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    Monera Monera Presentation Transcript

    • Kingdom MoneraBIOLOGY Mr. Nattapong Boonpong (B.Ed.) Phlubphlachai Phittayakhom School
    • Prokaryotic Cells• Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells – Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for prenucleus. – Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true nucleus.
    • Prokaryote Eukaryote• One circular • Paired chromosome, not in chromosomes, in a membrane nuclear membrane• No histones • Histones• No organelles • Organelles• Peptidoglycan cell • Polysaccharide cell walls walls• Binary fission • Mitotic spindle
    • Glycocalyx• Outside cell wall• Usually sticky• A capsule is neatly organized• A slime layer is unorganized & loose• Extracellular polysaccharide allows cell to attach• Capsules prevent phagocytosis
    • Cell Wall• Prevents osmotic lysis• Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria)
    • Peptidoglycan• Polymer of disaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) & N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)• Linked by polypeptides
    • Peptidoglycan
    • Gram-positive cell walls Gram-negative cell walls • Thick peptidoglycan • Thin peptidoglycan • Teichoic acids • No teichoic acids • In acid-fast cells, • Outer membrane contains mycolic acid
    • Gram-Positive cell walls• Teichoic acids: – Lipoteichoic acid links to plasma membrane – Wall teichoic acid links to peptidoglycan• May regulate movement of cations• Polysaccharides provide antigenic variation
    • Gram-Negative Outer Membrane• Lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, phospholipids.• Forms the periplasm between the outer membrane and the plasma membrane.• Protection from phagocytes, complement, antibiotics.• O polysaccharide antigen, e.g., E. coli O157:H7.• Lipid A is an endotoxin.• Porins (proteins) form channels through membrane
    • Gram-Negative Outer Membrane
    • Gram Stain Mechanism• Crystal violet-iodine crystals form in cell• Gram-positive – Alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan – CV-I crystals do not leave• Gram-negative – Alcohol dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes in peptidoglycan – CV-I washes out
    • A typical Cell Walls• Mycoplasmas – Lack cell walls – Sterols in plasma membrane• Archaea – Wall-less, or – Walls of pseudomurein (lack NAM and D amino acids)
    • Damage to Cell Walls• Lysozyme digests disaccharide in peptidoglycan.• Penicillin inhibits peptide bridges in peptidoglycan.• Protoplast is a wall-less cell.• Spheroplast is a wall-less Gram-positive cell.• L forms are wall-less cells that swell into irregular shapes.• Protoplasts and spheroplasts are susceptible to osmotic lysis.
    • Fimbriae & Pili• Fimbriae allow attachment• Pili are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another Fimbriae200 nm
    • Flagella• Outside cell wall• Made of chains of flagellin• Attached to a protein hook• Anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body
    • Flagella Arrangement
    • Motile Cells• Rotate flagella to run or tumble• Move toward or away from stimuli (taxis)• Flagella proteins are H antigens (e.g., E. coli O157:H7)
    • Motile Cells
    • Plasma Membrane
    • Plasma Membrane• Phospholipid bilayer• Peripheral proteins• Integral proteins• Transmembrane proteins
    • Fluid Mosaic Model• Membrane is as viscous as olive oil.• Proteins move to function• Phospholipids rotate and move laterally
    • • Some prokaryotes – Do have specialized membranes that perform metabolic functions 0.2 m 1 m Respiratory membrane Thylakoid membranes (a) Aerobic prokaryote (b) Photosynthetic prokaryote
    • Nucleoid• The typical prokaryotic genome – Is a ring of DNA that is not surrounded by a membrane and that is located in a nucleoid region• Some species of bacteria – Also have smaller rings of DNA called plasmids Chromosome 1 m
