Common core secondary ELA

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  • Today we are focusing on three essential questions related to unpacking the PA Common Core State Standards. Read each question aloud.
  • The United States is lagging well behind high performers—Finland, South Korea, and Japan. arts. Seven countries most mentioned in the area of math and science: Canada, England, Finland, Hong Kong, Japan, New Zealand, and Singapore. Cited most often in this area was Singapore, with 18 states naming it as a model for current standards in math or science.
  • Why PA Common Core-Pennsylvania Timeline This slide speaks to the evolution of standards in Pennsylvania through the years. We in Pennsylvania have been using and refining standards in education since the 1990s. This progression builds on all the lessons we have learned over the last two decades. The reason the new Pennsylvania administration make the decision to develop a Pennsylvania Common Core instead of  simply using the Common Core State Standards it the desire to make the CCSS our own Standards and reframe them in the style and format of the Pennsylvania Standards.  We wanted to have the flavor, feel and style of the PA Standards.  The work of the PA Common Core is the Common Core.
  • This graphic depicts the design of the PA Common Core Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. The CCR standards were used as the overarching structure for the PA Common Core Standards.   The PA Common Core Standards are organized around five Standard Categories: Foundational Skills, Reading Informational Text, Reading Literature, Writing, and Speaking and Literature.   There are five supporting documents for the PA Common Core Standards. They include the three appendices from the Common Core State Standards (Appendix A, Appendix B, and Appendix C) and the Literacy standards for History and Social Studies (Appendix D) and Literacy standards for Science and Technical Subjects (Appendix E).
  • The numbering structure of the PA Common Core Standards.
  • The numbering structure of the PA Assessment Anchors and Eligible Content
  • This graphic shows an example of a 3 rd grade standard and eligible content.
  • The shifts are a high-level summary of the biggest changes signified by the adoption of the CCSS. They represent the most significant shifts for curriculum materials, instruction, student learning, and thinking about assessment. Taken all together, they should lead to desired student outcomes. Communicate the shifts to everyone who will listen! Everyone working in your school and district should have a solid understanding of the shifts required in both ELA/Literacy and Mathematics. They are a great starting point for learning about and understanding the CCSS. You can test any message or effort regarding the CCSS against these touchstones. From state, district, school, or classroom – how does X support the ideas of the shifts. They are meant to be succinct and easy to remember. We’ll discuss them each in turn.
  • In K-5 this means that we should have a balance in what students read of 50/50. So about half of instructional material is stories, poetry and drama, and the other half is nonfiction. In middle school, the recommendation shifts to a 45/55 split between literary texts and informational. By high school, the standards call for a 30/70 split between literary texts and informational texts.
  • literacy plays a role in science and technology, history and social studies and in classes focused on the Arts – and in English Language Arts. Background knowledge has long been connected to comprehension. Reading informational text is essential in building background knowledge. The standards demand that students work on literacy in all the content areas, not as a distraction or as an addition to their study of content, but to build their understanding of the content being studied. This is displayed most prominently in two ways. 1) At every grade level, there are a set of standards for informational text and a set for literary standards. 2) Reading Standard 10 calls for students to read a wide range of informational text. It is actually a standard to read informational text.
  • Much of what students read in English classes will be literature, but English teachers should also expose their students to high quality literary non-fiction: speeches and essays and literary criticism for example. No random reading…everything should have a purpose In content classes, teachers engage students in reading of the texts that are the sources of knowledge and communication in their fields i.e.: the textbook, trade journal articles, experimental results, and primary source documents. It is important that students see that text as a source of knowledge – that you always read about something. As they read a series of texts on a particular topic, they are building their knowledge and understanding of that area. The better they get at reading, the more able they are to learn independently and efficiently through text.
