Cold War Origins - 5/4/09


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  • Cold War Origins - 5/4/09

    1. 1. Cold War Beginnings Post World War II
    2. 2. The “Big Three”
    3. 3. What were the main issues discussed at the Yalta Conference? <ul><li>Poland </li></ul><ul><li>The Declaration of Liberated Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Dividing Germany </li></ul>
    4. 5. How did Yalta affect U.S.-Soviet relations? <ul><li>Rising tensions </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing hostility </li></ul>
    5. 6. The Potsdam Conference <ul><li>German reparations </li></ul><ul><li>Truman and Stalin reach an agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Potsdam Declaration </li></ul>
    6. 8. The Long Telegram <ul><li>George Kennan </li></ul><ul><li>What were the main points of the telegram? </li></ul><ul><li>What policy did the telegram propose? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
    7. 9. Containment <ul><li>Definition: keeping communism within its present territory through the use of diplomatic, economic, and military actions </li></ul>
    8. 10. The Iron Curtain <ul><li>Winston Churchill </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite nations </li></ul>
    9. 12. Iran (1946) <ul><li>U.S. troops in South Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet troops in North Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets would not withdraw troops </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, they demanded access to oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Helped establish Communist govt in north Iran </li></ul><ul><li>What message did this send to the U.S.? </li></ul>
    10. 13. Truman’s Response <ul><li>Secretary of State sent Stalin a strong message that demanded Soviets withdraw troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Sent the battleship USS Missouri near Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets withdrew with promise of joint Soviet-Iranian oil company </li></ul>
    11. 14. Turkey (1946) <ul><li>Soviets wanted the straits of Dardanelles </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin demanded joint control of the Dardanelles with Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Truman’s Response: sent aircraft carrier Franklin D. Roosevelt and Missouri to protect Turkey and Eastern Mediterranean </li></ul>
    12. 15. Greece (1946-1947) <ul><li>Greek Communists launched war against government. </li></ul><ul><li>British helped the Greeks fight them. </li></ul><ul><li>British could not afford to help any longer by 1947. </li></ul><ul><li>Truman’s Response: Go to Congress to ask for money to fight Communist aggression ($400 million)… </li></ul>
    13. 16. The Truman Doctrine <ul><li>To aid “free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures” </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilize the Greek government and help Turkey resist Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Pledged the U.S. to fight the spread of communism. </li></ul>
    14. 17. The Marshall Plan <ul><li>Problems in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of State George C. Marshall </li></ul><ul><li>European Recovery Program </li></ul><ul><li>Aid European nations to rebuild economies </li></ul><ul><li>Truman: Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine were essential for containment </li></ul>
    15. 18. <ul><li>Offered to Soviet Union, they refused </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the Soviet Union refuse the Marshall Plan? </li></ul><ul><li>What did they set up instead? </li></ul><ul><li>Warsaw Pact </li></ul>
    16. 19. The Berlin Airlift <ul><li>Allies merged their German zones in 1948 and allowed Germans to have own government. (Federal Republic of Germany) </li></ul><ul><li>German Democratic Republic was East Germany </li></ul><ul><li>June 1948: Soviet Union cut off all road and rail traffic to West Berlin to try and force U.S. to change decision </li></ul>
    17. 20. Truman’s Response <ul><li>Sent bombers with atomic weapons to bases in Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Ordered air force to fly supplies into Berlin, continued until spring 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic American gesture of determination to contain communism </li></ul>
    18. 21. NATO <ul><li>North Atlantic Treaty Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Allies created a mutual defense alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Members agreed to come to the aid of any member who was attacked. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. committed itself to maintaining peace in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>In 1955, NATO allowed West Germany to rearm and join </li></ul>
    19. 22. Soviet Response <ul><li>Warsaw Pact (1955): military alliance of Eastern European countries </li></ul>