Part 1: Star Identification THE BIG DIPPER IS THE MOST OBSERVED “STAR PICTURE” IN THE NIGHTTIME SKY. IT HAS A UNIQUEPATTERN CONSISTING OF SEVEN STARS. THE DIPPERS FIVE MIDDLE STARS ALL MOVE TOGETHER IN ONE DIRECTION AND THE OUTER STARS, DUBHE AND ALKAID, MOVE IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION. THE MAKEUP OF THESE STARS MAKE THEM THE BRIGHTEST OF ANY STARS IN THE CONSTELLATION URSA MAJOR.
The four stars that form the Dubhe “bowl” or the Megrez “bucket” shapeof the big dipper Merak are Megrez, Pheceda Dubhe, Pheceda, and Merak.
•Megrez is 50,000,000 years old. It is approximately 81 light years away from earth and isthe smallest star of the Big Dipper. The temperature of Megrez is around 8500 Kelvin.Compared to the sun, it is double the diameter and more than twenty times luminousbecause of the higher internal gravitational compression and temperature.•Merak is 79 light years away from earth. It is hotter and larger that our sun. With a massof three times the sun, it is the fifth brightest star of the big dipper. It has a temperature of9000 Kelvin and even the dust particles on this star have a temperature of a few hundreddegrees Kelvin.•Dubhe is the official state star of Utah. It is the northeasterly star of the Big Dipper and is124 light years away. It points towards the North Star Polaris. It is the most distant starfrom earth and is the second brightest star of Ursa Major constellation. The luminosity is300 times that of the sun. Dubhe has a temperature of 4500 Kelvin which makes it thelowest temperature of the seven stars. This “orange star” is stabilized by the fusion of heliumin its core.•Pheceda is a topaz yellow star. It is the southernmost star of all the stars of the Big Dipperand has a temperature of 9500 Kelvin. It ranks sixth in brightness and is 84 light yearsaway from earth. It has a diameter of 2.5 times the size of the sun and radiates 64 times theenergy.
The “Big Dipper” will fall apart over thenext tens of thousands of years. The star patterns will slowly drift apart over acourse of time. In the future, the handle will appear more bent, and the bowl will be spread out.
Part 2: Equation Analysis E = mc2 E = E N E R G Y ( VA R I A B L E ) ( M E A S U R E D I N J O U L E S ) M = M A S S ( VA R I A B L E ) ( M E A S U R E D I N G R A M S ) C 2 = V E L O C I T Y O F L I G H T S Q U A R E D ( C O N S TA N T S Q U A R E D ) (MEASURED IN METERS PER SECOND)C= 299,792,458 METERS PER SECOND OR ABOUT 186,282.4 MILES PER SECOND C 2= 8 9 , 8 7 5 , 5 1 7 , 8 7 3 , 6 8 1 , 7 6 4 M E T E R S P E R S E C O N D O R AB O U T 34,701,132,549.8 MILES PER SECOND
Matter and energy are related. They are different forms of the same thing. Matter can be turned into energy, andenergy can be turned into matter. E = mc2 means that massis condensed energy. Mass and energy are both two sides of the same coin. A small amount of mass is equivalent to a large amount ofenergy because the proportionality constant. The more massthe more energy. (Energy also depends on its velocity. More mass doesn’t always increase objects energy since largerobjects could be moving slowly compared to a much smaller mass traveling at a high rate of speed).
t = γt0 T = TIME FROM ONE POINT OF VIEW Γ = 1 / ( 1 – V 2/ C 2) 1/2 C2 = THE SPEED OF LIGHT IN A VACUUM SQUARED V2 = THE SPACECRAFT SPEED SQUARED ½ = S Q U A R E R O O T O F ( 1 – V 2/ C 2)T0 = TIME FROM ANOTHER POINT OF VIEW
t/t0 = γ t/t0 = 1/ (1 – v2/c2)1/2 AS V GOES FROM 0 TO .999999C, T/T0 INCREASES. TIME IS PASSING FASTER. IF V EQUALS C, THE GAMMA FACTOR IS INFINITY. THIS MEANS THAT THE MEASURABLE EFFECTS OF RELATIVITY ARE BASED ON GAMMA.IF V IS > C THAN THAT MEANS TIME IS MOVING SLOWER.
