High Jump
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High Jump High Jump Presentation Transcript

  • High Jump training: Developing an Efficient technical model Petros Kyprianou The University of Georgia 2009
  • Basic Considerations Mechanics of Fosbury flop Horizontal to vertical velocity The Run-up phase Take-off phase The Flight phase 60°-65° take off angle Speed= 1:0.6 (vertical/horizontal ratio)
  • Technical Considerations (videos by Jesus Dapena) Run-up speed: adjust according to your angular momentum abilities Take off phase: key factor for determining the max height of • Poor rotation often is the result of poor or inefficient foot placement at TO COM and angular momentum (rotation) Bar clearance: rotation is the answer to major take off issues (hip displacement) • Proper foot placement at TO promotes an efficient rotation over during flight phase
  • The Run-up Phase HJ PIT Take off point ‘J’ shaped Approach e rv Cu 8-strides SS (1 check mark) e th s of iu d Ra 10-steps SS (1-check mark) Radius of the Curve 6-stides + 4 F.S. (2 check marks) 8-strides + 4 F.S strides (3 check marks)
  • Technique and technicall t i i T h i d t h i training ng The Run-up Phase Dr. Wolfgang Ritzdorf 18th NACACTFCA Conference Aruba October 2008 Dr. Wolfgang Ritzdorf Controlling inward lean acceleration RUN-RUN-RUN (HJ running) HJers need angular velocity NOT linear: limit excess running
  • final curved approach run is an important of the high jump forreasons for the inward lean Main two reasons ering of CM itating rotations Center of mass positioning (lowering) 18th NACACTFCA Conference Aruba October 2008 Dr. Wolfgang Ritzdorf Help the Jumper utilize all rotational forces during the jump
  • The Run-up Speed Start: walk or run in to it Standing start gradually build up the speed 1st part: 400m-800m speed 2nd part: faster - lower hips without major speed loss Power VS Speed jumper inward lean: angular momentum
  • Take off foot placement Horizontal force produced by the take off foot points forwards almost in line with the final direction of the run up Severe pronation it can lead to an injury of the ankle Larger the pronation the great the loss Horizontal force made in angular momentum on the ground e e = the angle between foot axis (with Ho respect to the bar) and horizontal forces riz rec onta made on the ground eiv l re ed a by ction the fo Longitudinal axis of foo rce the foot t e = less than 20° safe; larger than 25° Final Direction of the run-up risk of injury
  • Using the numbers to design your own model Horizontal Horizontal Vertical Vertical Knee joint Height velocity at the velocity after velocity at the velocity after Take off time Projection Athlete angle at the examined last stride the take off last stride the take off (s) angle take off (m/s) (m/s) (m/s) (m/s) Sotomayor 2.34m 8.0 4.0 -0.7 4.60 0.17 150 50 Sjoberg 2.34m 7.5 4.0 -0.6 4.25 0.16 161 51 Ioannou 2.35m 7.75 3.80 -0.6 4.38 0.148 151 49
  • The ‘short, fast and bouncy’ jumper
  • The ‘tall and powerful’ jumper
  • The ‘speed-strength’ jumper KEY ELEMENTS (S Kyriakos Ioannou - World Championships Silver (2009) and Bronze (2007) Medalist; 2004-2008 Olympian (Cyprus) • Increasing stride frequency Height (m) 1.93 • Decreasing flight times at the Weight (kg) 70 • Inward lean Full Approach PB (m) 2.35 3-stride + F.S. SCISSORS (m) 2.15 • Acceleration of the hip before 3-stride + F.S. (sec) 2.23 • Backward lean (body straight 30m standing start (sec) 3.35 takeoff • Angular momentum transition (best marks: TO time, projection angle, toe off • Full body extension at etc) 40m standing (sec) 4.40 4kg Overhead SHOT throw (m) 22.50 • Arching the body over the ba • Less speed loss at the take off 18th NACACTFCA Conference Aruba Octob 4 bounds + Jump (5) Standing (kg) 16.40 •Speed Jumper 4 bounds + Jump (5) F.S. (m) 22.00 •Great power marks 18th NACACTFCA Conference Aruba October 2008 Standing LJ (m) 3.25 Power Snatch (kg) 75 • Efficient 1.5 arm swing: key for success in utilizing inward lean acceleration Power Clean (kg) 95 90° squat (kg) 160 120° squat (kg) 240
  • Identifying Technical pointers at the highest level... A first glance….before the penultimate, the “key single support phase” First look: Step 18th NACACTFCA Conference Aruba October 2008 Dr. Wolfgang Ritzdorf 18th NACACTFCA Conference Aruba October 2008 Dr. Wolfgang Ritzdorf
  • Identifying Technical pointers at the highest level... the next frame: transition to the penultimate step often concerns the coaches 18th NACACTFCA Conference Aruba October 2008 Dr. Wolfgang Ritzdorf 18th NACACTFCA Conference Aruba October 2008 Dr. Wolfgang Ritzdorf
  • Identifying Technical pointers at the highest level... penultimate strike phase: ROLL IT ON THE BALL OF THE FOOT!!! 18th NACACTFCA Conference Aruba October 2008 Dr. Wolfgang Ritzdorf 18th NACACTFCA Conference Aruba October 2008 Dr. Wolfgang Ritzdorf
  • Identifying Technical pointers at the highest level... pushing off the penultimate step: airborne before the take off! 18th NACACTFCA Conference Aruba October 2008 Dr. Wolfgang Ritzdorf 18th NACACTFCA Conference Aruba October 2008 Dr. Wolfgang Ritzdorf
  • Identifying Technical pointers at the highest level... Last step strike...different arm movement, great axes seperation 18th NACACTFCA Conference Aruba October 2008 Dr. Wolfgang Ritzdorf 18th NACACTFCA Conference Aruba October 2008 Dr. Wolfgang Ritzdorf
  • Identifying Technical pointers at the highest level... Airborne...drift or no drift ? 18th NACACTFCA Conference Aruba October 2008 Dr. Wolfgang Ritzdorf
  • Use of the Penultimate step Ankle impulse, not knee Trail leg swing initiation early (pre-jump) Rotation Better arm work (Single, 1.5 or double) Achieving optimal angles and prevent ankle injuries More technique less stress on the body Higher heights!