  • Research that informed the development of the Standards revealed that there is a significant gap in the complexity of what students read by the end of high school and what they are required to read in both college and careers – 4 years! In a study done by ACT in 2006, it was found that the complexity level of what students read at each grade level has dropped 4 years in the last half of the 20th century (and has remained the same in the last decade.) The academic language of informational text is different than narrative literature. Exposing students to this enhances the breadth of their academic language, lack of this exposure narrows it. For too long, proficiency in reading has been defined as skill in using reading strategies, even to the point of separating those strategies from the context or challenge that might call for a given strategy. The Common Core puts the text in the center of the equation and demands that students activate strategies in service of understanding the text. Mastering the strategies in isolation only take students so far. A successful reader possesses the ability to activate strategies skillfully in response to challenges most frequently encountered in complex text. Like every other complex set of skills, this takes lots of practice. Increasing complexity of text is the path to CCR, not increasing complicated reading strategies.
  • Complex text contains any and all combinations of these features in many combinations. The complexity level is determined by both quantitative and qualitative measures. The details of text complexity are well described in Appendix A of the Standards, one of the supplemental readings offered with this module. New tools have been developed since the Standards were developed to help determine qualitative text complexity. Those materials are available on www.achievethecore.org S tudents who struggle with reading almost always have gaps in their vocabulary and their ability to deal with more complex sentence structures. This too is well documented in research. Too often, less proficient students are given texts at their level where they do not see these features, where the demands of vocabulary and sentence structure are lowered. Though this is done for the kindest of reasons, it has disastrous consequences. Day by day, differentiating by level of text during instructional time increases the achievement gap between high performers and those who struggle. Students cannot address gaps in their vocabulary and develop skill with unpacking complex syntax text when they are not given the opportunity to work with material that provides these opportunities. With that said, there is a place for providing students with text more appropriately matched to their individual reading abilities to build fluency and provide opportunity for increasing the volume of reading. But those texts cannot be the primary texts for instruction.
  • This does not mean students do this without any support! It is essential that teachers and instructional material provide scaffolds to support ALL students in comprehending complex text. These scaffolding types will reliably support many students and a has a strong research base: Multiple readings. Complex text takes multiple reads to fully understand the layers of meaning provided by the author. Because of this, the text selected for close reading should be excellent or they will not be worthy of the time commitment they require to read fully. Re-reading assists fluency and is the primary way readers make sense of challenges encountered when reading. Reading the text aloud while students follow along . Fluency challenges are rampant when students encounter grade level appropriate text. All teachers must be aware of this and reach in to help. The two best ways to help are having the students follow along while the text is read aloud and by reading text multiple times. These two methods are systematically built into the close reading model. Read aloud is especially important for early readers K-2 because the standards are too complex to master with the texts students can read on their own and students cannot develop academic language through what students read on their own at these grades (levels); for all practical purposes it provides students who come to kindergarten with less developed academic language with a way to catch up “ Chunking” longer text into smaller and logical sections makes the text more manageable and helps demonstrate how the author structured the text. Careful, text-specific questions point readers to challenging sentences and ask for special attention to be paid to them. They direct students to what matters most and asks them to examine those parts. They also pay particularly close attention to vocabulary that can be figured out in the context of the text. Because they require text evidence, they demand re-reading. Pointing out text structures or features that will either provide comprehension support (like section headers) or challenges (like long paragraphs or sentences). Supports that do not promote improved reading incomes and do not have research support behind them: Previewing the topic of the reading in a text-free way (just “teacher talk”). A careful examination of the text is solid practice. But telling students what they will be reading will remove any motivation for discovering that for themselves and teach students that learning from reading is not a central activity in that classroom. Providing simple text to weak readers and complex texts to strong readers. Differentiation by text type, as opposed to providing a variety of supports for the same complex text leads to the “Matthew Effect” – “to those who have, more will be given. To those who have little, even that little will be taken away” a well-researched finding. This is particularly true because of the differences in vocabulary that students will see from simpler to more complex text. Words create much of the differences in texts. The goal is growing independence with increasingly complex text. The strategies implemented should all aim at getting students stronger and more skilled – like exercises and scrimmages in a sports practice.
