past decade, and continues to do so. (Palemo, 2002, pg. 628)
It was estimated that by the middle of the 1990’s, there were 800,000 gang members in more than 9,000 gangs in each country…there are already 16,000 gangs in the country and they account for more than half a million crimes per year. (Brewer, Damphousse, Adkinson, p. 4)
There are more homicides during the summer and late spring than in autumn and early spring. (Thio, 2010, p. 61)Homicide occurs most frequently during the weekend evenings, particularly on Saturday night. (Thio, 2010, p. 61)Weekend killings tend to involve family members, while weekday killings are more likely to involve strangers. (Thio, 2010, p. 61)Middle and upper-class offenders are more likely to kill any time during the week, while lower class offenders are more likely to kill after drinking and out of rage during the weekend. (Thio, 2010, p. 61)
Traditionally, women were more accustomed to killing in their kitchen because that is where they were used to handling a knife, but nowadays, they tend to kill more in the living room. (Thio, 2010, p. 62)Women are more likely to be killed at home, especially in the bedroom by their husband, boyfriend, or exes. The bedroom is seen as a place for men to demonstrate their manliness and sexually conquering women to death. (Thio, 2010, p. 62)The very young, the very old, minority groups, the married, and the unemployed are more likely to be killed in their own home because they spend more time at home. (Thio, 2010, p. 62)
An analysis of over 20,000 homicides and aggravated assaults in Chicago suggests that attacks with knives are five times less likely to result in death than attacks with guns. (Thio, 2010, p. 62)Every year, our country has over 15,000 handgun homicides compared with less than 100 in other industrialized nations such as Canada, England, and Japan, where guns are much harder to get. (Thio, 2010, p. 62)Lower-class people are more likely to use firearms than any other weapon when they kill, because it gives them power. (Thio, 2010, p. 63)Higher-class killers are more likely to use more refined techniques of killing, such as poisoning, staging a hit-and-run car death, and hiring somebody else to do the killing. (Thio, 2010, p. 63)
Class and Race<br />strong link between poverty and murder.<br />Blacks generally have a much higher rate of homicide than whites.<br />Most killings are intraracial.<br />
Gender and Age<br />Men are more likely to kill than women.<br />Males kill at a younger age than females.<br />Males are more likely to kill members of the same sex, where women are more likely to kill members of the opposite sex.<br />
Juvenile Violence<br />juvenile=age 17 or younger.<br />Increase in juvenile crime in the past decade.<br />
Youth Gangs are present in nearly all U.S. cities.<br />Gang related killing is relatively small.<br />Juveniles are more likely to:<br />Use firearms<br />Commit homicide in a public or outdoor location<br />Engage in lethal violence (Brewer et al, p. 2)<br />
Time of Killing<br />Most murders are committed in the heat of passion.<br />Homicide has a relatively weak connection linked to certain seasons, day of the week, and hours of the day.<br />
Place of Killing<br />Men are more likely to kill in public places <br />Women are more likely to kill in their own homes<br />
Method of Killing<br />In the words of Shakespeare, “How oft the sight of means to do ill deeds, makes ill deeds done.”<br />Guns give power to the powerless.<br />
References<br /><ul><li>Adkinson, C., Brewer, V., Damphousse, K. (1998). Homicide Studies. The Role of Juveniles in Urban Homicides: The Case of Houston. BVU Library: Sage Publications.</li></ul>Palemo, G. (2002). Juvenile Crime: A Renewed Suggestion for Prevention: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. BVU Library: Sage Publications.<br /><ul><li>Thio, A. (2010). Deviant Behavior, 10th Edition: Chapter 4. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.</li>
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