Monera

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Monera

  1. 1. Kingdom MoneraBIOLOGY Mr. Nattapong Boonpong (B.Ed.) Phlubphlachai Phittayakhom School
  2. 2. Prokaryotic Cells• Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells – Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for prenucleus. – Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true nucleus.
  3. 3. Prokaryote Eukaryote• One circular • Paired chromosome, not in chromosomes, in a membrane nuclear membrane• No histones • Histones• No organelles • Organelles• Peptidoglycan cell • Polysaccharide cell walls walls• Binary fission • Mitotic spindle
  4. 4. Glycocalyx• Outside cell wall• Usually sticky• A capsule is neatly organized• A slime layer is unorganized & loose• Extracellular polysaccharide allows cell to attach• Capsules prevent phagocytosis
  5. 5. Cell Wall• Prevents osmotic lysis• Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria)
  6. 6. Peptidoglycan• Polymer of disaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) & N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)• Linked by polypeptides
  7. 7. Peptidoglycan
  8. 8. Gram-positive cell walls Gram-negative cell walls • Thick peptidoglycan • Thin peptidoglycan • Teichoic acids • No teichoic acids • In acid-fast cells, • Outer membrane contains mycolic acid
  9. 9. Gram-Positive cell walls• Teichoic acids: – Lipoteichoic acid links to plasma membrane – Wall teichoic acid links to peptidoglycan• May regulate movement of cations• Polysaccharides provide antigenic variation
  10. 10. Gram-Negative Outer Membrane• Lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, phospholipids.• Forms the periplasm between the outer membrane and the plasma membrane.• Protection from phagocytes, complement, antibiotics.• O polysaccharide antigen, e.g., E. coli O157:H7.• Lipid A is an endotoxin.• Porins (proteins) form channels through membrane
  11. 11. Gram-Negative Outer Membrane
  12. 12. Gram Stain Mechanism• Crystal violet-iodine crystals form in cell• Gram-positive – Alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan – CV-I crystals do not leave• Gram-negative – Alcohol dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes in peptidoglycan – CV-I washes out
  13. 13. A typical Cell Walls• Mycoplasmas – Lack cell walls – Sterols in plasma membrane• Archaea – Wall-less, or – Walls of pseudomurein (lack NAM and D amino acids)
  14. 14. Damage to Cell Walls• Lysozyme digests disaccharide in peptidoglycan.• Penicillin inhibits peptide bridges in peptidoglycan.• Protoplast is a wall-less cell.• Spheroplast is a wall-less Gram-positive cell.• L forms are wall-less cells that swell into irregular shapes.• Protoplasts and spheroplasts are susceptible to osmotic lysis.
  15. 15. Fimbriae & Pili• Fimbriae allow attachment• Pili are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another Fimbriae200 nm
  16. 16. Flagella• Outside cell wall• Made of chains of flagellin• Attached to a protein hook• Anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body
  17. 17. Flagella Arrangement
  18. 18. Motile Cells• Rotate flagella to run or tumble• Move toward or away from stimuli (taxis)• Flagella proteins are H antigens (e.g., E. coli O157:H7)
  19. 19. Motile Cells
  20. 20. Plasma Membrane
  21. 21. Plasma Membrane• Phospholipid bilayer• Peripheral proteins• Integral proteins• Transmembrane proteins
  22. 22. Fluid Mosaic Model• Membrane is as viscous as olive oil.• Proteins move to function• Phospholipids rotate and move laterally
  23. 23. • Some prokaryotes – Do have specialized membranes that perform metabolic functions 0.2 m 1 m Respiratory membrane Thylakoid membranes (a) Aerobic prokaryote (b) Photosynthetic prokaryote
  24. 24. Nucleoid• The typical prokaryotic genome – Is a ring of DNA that is not surrounded by a membrane and that is located in a nucleoid region• Some species of bacteria – Also have smaller rings of DNA called plasmids Chromosome 1 m
  25. 25. Endospores• Resting cells• Resistant to desiccation, heat, chemicals• Bacillus, Clostridium• Sporulation: Endospore formation• Germination: Return to vegetative state
  26. 26. Endospores Endospore 0.3 m
  27. 27. Type of Bacteria: Shape• Average size: 0.2 -1.0 µm  2 - 8 µm• Basic shapes:
  28. 28. Type of Bacteria: ShapeSpheres (Coccus/Cocci)
  29. 29. Type of Bacteria: ShapeRods (Bacillus/Bacilli)
  30. 30. Type of Bacteria: ShapeSpirals (Spirillum/Spirilli)
  31. 31. Type of Bacteria: Nutrition and metabolic adaptation • A great diversity of nutritional and metabolic adaptations have evolved in prokaryotes • Examples of all four models of nutrition are found among prokaryotes – Photoautotrophy – Chemoautotrophy – Photoheterotrophy – Chemoheterotrophy