  • Most college and career writing requires students to take a position or inform others citing evidence from the text, not provide a personal opinion. Across the grades, and even across the content areas, students need to develop the skill of grounding their responses in evidence from the text. Requiring students to use evidence can and should occur during oral discussions with read aloud in the youngest grades and continue across all grades and content areas. This is a sharp departure from much current practice where the focus is commonly to relate the text to yourself in narrative expressive pieces where students share their views on various topics. Even when students are reading grade-level texts, they have too often been encouraged to write or discuss without having to use evidence from the text. it is easier to talk about personal responses than to analyze what the text has to say, hence students - and teachers - are likely to engage in this type of dialogue before a text is fully analyzed. The unintended consequence of all of this is less time in the text more outside the text; problematic in any case but far more so with complex text. This is does not mean banishing personal response to a text. Though not called for in the standards, there are times these responses and discussion are essential. They are best done however AFTER the text is fully analyzed. At this point students' personal responses will be enhanced by what the text has to offer.
  • Examples of questions that take students outside and inside the text. Text-dependent questions require students to pay attention to the text at hand and to draw evidence from that text. What does this look like in the classroom? Teachers insist that classroom experiences stay deeply connected to the text on the page and that students develop habits for making evidentiary argument both in conversation, as well as in writing to assess comprehension of a text. Students have rich and rigorous conversations and develop writing that are dependent on a common text.
  • {The next few slides have examples of prompts that are meant to show the contrast between text-dependent questions and questions which students are often asked to answer that do not require the text at all. Ask participants to discuss the questions. In professional development settings, teachers can examine some of their own questions or questions found in the resources used in class.} Let’s look at the contrast between non text dependent questions that require no careful reading of the text vs. those that require "reading like a detective”. This example comes from a high school biology textbook. The text itself is excellent. The problem is that students are not “rewarded” for the work of careful reading of the text. Again the prompt requires no comprehension of the excerpt.
  • This prompt in response to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer includes a few elements. First students identify methods included in the text. Is this text-dependent? Yes. However it is a pretty low-level text-dependent question. Very little analysis is required. The most energy intensive piece of this begins with students devising their own charms and writing about that. Could a student respond without reading the text?
  • In contrast, consider this prompt in response to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. A student who is able to answer this certainly has a grasp of the text and Twain’s subtle use of syntax and nuance to create effects. To evaluate a question to see if it is CCSS aligned, think whether students have to have read the text in order to accurately respond (vs. drawing on background knowledge or offering an unsupported opinion or connection). {For more on this, refer to the Text Dependent Questions module on www.achievethecore.org Emphasizing the use to text dependent questions in the classroom in a effective first step in the shift toward the CCSS.}
  • As the kids we work with need basically a new book most days to read, the steps here are not feasible for us to do for every book we hand a child. However, if you assign a chapter book that several days will be spent reading and working with it, you may want to consider using some of the following resources to help you match a book to your readers. The first are the rubrics; one for literary texts and one for informational texts. Since the demand for students to be able to read and critique informational text has increased with the adoption of the PA CCSS, it is imperative for teachers to be thinking about this genre of texts and how to increase time students spend with informational text and the time spent teaching using informational text.
  • Narrative writing isn’t gone, but these other forms develop skills better and deeper.
  • The first example is from 11 th grade PSSA released item from 2009 and the second example is a Keystone Exam example questions. Keystone Standard L.N.2.5.6- Explain, interpret, describe, and/or analyze, the author ’s defense of a claim to make, a point or construct an argument in nonfictional text. *Are we in agreement that the second question example (Keystone Exam example) is more rigorous? With your teachers you might choose to discuss what students need to understand and be able to do to succeed in the task.
  • 12/05/12 Prepared by Kathleen Eich & Karen Ruddle Spend most of your instructional time with Tier 2 words. These are the words that characterize written text – but are not so common in everyday speech. Words do NOT change tiers depending on the age of the student or the knowledge of the learner. For example, glance is a Tier 2 word because it fits certain criteria. It is not the most basic way to express a concept (look quickly would be more basic), it is a general word, found in various types of genre, and is more common in written than in oral language. This is not, however, a word you would teach the typical middle schooler since most know it. But that doesn’t make it a tier one word for middle school. Don’t limit vocabulary words to student’s reading ability. Knowing a word is not an all or nothing proposition Ranges from having a general sense to deep knowledge (relationship to other words, changes across contexts, applies to all situations Part of your lexicon Content area teachers – add 1-2 tier two words to each of your vocab lists!!
