- Proprietary colony = colony granted by the king not to a joint-stock company but to an individual (Maryland to Lord Baltimore was first one)
Virginia Dare – first English child born in North America No English colonists when Queen Elizabeth died in 1603 – Tudor family line ended and throne went to cousin James VI of Scotland (son of Mary, Queen of Scots). He was the first of the Stuarts and ruled as James I.
James I chartered Virginia Company (First Colony of London and Second Colony of Plymouth) – for-profit enterprise. Virginia named after Elizabeth I (virgin queen) May 6, 1607 – three ships with 105 men reached Chesapeake Bay – still hoped to find passage to Asia through river James “ gentlemen adventurers” who scorned manual labor – wanted to find gold not live there Indians taught them to grow maize Powhatan was leader of large indian civilization – 30 tribes – Powhatan Confederacy with corn as crop – wanted trade and military alliance with English
Strict discipline – martial law Work or starve – still only 38 of 105 colonists survived first nine months 4 hours/day farming Had to return to England in 1609 because of gunpowder burns and Jamestown went downhill after that.
- Only 60 colonists found alive in 1610
Tobacco helped the colony but was still a financial disaster without the gold; VA company went bankrupt in 1624 and became the first royal colony – tobacco became valuable export by 1616 For every 6 colonists coming to America only 1 survived / Between 1607 and 1624 at least 6,000 people came to VA and 3 out of 4 died. Tobacco became associated with high social class John Rolfe introduced the plant form the West Indies to Jamestown – ate up farmland – demand for more land – moved further west and grew – very labor intensive so they needed more workers – indentured servants and eventually slaves John Rolfe also married Pocahontas which helped ease relations between Indians
1618: new headright system – anyone who bought share in company or could transport himself to VA could have 50 acres and 50 more for any servants he brought – promised they woul dhave the rights of Englishmen, including representative assembly July 30, 1619 – first General assembly of Virginia met in Jamestown church 1619: also 90 young maidens arrived to be sold to husbands of their choice for 125 pounds of tobacco; also Dutch ship dropped off 20 African slaves – first ones in America Colony still struggled in 1624 – the court dissolved the company and made VA a royal colony Colony expanded; angered the Indians – Powhatan and then his brother continued fighting until 1645 – major attack in 1644 – English had 350 casualties but put down uprising ferociously. – warfare and disease then decimated Indians.
Elections in House for landowning whites; frontier underrepresented Whites on frontier wanted to move west but governor did not want them to antagonize Indians Fought Indians anyway and governor Berkeley declared them rebels Bacon and others led troops into Jamestown twice; second time burned much of it Bacon died of dysentery; 1677 signed new treaty with Indians that opened up more land Wealthy realize there is an unhappy lower class – helps transition to slavery – keep them outside of society Freedom of whites on backs of slaves
New England: middle-class families who could pay their own way; few indentured servants; no planter elite; small farmers, merchants, seamen, fishermen; more women than in the south; soil not as fertile; farmers not as wealthy; much healthier because it was colder; population outgrew Chesapeake (MD and VA) Most New Englanders were devout Puritans – rigorous Protestant faith and simpler rituals than Anglicans of VA and MD. Divine mission to create model Christian society for worship of God. Self-described “saints” wanted to purify churches of all Catholic and Anglican rituals, supervise practicing communal faith, enact code of laws and govt based on bible. “City on a Hill”
Discontented religious in England – Puritan separatists (nonconformists) – severed ties with Church of England – get rid of catholic rituals – believed it was broken and wanted to separate and create own church. Hunted and persecuted in England by James I – fled to Holland in 1607, where it was too liberal for them so they went to America. Got permission from Virginia Co. to go to Virginia 1620 on the Mayflower, 100 men, women, children led by William Bradford 41 members entered into formal agreement to abide by laws made by leaders of their choosing – Nov. 21, 1620 Mayflower Compact – used as model by other settlers – tradition of consensual govt. Civil govt evolved naturally out of church govt Arrived further north, out of bounds of Virginia Co. and drew up own agreement – Mayflower Compact. Absorbed into Mass. In 1691. Difficult first winter, but got help from Indians (Thanksgiving) – nearly half the Pilgrims died. Got help from Wampanoag Indians. Spring 1621 – met Squanto – showed them how to grow maize. Celebrated in the fall with a harvest feast. Smallpox eventually killed the Indians Trade in furs and fish
Mass. Bay became much larger than Plymouth. Led by John Winthrop – refuge for persecuted Puritans. Puritans oppressed in England; imprisoned for beliefs Got grant for land of Massachusetts and New Hampshire – Massachusetts Bay Company in 1629 – received from King Charles I (son of James I). Took the charter with them and had local control. 1630 – sailed with 1,000 people on the Arbella ; largest migration in 17 th century Created many towns in Massachusetts – Boston became the chief city and capital. Serious and pious people; wanted useful, conscientious lives; thrift, hard work (Puritan work ethic) Holy commonwealth Most New Englanders were devout Puritans – rigorous Protestant faith and simpler rituals than Anglicans of VA and MD. Divine mission to create model Christian society for worship of God. Self-described “saints” wanted to purify churches of all Catholic and Anglican rituals, supervise practicing communal faith, enact code of laws and govt based on bible. “City on a Hill” Over 14 years the Mass. Bay Company evolved into the governing body of holy commonwealth.