ΔdirectionΔlocation >= h/4πIF YOU ENTER A ZERO FOR ΔDIRECTION ORΔLOCATION YOU ACHIEVE ABSOLUTE ZERO. ABSOLUTE ZERO IS NOT POSSIBLE SINCETHE FUTURE IS ALWAYS UNCERTAIN AND SO IS THE UNCERTAINTY BETWEEN THE POSITION AND MOTION OF A PARTICLE.
Part 3: Learning about a Law of Physics F=maForce equals mass times acceleration. This is Isaac Newton’ssecond law. It states that the acceleration and speed of an objectdepends on the net force acting upon the object and the mass of theobject. It does not apply to situations where the mass is changing.One example is how much easier it is for an adult to push a largecrate versus a child. The reason is because of the net force that isacting on the object. Now if the same crate did not have anythingon it, it would be easier to push than a crate with heavy boxes on it.This is because of the mass of the object. The heavier something is,the more force you will need to move it. Another example is a carcollision. Assuming that both cars have equal force and equalspeed, they will both go the same distance and feel the same force,but if the first car is hooked to a second car, the single car will godouble the distance of the two cars hooked and feel two times theforce. The acceleration of an object depends on the force and themass of the object.
Part 4: Explanation of Fermi’s Paradox and possible resolutionFermis paradox is the contradiction that there is a “great” chance of extraterrestrial life without any “great” evidence to back up the idea. There is no extraterrestrial life on earth. If there was, it would have been discovered. So it is factual to say extraterrestrial life does not exist on earth. So why is there still a high probability that another life exists? One reason could be that extraterrestrial life is not suitable to survive “earth” conditions. It’s possible that other life doesn’t breathe oxygen but something other than oxygen. Oxygen could be poison to their kind. The temperature and climate of earth may also play a factor. It could simply be too hot or too cold for another form of life to travel to earth, so it may not be impossible for extraterrestrial life to even live here. There’s also the possibility that other life isn’t advanced enough to travel to earth. There could be showers of meteoroids that block the visibility of our planet.Without any physical evidence or contact with extraterrestrials there is no real resolution. Fermi’s Paradox is all of this as a contradiction.
Part 5: Explanation of the Twins Paradox and its resolution The twin paradox is a thought up experiment that includes two twin brothers. One brother makes a journey into space in a high-speed rocket and the other brother stays on earth. After years, the twin returns from space to find he has aged less than his identical twin on Earth.In order to physically return to the same way as his twin brother, one twin must undergo acceleration; that’s the resolution. Acceleration will cause a change in inertial frames, and so the twin who returns from space will not be in the same constant frame.
Part 5: Explanation of the Twins Paradox and its resolution What is it? What is the resolution? The twin paradox is a In order to physically thought up experiment return to the same way as that includes two twin his twin brother, one twin brothers. One brother must undergo makes a journey into space in a high-speed acceleration; that’s the rocket and the other resolution. Acceleration brother stays on earth. will cause a change in After years, the twin inertial frames, and so returns from space to find the twin who returns he has aged less than his from space will not be in identical twin on Earth. the same constant frame.
“Time dilation is the difference of time between two eventsmeasured by observers that aremoving relative to each other or from different positions of a gravitational mass.”
Time DilationRelative velocity time Gravitational timedilation dilation Relative velocity time dilation Gravitational time dilation is is when two observers are in where both observers are distant relative uniform motion and from a significant gravitational uninfluenced by any mass. The general theory of relativity uses a ticking clock as an gravitational mass. Each of example. The clock that is closer their points of view will be that to the gravitational mass will go the others moving clock is slower than the clock that is more ticking at a slower rate than distant from the mass. The the local clock. In summary, observer more distant from the increasing the relative velocity mass measures the other clock to will amplify the magnitude of be slower than the local rate, and time dilation. the observer situated closer to the mass measures the other clock to be faster than the local rate. The clock nearer the mass is slower in rate.
Time dilation can arise from: the relative velocity of motion between observers the difference in their distance from a gravitational mass
When energyor massincreasesproper timeslows down.With timedilation, timewill runsloweraroundobjects of Based on Albert Einstein’s Specialgreater mass. Theory of Relativity we form our own space time relative to our energy or mass.