  • DOK 1 + DOK 1 doesn’t equal DOK2
  • Levels of Cognitive Complexity (DOK Wheel Handout)   Distribute the DOK Wheel handout. This visual representation points out the kind of actions typically associated with each of the levels.   Level 1: Recall and Reproduction Level 2: Skills & Concepts Level 3: Strategic Thinking Level 4: Extended Thinking
  • Orally provide samples and ask the group to identify which level it is. Use handout
  • One verb, three different DOK levels (Handout-Hess Matrix)   DOK 3- Describe a model that you might use to represent the relationships that exist within the rock cycle. (requires deep understanding of rock cycle and a determination of how best to represent it)   DOK 2- Describe the difference between metamorphic and igneous rocks. (requires cognitive processing to determine the differences in the two rock types)   DOK 1- Describe three characteristics of metamorphic rocks. (simple recall)   Distribute the Hess Matrix handout. The Hess matrix gives you a more precise way of determining DOK. On the left you will see Bloom ’s Taxonomy. Think of a task that you would have student do and decide where it would fit in Bloom’s Taxonomy. Now move to the right across the matrix to determine DOK.
  • DOK is NOT about difficulty… Difficulty is a reference to how many students answer a question correctly.   How many of you know the definition of prescient? knowledge of things or events before they exist or happen If all of you know the definition, this question is an easy question. (DOK 1 - Recall   How many of you know the definition of prescient ? If most of you do not know the definition, this question is a difficult question. (DOK 1 – Recall )   Distribute the “4 Myths of Rigor Article.” Read the introduction paragraph together. For over 20 years, we ’ve worked with teachers and principals on ways to improve their schools. Our efforts have centered on promoting the core concepts of rigor: creating schools where every student is known by adults, where students have a positive relation­ship with adults and other students, and where they are challenged to achieve at high levels. We’ve met thousands of committed teachers and principals who work incredibly hard to positively impact the learning of every student.   Concurrently and on a national level, the 3 R ’s—Rigor, Relevance, and Relationships—have become accepted as necessary characteristics of quality schools, with many states adopt­ing the 3 R’s Model as a requirement for school improvement efforts. And yet, there remain many misconceptions and myths regarding rigor itself. Here, we cite others’ research as well as our own work to dispel those myths and to demonstrate how academic rigor can ultimate­ly benefit every one of your students and staff members. It ’s time to set the record straight on what rigor is and what it isn’t.   Split the group into 4 sections and assign one myth to each section. After reading, the groups should discuss their myth and prepare to share with the larger group. Allow each group to present their myth to the group as a whole and discuss. The next slide is a visual representation of the final section describing what rigor is.
  • Graphic depicting the relationship between Meeting the Rigor of the Common Core and Producing Cognitive Sweat.
  • Distribute paper copies of the PA Emphasis Documents or guide participants to their location online. http://www.pdesas.org/Standard/CommonCore   Take a look at look at your grade level first and highlight the Common Core Shifts you may have already addressed.   Provide evidence of how this occurred.   Propose how the ones not highlighted will be addressed.
  • http://commoncore.americaachieves.org/landing Declaration of Independence” video – Grade 8 ELA & History – Shift: Evidence from text, text selection, vocabulary
  • Today we are focusing on three essential questions related to unpacking the PA Common Core State Standards. Read each question aloud.