  32. 32. Type of Bacteria: Nutrition and metabolic adaptation • Major nutritional modes in prokaryotes
  33. 33. Type of Bacteria: Metabolic Relationships to Oxygen • Obligate aerobes – Require oxygen • Facultative anaerobes – Can survive with or without oxygen • Obligate anaerobes – Are poisoned by oxygen
  34. 34. Reproduction• Prokaryotes reproduce quickly by binary fission – And can divide every 20 minutes to 1–3 hours
  35. 35. Classification• Subkingdom Archaebacteria - Euryarchaeota - Crenarchaeota• Subkingdom Eubacteria - Proteobacteria - - - - - - Chlamydias - Spirochetes - Gram-positive bacteria - Cyanobacteria
  36. 36. Classification
  37. 37. Archaea• Archaea share certaintraits with bacteria – And other traits with eukaryotes
  38. 38. Classification: Subkingdom ArchaebacteriaEuryarchaeota (Methanophile & Halophile)Crenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile)
  39. 39. Archaea• Some archaea – Live in extreme environments• Extreme thermophiles – Thrive in very hot environments
  40. 40. Archaea• Extreme halophiles – Live in high saline environments
  41. 41. Archaea• Methanogens – Live in swamps and marshes – Produce methane as a waste product• Hyperthermophiles – Pyrodictium – Sulfolobus• Methanogens – Methanobacterium• Extreme halophiles – Halobacterium
  42. 42. Microbial Diversity• Bacteria size range – Thiomargarita (750 µm) to nanobacteria (0.02 µm) in rocks
  43. 43. Classification: Subkingdom ArchaebacteriaCrenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile) Pyrococcus abyssi (archaea) • 3,500 m deep in the Southeast Pacific. • Optimally at 103°C (217°F) • 200 atms
  44. 44. Classification: Subkingdom ArchaebacteriaCrenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile) P. furiosus (archaea) • In the marine sand surrounding sulfurous volcanoes. • Optimally at 100°C (212°F) • Highly resistant to radiation • May possess an efficient system for repairing DNA.
  45. 45. Classification: Subkingdom EubacteriaProteobacteria Rhizobium sp.
  46. 46. Classification: Subkingdom EubacteriaProteobacteria Helicobacter pylori
  47. 47. Classification: Subkingdom EubacteriaClamydias • Chlamydia trachomatis - May be transmitted to newborns eyes - Painful urination and watery discharge • Mycoplasma hominis • Ureaplasma urealyticum
  48. 48. Nongonococcal Urethritis• Chlamydia trachomatis – May be transmitted to newborns eyes – Painful urination and watery discharge• Mycoplasma hominis• Ureaplasma urealyticum
  49. 49. Gonorrhea• Neisseria gonorrhoeae• Attaches to oral or urogenital mucosa by fimbriae• Females may be asymptomatic; males have painful urination and pus discharge• Treatment with antibiotics• Untreated may result in – Endocarditis – Meningitis – Arthritis – Ophthalmia neonatorum
  50. 50. Gonorrhea
  51. 51. Classification: Subkingdom EubacteriaSpirochete
  52. 52. Leptospirosis• Leptospira interrogans• Reservoir: Dogs and rats• Transmitted by skin/mucosal contact from urine- contaminated water• Diagnosis: Isolating bacteria or serological tests
  53. 53. Syphilis• Treponema pallidum• Invades mucosa or through skin breaks
  54. 54. Classification: Subkingdom EubacteriaGram-Positive Bacteria Lactobacillus sp. Streptomyces sp. Bacillus sp. B. subtilis B. megaterium B. anthracis Mycoplasma
  55. 55. Classification I. Cyanophyta Blue green algae (Cyanobacteria) Morphology • Non nuclear membrane • Cell wall ; Cellulose & Pectin • Non flagella • Cyanophycean Starch • Pigment : chlorophyll a , B - carotene , Flavicin & phycobilin 2 type ; c - phycoerythrin & c - phycocyanin ท้าให้มีสีน้าเงิน
  56. 56. I. Cyanophyta Habitat • น้้าจืด น้้าเค็ม ในดินที่ชื้นแฉะ • บางชนิดเป็น phycoplankton พบในน้้าจืดและทะเลสาบทั่วไป • Ex. Anabaena , Nostoc , Calothrix , Cylindrospermum , Tolypothrix Oscillatoria etc. การด้ารงชีวิต • Mutualism ; lichen :- • Gloeocapsa & Nostoc is phycobionts • Anabaena azollae & Azolla filiculoides • Blue green algae & Protozoa พวก rhizopod ที่เรียกว่า cyanellae
  57. 57. I. Cyanophyta Reproduction • Only asexual reproduction • Binary fission : Chroococcus , Anacystis , nidular • Fragmentation : Oscillatoria • Akinete : การสร้างจะถูกกระตุ้นด้วย glucose และถูกยับยั้งด้วย KNO3 & NH4Cl : เป็นโครงสร้างที่มีผนังหนา และมีอาหารสะสมภายใน • Heterocyst : ตรึง N2 ในอากาศ Anabaena , Nostoc , Oscillatoria , Calothrix
  58. 58. Classification: Subkingdom EubacteriaCyanobacteria Anabaena azollae Nostoc sp. Oscillatoria sp. Calothrix sp.
  59. 59. AnacystisChroococcus Calothrix Anabaena Oscillatoria Nostoc
  60. 60. The End

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