Eisenhower's Cold War Policies - 5/13/09

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Eisenhower's Cold War Policies - 5/13/09

  1. 1. Cold War Policies under Eisenhower Republican President 1953-1961 (Vice-President Richard Nixon)
  2. 2. Why did people vote in a Republican President? <ul><li>Korean War - containment didn’t work </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union was becoming a larger threat </li></ul><ul><li>The McCarthy Trials made people think that Democrats were “soft” on communism </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower was a war hero </li></ul>
  3. 3. “More Bang for the Buck” <ul><li>Ike wants a strong military AND strong economy, but maintaining a military is expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced the size of the army and navy. </li></ul><ul><li>Put efforts into developing Strategic Air Command (SAC), superbombers, and nuclear weapons </li></ul>
  4. 4. Massive Retaliation <ul><li>Containment is not enough…need more in the fight against communism. </li></ul><ul><li>Massive retaliation = the threat to use nuclear weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Supported his new policy of reducing armed forces and increasing nuclear arsenal </li></ul><ul><li>1953=1,000 bombs 1961=18,000 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Brinkmanship <ul><li>The willingness to go to the brink of war to force the other side to back down </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Korean War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taiwan Crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suez Crisis </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Korean War <ul><li>Ike promised to end the Korean War </li></ul><ul><li>1952: he went to Korea and told China that the U.S. might continue the war “under circumstances of our own choosing” </li></ul><ul><li>Hinting that they might use nuclear attacks against them </li></ul><ul><li>1953: armistice is signed - brinkmanship worked </li></ul>
  7. 7. Taiwan Crisis <ul><li>Nationalists controlled Taiwan and other small islands near China </li></ul><ul><li>1954: China threatened to seize 2 islands and began shelling the islands, they wanted to liberate Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Ike asked Congress to authorize force to defend Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Warned China that US navy would aid Taiwan and that they could use nuclear weapons </li></ul>
  8. 9. Suez Crisis <ul><li>Ike wanted to prevent Middle East countries from aligning with USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. of State offered to help Egypt build a dam on the Nile </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt bought weapons from Czech. (communist nation) </li></ul><ul><li>So Dulles had to withdraw the offer </li></ul><ul><li>Egyption troops took the Suez Canal from the Anglo-French company that controlled it </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted to use canal profits to pay for the dam </li></ul>
  9. 11. European Response <ul><li>Oct. 1956: British and French troops invaded Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Ike was angry with them </li></ul><ul><li>USSR threatened attacks on Britain and France </li></ul><ul><li>British and French called off invasion </li></ul><ul><li>USSR won the diplomatic victory by supporting Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Other Arab nations began accepting Soviet aid </li></ul>
  10. 12. Covert Operations in Iran <ul><li>1953: Iranian PM nationalized Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was going to make deal with USSR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shah of Iran (pro-USA) tried to oust the PM but failed </li></ul><ul><li>CIA organized riots and coup that ousted PM and returned shah to power </li></ul>
  11. 13. Covert Operations in Guatemala <ul><li>1951: Jacobo Arbenz Guzman elected president with communist support </li></ul><ul><li>Land-reform programs </li></ul><ul><li>United Fruit Company </li></ul><ul><li>1954: Communist Czech gives arms to Guatemala </li></ul><ul><li>CIA armed opposition and trained them. </li></ul><ul><li>These forces invaded Guatemala and Arbenz left office </li></ul>
  12. 14. Eisenhower Doctrine <ul><li>Pan-Arabism was spreading: idea that all Arab people should be united into one nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Worried that Nasser was trying to take over the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Ike requested authorization of military force whenever the president thought it necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Containment in the Middle East </li></ul>
  13. 15. U-2 Spy Plane <ul><li>USSR shot down US spy plane in 1960 </li></ul>
  14. 16. Ike’s Farewell Address <ul><li>January 1961: warned about the military-industrial complex </li></ul><ul><li>New relationship between military and industry </li></ul>
  15. 17. Nikita Khrushchev <ul><li>1956: Nikita is new leader of USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Europeans heard his speech, which discredited communism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frustrated under Stalin’s rule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1956: riots in Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>1956: uprising in Hungary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviets crushed the rebellion </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. October 4, 1957 - Sputnik I

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