Transcript

  • 1. Common Core State Standards forEnglish Language Arts and ContentLiteracyKey Shifts at theSecondary Level
  • 2. PA Common Core Essential QuestionsWhat are the instructional implications of the shift to the PA Common Core Standards?What does rigor look like in the classroom? www.achievethecore.org 3
  • 3. An Introduction to the PA Common CoreWhy Common Core?Disparate standards across statesGlobal competitionToday’s jobs require different skillsStates are ready and able for collective actionAligned with college and work expectations www.achievethecore.org 4
  • 4. An Introduction to the PA Common CoreWhy Common Core?Focused and coherentIncludes rigorous content and application ofknowledge through high- order skillsBuilt upon strengths and lessons of current statestandardsInternationally benchmarkedBased on evidence and research www.achievethecore.org 5
  • 5. An Introduction to the PA Common CoreWhy PA Common Core?Pennsylvania Timeline: www.achievethecore.org 6
  • 6. PA Common Core Standards English Language Arts & Literacy College and Career Readiness Anchor StandardsFoundational Skills Reading Writing Speaking & Reading Develops the skills of Listening A necessary Informational Literature informational, Focuses students component of an Text argumentative, and on communication effective, Enables students to sive comprehensive Enables students to narrative writing as skills that enable read, understand, well as the ability to critical listening and read, understand, and reading program and respond to respond to engage in evidence effectivedesigned to develop literature. informational texts. based analysis of text presentation of proficient readers. and research. ideas. Appendix A: Research behind the standards and a glossary of terms Appendix B: Text exemplars illustrating complexity, quality, and range of reading appropriateness Appendix C: Annotated samples of student writing at various grades Appendix D: Literacy standards for History and Social Studies Appendix E: Literacy standards for Science and Technical Subjects www.achievethecore.org
  • 7. 8 Numbering structure of the PA Common Core Standards CC. 1. 2. 3. APA Common Core Reading English Informational Language Grade Skills Arts Level Standard 1 1 Foundation Skills 2 Reading Informational Skills 3 Reading Literature 4 Writing 5 Speaking and Listening 8 www.achievethecore.org
  • 8. 9Numbering Structure of the PA Assessment Anchors and Eligible Content E. 03. B-K. 1. 1. 2 Grade Eligible Anchor Content Assessment Descriptor Anchor Reporting Categories A = Literature Text B = Informational Text A-K and B-K = Key Ideas and Details A-C and B-C = Craft and Structure/Integration of Knowledge and Ideas A-V and B-V = Vocabulary Acquisition and Use C = Writing D = Language 9 www.achievethecore.org
  • 9. STANDARD CATEGORY1.2 Reading Informational TextStudents read, understand and respond to informational text-with emphasis on comprehension,making connections among ideas and between texts with focus on textual evidence.GRADE LEVEL STANDARDCC.1.2.3.ADetermine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support themain idea.ASSESSMENT ANCHOR-The Assessment Anchors represent categories of subject matter (skillsand concepts) that anchor the content of the PSSA. Each Assessment Anchor is part of aReporting Category and has one or more Anchor Descriptors unified under and aligned to it.E03.B-K.1 Key Ideas and DetailsANCHOR DESCRIPTOR-The Anchor Descriptor ELIGIBLE CONTENT-The Eligible Content is theadds a level of specificity to the content most specific description of the skills andcovered by the Assessment Anchor. Each concepts assessed on the PSSA. This level isAnchor Descriptor is part of an Assessment considered the assessment limit and helpsAnchor and has one or more Eligible Content educators identify the range of the contentunified under and aligned to it. covered on the PSSA.E03.B-K.1.1 Key Ideas and Details E03.B-K.1.1.2Demonstrate the understanding of key ideas Determine the main idea of a text; recount theand details in informational texts. key details and explain how they support the main idea. www.achievethecore.org
  • 10. The CCSS Requires Shifts in ELA/Literacy1. Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction or informational text2. Literacy instruction in Science and Social Studies3. Engage students in more complex texts4. Reading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational5. Writing emphasizes evidence to inform or make an argument.6. Regular practice with building academic language www.achievethecore.org 11
  • 11. Content Shift #1Building Knowledge Through Content-Rich Nonfiction•50/50 balance K-5•45 literary texts/55informational texts•30 literary texts/70 informational texts in grades 9-12•Students learning to read should exercise their ability tocomprehend complex text through read-aloud texts.•Reading aloud texts that are well-above grade level should bedone throughout K-5 and beyond. www.achievethecore.org 12
