Eisenhower's Cold War Policies - 5/13/09
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Eisenhower's Cold War Policies - 5/13/09






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Eisenhower's Cold War Policies - 5/13/09 Eisenhower's Cold War Policies - 5/13/09 Presentation Transcript

  • Cold War Policies under Eisenhower Republican President 1953-1961 (Vice-President Richard Nixon)
  • Why did people vote in a Republican President?
    • Korean War - containment didn’t work
    • Soviet Union was becoming a larger threat
    • The McCarthy Trials made people think that Democrats were “soft” on communism
    • Eisenhower was a war hero
  • “More Bang for the Buck”
    • Ike wants a strong military AND strong economy, but maintaining a military is expensive.
    • Reduced the size of the army and navy.
    • Put efforts into developing Strategic Air Command (SAC), superbombers, and nuclear weapons
  • Massive Retaliation
    • Containment is not enough…need more in the fight against communism.
    • Massive retaliation = the threat to use nuclear weapons
    • Supported his new policy of reducing armed forces and increasing nuclear arsenal
    • 1953=1,000 bombs 1961=18,000
  • Brinkmanship
    • The willingness to go to the brink of war to force the other side to back down
    • Examples:
      • Korean War
      • Taiwan Crisis
      • Suez Crisis
  • Korean War
    • Ike promised to end the Korean War
    • 1952: he went to Korea and told China that the U.S. might continue the war “under circumstances of our own choosing”
    • Hinting that they might use nuclear attacks against them
    • 1953: armistice is signed - brinkmanship worked
  • Taiwan Crisis
    • Nationalists controlled Taiwan and other small islands near China
    • 1954: China threatened to seize 2 islands and began shelling the islands, they wanted to liberate Taiwan
    • Ike asked Congress to authorize force to defend Taiwan
    • Warned China that US navy would aid Taiwan and that they could use nuclear weapons
  • Suez Crisis
    • Ike wanted to prevent Middle East countries from aligning with USSR
    • Sec. of State offered to help Egypt build a dam on the Nile
    • Egypt bought weapons from Czech. (communist nation)
    • So Dulles had to withdraw the offer
    • Egyption troops took the Suez Canal from the Anglo-French company that controlled it
    • They wanted to use canal profits to pay for the dam
  • European Response
    • Oct. 1956: British and French troops invaded Egypt
    • Ike was angry with them
    • USSR threatened attacks on Britain and France
    • British and French called off invasion
    • USSR won the diplomatic victory by supporting Egypt
    • Other Arab nations began accepting Soviet aid
  • Covert Operations in Iran
    • 1953: Iranian PM nationalized Anglo-Iranian Oil Co.
      • Was going to make deal with USSR
    • Shah of Iran (pro-USA) tried to oust the PM but failed
    • CIA organized riots and coup that ousted PM and returned shah to power
  • Covert Operations in Guatemala
    • 1951: Jacobo Arbenz Guzman elected president with communist support
    • Land-reform programs
    • United Fruit Company
    • 1954: Communist Czech gives arms to Guatemala
    • CIA armed opposition and trained them.
    • These forces invaded Guatemala and Arbenz left office
  • Eisenhower Doctrine
    • Pan-Arabism was spreading: idea that all Arab people should be united into one nation.
    • Worried that Nasser was trying to take over the Middle East
    • Ike requested authorization of military force whenever the president thought it necessary
    • Containment in the Middle East
  • U-2 Spy Plane
    • USSR shot down US spy plane in 1960
  • Ike’s Farewell Address
    • January 1961: warned about the military-industrial complex
    • New relationship between military and industry
  • Nikita Khrushchev
    • 1956: Nikita is new leader of USSR
    • Eastern Europeans heard his speech, which discredited communism
      • Frustrated under Stalin’s rule
    • 1956: riots in Eastern Europe
    • 1956: uprising in Hungary
      • Soviets crushed the rebellion
  • October 4, 1957 - Sputnik I