  • Developing Technical Patterns Focus on approach Develop a consistent check mark pattern Always begin technical practices with approaches Scissors from short run will help with proper foot placement at take off Develop a pre-jump pattern Utilize arm swing Mobility drills
  • Developing Technical Patterns Take off drills 1-Step hurdle drill (height) 3-step hurdle drill (height) 1-leg box jumps/plyos 1-leg myometric training Push off penultimate then jump Focal spot A focal spot will help the jumper maintain an Have a high bar for take off drills efficient running form while leaning inwards
  • Developing Technical Patterns High Jumpers are very technical athletes If not a multi jumper be careful!! Control running volume Core - Power - Flexibility Cross train/Functional training for getting in top shape Key muscles for HJ: Hips - Quads - hamstrings - Calves - Tibia - hip flexors
  • PERIODIZATION GUIDELINES •‘TRAIN DOGS EDUCATED PEOPLE! (R.H.) •4 WEEKS PER CYCLE •2 @ 90%, 1 @ 70%, 1 SUPERCOMPENSATION •PEAK WHEN IT COUNTS •VOLUME VS INTENSITY
  • PERIODIZATION GUIDELINES •OVERTRAINING SYNDROME •GET TO THE POINT (THEORY OF SPECIFICITY) •ADAPTATION PHASE ONLY 8-10 WEEKS! THEN TECHNIQUE •FILM THEM! (WHAT DOES FILMING HAVE TO DO WITH THIS)
  • The ‘Needs Analysis’ Athlete’s Name & event (s) Events: DOB Class PERSONAL BESTS Indoor Outdoor PAST YEAR IN REVIEW Indoor Outdoors THIS YEAR’S GOALS Indoor Outdoor EXPECTATIONS/PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT STRENGTH - POWER GOALS SPEED GOALS Snatch 30m SS Clean& Jerk 30m FS+15m Squat 60m Front Squat SPECIFIC POWER GOALS Bench St. LJ Step Ups St. TJ 5 hop FS Vertical J TESTING TESTING 1 DATE: TESTING 2 DATE: VERTICAL 1 2 3 VERTICAL 1 2 Height Height Weight Weight Flexibility Flexibility 30m SS PLYOS 50cm 1 2 3 30m SS PLYOS 50cm 1 2 30m FS 30m FS 1 2 3 1 2 Snatch St. LJ Snatch St. LJ Squat St. TJ Squat St. TJ Bench 5 hop FS (dom) Bench 5 hop FS (dom) Clean & Jerk 'weak'' Clean & Jerk 'weak'' 4kg Ovehd 4kg Overhd
  • Training Recommendations SAMPLE OFF-SEASON TRAINING MICROCYCLE Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday • Weights (am) • Weights (am) •Core Strength (am) •Core Strength •Core Strength (am) •Approach runs (am) •Take Off drills •General HJ running (low intensity) drills •Acceleration work •short run-up •Speed endurance jumps • General low • General throws intensity bounding • General throws • General throws • General low •mobility work •mobility work intensity •mobility work •Yoga/Aerobics bounding session •Conditioning •Conditioning •Conditioning (8 x 150m @ 65%) (specific HJ circuit) • Gymnastics (specific HJ circuit)
  • Training Recommendations SAMPLE PRE-SEASON TRAINING MICROCYCLE Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday •Speed - Flying •Weights /potentiation • Full Jumps • Speed/acceleration •Weights/potentiation starts •Restoration techn. • Vertical • Approach work • Horizontal •Approach runs bounding mid mark precision bounding •Half approach • Core Conditioning •Take off drills • Core Conditioning jumps •short approach • YOGA jumps •4 x 150m @ 85%
  • Training Recommendations SAMPLE IN-SEASON TRAINING MICROCYCLE Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday • pre activation • Approach work • Weights / •OFF DAY potentiation Restoration techniques •approach precision (light) •Half approach jumps (maintenance) • X’s (maintenance) •Speed bounding COMPETITION
  • High Jump Traaining Outline - Preseason Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday • Weights • Weights • High Jump •CORE • High Jump •CORE • High Jump •Vertical bounding •FLexibility •Horizontal bounding •FLexibility •Vertical bounding • Basic Cardio •General Throws • Accelerations •General Throws • Speed Endurance ------------------------------ ---------------------------- ------------------------------ ---------------------------- ------------------------------ Target # foot contacts: 40 Target total weight: Target # foot contacts: Target total weight: Target # foot contacts: Target distance (m): 900m 500-700lbs 60 500-700lbs 100 Target #Throws: 60 Target distance (m): Target #Throws: 60 Target distance (m): 300m 400m TARGETED TOTAL: FOOT CONTACTS: 200 DISTANCE RAN: 1600M WEIGHT LIFTED: 1000-1400LBS GENERAL THROWS: 120
  • Psychological Considerations •CROSSBAR FEARS •MOTIVATE THEM •BREAK DOWN THE TECHNIQUE AND FIND POSITIVE THINGS •THERE IS ALWAYS A SOLUTION TO EVERYTHING •BE POSITIVE BUT OPTIMISTIC •ATTENTION TO DETAIL...
  • THANK YOU!