  • 12. Content Shift # 2 Literacy instruction in Science, Social Studies and Technical Subjects • All teachers teach reading • Non-fiction makes up the vast majority of required reading in college/workplace. • Informational text is harder for students to comprehend than narrative text. Teach students strategies that match the text. • Have students support opinions with evidence from the text. www.achievethecore.org 13
  • 13. Content Shift # 3Sequencing Texts to Build Knowledge and Complexity•Students engage in rigorous conversation•Complexity of text should increase grade to grade•Gap between complexity of college and high school texts is huge.•What students can read, in terms of complexity is greatestpredictor of success in college (ACT study).•Too many students are reading at too low a level.(<50% of graduates can read sufficiently complex texts).•Standards include a staircase of increasing text complexity fromelementary through high school. www.achievethecore.org 14
  • 14. Regular Practice with Complex Text and itsAcademic Language: Why?• Gap between complexity of college & high school texts is huge.• What students can read, in terms of complexity is greatest predictor of success in college (ACT study).• Too many students are reading at too low a level. (<50% of graduates can read sufficiently complex texts).• Standards include a staircase of increasing text complexity from elementary through high school.• Standards also focus on building general academic vocabulary so critical to comprehension. www.achievethecore.org 15
  • 15. What are the Features of Complex Text?• Subtle and/or frequent transitions• Multiple and/or subtle themes and purposes• Density of information• Unfamiliar settings, topics or events• Lack of repetition, overlap or similarity in words and sentences• Complex sentences• Uncommon vocabulary• Lack of words, sentences or paragraphs that review or pull things together for the student• Longer paragraphs• Any text structure which is less narrative and/or mixes structures www.achievethecore.org 16
  • 16. Choosing Complex Texts using Lexiles• Lexiles refer to a measurement of reading abilities based on the Lexile Framework for Reading, a nationally accepted scale designed to measure text and reading abilities.• Lexile scores are used to measure and track a childs reading ability and progress and to choose appropriate reading material based on student’s abilities.• Determined by administering a test that measures both recognition & comprehension of text. The scale ranges from 200L for beginning readers to 1700L for advanced reading material. www.arbookfind.com www.lexile.com www.achievethecore.org 17
  • 17. Scaffolding Complex TextThe standards require that students read complex text at eachgrade level – independently (Standard 10).However there are many ways to scaffold student learning asthey meet the standard:•Multiple readings•Read Aloud•Chunking text (a little at a time)Provide support while reading, rather than before. www.achievethecore.org 18
  • 18. Content Shift # 4Reading, Writing and Speaking Grounded in Evidence from Text: • Most college and workplace writing requires evidence. • Ability to cite evidence differentiates strong from weak student performance on NAEP • Evidence is a major emphasis of the ELA Standards: Reading Standard 1, Writing Standard 9, Speaking and Listening standards 2, 3 and 4, all focus on the gathering, evaluating and presenting of evidence from text. • Being able to locate and deploy evidence are hallmarks of strong readers and writers www.achievethecore.org 19
  • 19. Content Shift #4Text-Dependent QuestionsNot Text-Dependent Text-DependentIn “Casey at the Bat,” Casey strikes out. What makes Casey’s experiences at batDescribe a time when you failed at humorous?something.In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” Dr. What can you infer from King’s letterKing discusses nonviolent protest. about the letter that he received?Discuss, in writing, a time when youwanted to fight against something thatyou felt was unfair. “The Gettysburg Address” mentions theIn “The Gettysburg Address” Lincoln says year 1776. According to Lincoln’s speech,the nation is dedicated to the why is this year significant to the eventsproposition that all men are created described in the speech?equal. Why is equality an importantvalue to promote? www.achievethecore.org 20
  • 20. Sample Informational Text AssessmentQuestion: Pre-Common Core StandardsHigh school students read an excerpt of James D. Watson’s TheDouble Helix and respond to the following:James Watson used time away from his laboratory and a set ofmodels similar to preschool toys to help him solve the puzzle ofDNA. In an essay discuss how play and relaxation help promoteclear thinking and problem solving. www.achievethecore.org 21