Generational breakdown of Puritan values Widespread “sin” – symptoms of social/economic changes for 1670s-1680s Population growth – more people move away Prosperity – embarrassment of riches – overseas commerce/merchants Community/order changes to self/mobility Anne Hutchinson?
Colonization Incentives 2011
Incentives for Colonization <ul><li>Profit and Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Religious “freedom” </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary colonies </li></ul>
Motivation for Profit <ul><li>Land (Enclosure Movement) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in wool-cloth industry </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in food supply </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in Population </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity of Land </li></ul>
Roanoke Island, North Carolina <ul><li>Sir Walter Raleigh explored the island in 1584 </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement created in 1587 </li></ul><ul><li>When governor returned in 1590 with supplies, he found the village of “ Ralegh ” abandoned. </li></ul><ul><li>Lost colonists; “ Croatoan ” </li></ul>
Jamestown, Virginia <ul><li>104 men in 1607, The Virginia Company – gold! </li></ul><ul><li>Poor location, not enough food, disease, poor leadership and organization, lack of community, clashes with Indians – Powhatan Confederacy </li></ul><ul><li>38 colonists survived the first year </li></ul>
Captain John Smith ". . . the colony remained for the most part under most severe and cruel laws . . . . The allowance in those times for a man was only eight ounces of meale and half a pint of peas a day . . . mouldy, rotten, full of cobwebs and maggots, loathsome to man and not fit for beasts, which forced many to flee for relief to the savage enemy, who being taken again were put to sundry deaths as by hanging, shooting and breaking upon the wheel . . . of whom one for stealing two or three pints of oatmeal had a bodkin [needle] thrust through his toungue and was tied with a chain to a tree until he starved."
“ Starving Time” Winter 1609-1610 Journals from the House of Burgesses of Virginia “ [people] were driven thru insufferable hunger to eat those things which nature most abhorred, the flesh and excrements of man as well of our own nation as of an Indian, digged by some out of his grave after he had lain buried three days and wholly devoured him; others envying the better state of body of any whom hunger has not yet so much wasted as their own, lay wait and threatened to kill and eat them; one among them slew his wife as she slept in his bosom, cut her in pieces, salted her and fed upon her till he had clean devoured all parts saving her head…”
Indentured Servitude <ul><li>Fixed terms of service </li></ul><ul><li>Passage to America, food, shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Social problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40% of servants did not live to see their terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1660 wealthy owners had the best land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Former servants pushed westward – anger builds </li></ul></ul>
House of Burgesses <ul><li>1619 – first legislative assembly in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Limited suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic practices </li></ul>
Bacon’s Rebellion <ul><li>1676 – Nathaniel Bacon </li></ul><ul><li>Poor whites on frontier v. wealthy landowners on the coast </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to move west </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict with Indians – defining spheres of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Potential instability of freed landless men </li></ul>
<ul><li>Religious Strife </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant Reformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English Reformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anglican Church (Church of England) – Henry VIII </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Puritans and Separatists </li></ul></ul></ul>
Massachusetts Bay <ul><li>Puritans </li></ul><ul><li>Gov. John Winthrop </li></ul><ul><li>Puritan work ethic </li></ul><ul><li>“ city upon a hill” </li></ul><ul><li>Theocracy: society in which church indistinguishable from the state </li></ul><ul><li>No freedom of worship </li></ul>
Religious Dissent <ul><li>Not all happy with fundamentalist values of the Puritan community </li></ul><ul><li>Generational changes </li></ul><ul><li>Community changes </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth </li></ul><ul><li>Population movement </li></ul>