  • 21. Sample Literary Question: Pre-Common CoreStandardsFrom The Adventures of Tom SawyerHave the students identify the different methods of removingwarts that Tom and Huckleberry talk about. Discuss the charmsthat they say and the items (i.e. dead cats) they use. Askstudents to devise their own charm to remove warts. Studentscould develop a method that would fit in the time of TomSawyer and a method that would incorporate items and wordsfrom current time. Boys played with dead cats and frogs,during Tom’s time. Are there cultural ideas or artifacts from thecurrent time that could be used in the charm? www.achievethecore.org 22
  • 22. Sample Text Dependent Question: CommonCore StandardsFrom The Adventures of Tom SawyerWhy does Tom hesitate to allow Ben to paint the fence? How does Twain construct his sentences to reflect that hesitation? What effect do Tom’s hesitations have on Ben? www.achievethecore.org 23
  • 23. Literacy PrioritiesAmong the highest priorities of the Common Core StateStandards is that students must read texts closely and acquireknowledge.At each grade level, 80 to 90 percent of the reading standardsrequire text-dependent analysis. Questions that expect studentresponses to be text-dependent and discipline-specific requirestudents to demonstrate that they understand the text detailsand can provide accurate evidence. www.achievethecore.org 24
  • 24. So what is a lexile? Lexile units are based on word frequency and sentencelength. Word frequency is calculated based on words in Lexiledatabank (almost one billion). Lexiles range from 0 (beginning reading) to 2000 (highlytechnical texts). www.lexile.com www.achievethecore.org 25
  • 25. Overview of Text Complexity1.Quantitative Measures – Readabilityand other scores of text complexity oftenbest measured by computer software.2.Qualitative Measures – Levels ofmeaning, structure, languageconventionality and clarity, andknowledge demands often best measuredby an attentive human reader.3.Reader and Task Considerations –Background knowledge of reader,motivation, interests, and complexitygenerated by tasks assigned often bestmade by educators employing theirprofessional judgment. www.achievethecore.org 26
  • 26. Quantitative Measure Step 1: Quantitative Measures Measures such as: • Word length • Word frequency • Word difficulty • Sentence length • Text length • Text cohesionwww.achievethecore.org 27
  • 27. Pennsylvania Common Core Standards Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text Complexity Grade Bands* The K-1 suggested Lexile range was not identified by the Common Core State Standards and was added by Kansas.** Taken from Accelerated Reader and the Common Core State Standards, available at the following URL: http://doc.renlearn.com/KMNet/R004572117GKC46B.pdf 28
  • 28. Qualitative Measures Step 2: Qualitative Measures Measures such as: • Layers of meaning • Levels of purpose • Structure • Organization • Language conventionality • Language clarity • Prior knowledge demands • Cultural demands • Vocabularywww.achievethecore.org 29
  • 29. Step 2: Qualitative Measures The Qualitative Measures Rubrics for Literary Text http://www.ksde.org/Default.aspx?tabid=4605•Allow educators to evaluate the important elements of text that are often missed by computer software thattends to focus on more easily measured factors. www.achievethecore.org 30
  • 30. Step 2: Qualitative Measures The Qualitative Measures Rubrics for Informational Text http://www.ksde.org/Default.aspx?tabid=4605•Allow educators to evaluate the important elements of text that are often missed by computer software thattends to focus on more easily measured factors. www.achievethecore.org 31
  • 31. Step 2: Qualitative MeasuresBecause the factors for literary textsare different from information texts,these two rubrics contain differentcontent. However, the formatting ofeach document is exactly the same.And because these factorsrepresent continua rather thandiscrete stages or levels, numericvalues are not associated with theserubrics. Instead, four points alongeach continuum are identified: high,middle high, middle low, and low. www.achievethecore.org 32
  • 32. Step 2: Qualitative Measures www.achievethecore.org 33
  • 33. Determining Text Complexity Four Step Process1. Determine the quantitative Qu measures of the text. ive an t at ti al i tat Qu2. Analyze the qualitative ive measures of the text. Reader and Task3. Reflect upon the reader and task considerations.4. Recommend placement in the appropriate text complexity band. www.achievethecore.org 34
  • 34. Content Shift #5Writing from Sources•Writing should emphasize the use of evidence•Writing tasks should inform or make an argument•Writing should not be personal narrative•Link writing tasks to texts students read www.achievethecore.org 35
  • 35. Implications for the CC Writing Standards www.achievethecore.org 36
  • 36. Comparing PSSA/KeystoneExplain how the author attempts to convince the reader thatnative species should be protected. Use at least 2 examplesfrom the passage to support your explanation.Analyze how the author constructs the argument in the passage.Use examples from the passage to support your analysis. www.achievethecore.org 37
  • 37. Interpretations from Tim Shanahan Implications for Implementing the CCSS From Tim Shanahan 2011 IRA Webinar: Transition to the Common Core See handout www.achievethecore.org 38
  • 38. Content Shift # 6Regular practice with building academic language•The goal is to constantly build vocabulary•Make associations to other words•Focus the majority of instruction on Tier 2 words•Make sure students are using the words in a deep andproductive ways•Teach fewer words at a deeper level. www.achievethecore.org 39
  • 39. Choosing Words Based on Tiers Tier 3: Low-frequency words, usually specific to an academic domain & best learned in the related content area, such as isotope, photosynthesis & psychologist. Tier 2: High-frequency words that are important for capable language learners to have in their vocabulary, such as remorse, capricious, distinguished, & devious. Tier 1: Basic words that rarely need to be taught, such as hair, always, dress, & laugh. Beck, I., McKeown, M., & Kucan, L. (2002) www.achievethecore.org
  • 40. Example of Tier 2 Words in a Content Class Science unit on Earth’s Changing Surface Suggested Words: runoff, rills, gully, drainage basin, divide, flood plain, tributary, meander, alluvial fan, delta, ground water, stalactite, stalagmite Tier 2 Words to Add: process, feature, factor www.achievethecore.org
  • 41. What is Depth ofKnowledge (DOK)? • A scale of cognitive demand (thinking) to align standards with assessments • Based on the research of Norman Webb, University of Wisconsin Center for Education Research and the National Institute for Science Education • Defines the “ceiling” or highest DOK level for each Core Content standard for the state assessment • Determined by the item, not the students’ ability www.achievethecore.org
  • 42. Cognitive Complexity The Depth of Knowledge is NOT determined by the verb, but the context in which the verb is used and the depth of thinking required.Level 1: Involves recall and the response is automaticLevel 2: Requires students to reason beyond a habitual responseLevel 3: Students provide support ,reason, draw conclusions, and justify their thinkingLevel 4: Extend thinking, develop connections www.achievethecore.org
  • 43. Webb’s DOK DEFINITIONS Student recalls facts, information, procedures, or1.0 definitions. Student uses information, applies knowledge, and2.0 compares and contrasts Student uses reasoning and develops a plan or sequence3.0 of steps; process has some complexity and more abstract Student processes multiple conditions of problem or task.4.0 Students analyze and synthesize information www.achievethecore.org
  • 44. One Verb...three DOK levels• DOK 3- Describe a model that you might use to represent the relationships that exist within the rock cycle. (requires deep understanding of rock cycle and a determination of how best to represent it)• DOK 2- Describe the difference between metamorphic and igneous rocks. (requires cognitive processing to determine the differences in the two rock types)• DOK 1- Describe three characteristics of metamorphic rocks. (simple recall) www.achievethecore.org
  • 45. www.achievethecore.org
  • 46. Producing Cognitive Sweat! Meeting the Rigor of the Common Core www.achievethecore.org
  • 47. Addressing the ShiftsTake a look at look at your grade level first and highlight the Common Core Shifts you already address. (use handout)Provide evidence of how this occurred.Propose how the ones not highlighted will be addressed. Copyright ©2010 Commonwealth of www.achievethecore.org 48
  • 48. The Common Core in action in High School •Students providing evidence from text Look for SPECIFIC •Vocabulary Instruction examples of: •Student Engagement www.achievethecore.org 49
  • 49. Next Steps…1. Read and discuss the Common Core Appendices2. Discuss ways to ensure that the Common Core shifts are evident (consider adding the targeted shift(s) in lesson plans3. Identify additional training and support you need to ensure that the Common Core Standards are implemented with fidelity • Vocabulary Instruction • Writing (Collins, consistent scoring of student writing ) • Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC) - Secondary • Reading Strategies (higher level questioning, Analytic Reading) • Increasing text complexity in your curriculum • Higher level questioning www.achievethecore.org 50
  • 50. Time to Answer Our Essential QuestionsWhat are the instructional implications of the shift to the PA Common Core Standards?What does rigor look like in the classroom? www.achievethecore.org 51