    • Endospores• Resting cells• Resistant to desiccation, heat, chemicals• Bacillus, Clostridium• Sporulation: Endospore formation• Germination: Return to vegetative state
    • Endospores Endospore 0.3 m
    • Type of Bacteria: Shape• Average size: 0.2 -1.0 µm  2 - 8 µm• Basic shapes:
    • Type of Bacteria: ShapeSpheres (Coccus/Cocci)
    • Type of Bacteria: ShapeRods (Bacillus/Bacilli)
    • Type of Bacteria: ShapeSpirals (Spirillum/Spirilli)
    • Type of Bacteria: Nutrition and metabolic adaptation • A great diversity of nutritional and metabolic adaptations have evolved in prokaryotes • Examples of all four models of nutrition are found among prokaryotes – Photoautotrophy – Chemoautotrophy – Photoheterotrophy – Chemoheterotrophy
    • Type of Bacteria: Nutrition and metabolic adaptation • Major nutritional modes in prokaryotes
    • Type of Bacteria: Metabolic Relationships to Oxygen • Obligate aerobes – Require oxygen • Facultative anaerobes – Can survive with or without oxygen • Obligate anaerobes – Are poisoned by oxygen
    • Reproduction• Prokaryotes reproduce quickly by binary fission – And can divide every 20 minutes to 1–3 hours
    • Classification• Subkingdom Archaebacteria - Euryarchaeota - Crenarchaeota• Subkingdom Eubacteria - Proteobacteria - - - - - - Chlamydias - Spirochetes - Gram-positive bacteria - Cyanobacteria
    • Classification
    • Archaea• Archaea share certaintraits with bacteria – And other traits with eukaryotes
    • Classification: Subkingdom ArchaebacteriaEuryarchaeota (Methanophile & Halophile)Crenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile)
    • Archaea• Some archaea – Live in extreme environments• Extreme thermophiles – Thrive in very hot environments
    • Archaea• Extreme halophiles – Live in high saline environments
    • Archaea• Methanogens – Live in swamps and marshes – Produce methane as a waste product• Hyperthermophiles – Pyrodictium – Sulfolobus• Methanogens – Methanobacterium• Extreme halophiles – Halobacterium
    • Microbial Diversity• Bacteria size range – Thiomargarita (750 µm) to nanobacteria (0.02 µm) in rocks
    • Classification: Subkingdom ArchaebacteriaCrenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile) Pyrococcus abyssi (archaea) • 3,500 m deep in the Southeast Pacific. • Optimally at 103°C (217°F) • 200 atms
    • Classification: Subkingdom ArchaebacteriaCrenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile) P. furiosus (archaea) • In the marine sand surrounding sulfurous volcanoes. • Optimally at 100°C (212°F) • Highly resistant to radiation • May possess an efficient system for repairing DNA.
    • Classification: Subkingdom EubacteriaProteobacteria Rhizobium sp.
    • Classification: Subkingdom EubacteriaProteobacteria Helicobacter pylori
    • Classification: Subkingdom EubacteriaClamydias • Chlamydia trachomatis - May be transmitted to newborns eyes - Painful urination and watery discharge • Mycoplasma hominis • Ureaplasma urealyticum
    • Nongonococcal Urethritis• Chlamydia trachomatis – May be transmitted to newborns eyes – Painful urination and watery discharge• Mycoplasma hominis• Ureaplasma urealyticum
    • Gonorrhea• Neisseria gonorrhoeae• Attaches to oral or urogenital mucosa by fimbriae• Females may be asymptomatic; males have painful urination and pus discharge• Treatment with antibiotics• Untreated may result in – Endocarditis – Meningitis – Arthritis – Ophthalmia neonatorum
    • Gonorrhea
    • Classification: Subkingdom EubacteriaSpirochete
    • Leptospirosis• Leptospira interrogans• Reservoir: Dogs and rats• Transmitted by skin/mucosal contact from urine- contaminated water• Diagnosis: Isolating bacteria or serological tests
    • Syphilis• Treponema pallidum• Invades mucosa or through skin breaks
    • Classification: Subkingdom EubacteriaGram-Positive Bacteria Lactobacillus sp. Streptomyces sp. Bacillus sp. B. subtilis B. megaterium B. anthracis Mycoplasma
    • Classification I. Cyanophyta Blue green algae (Cyanobacteria) Morphology • Non nuclear membrane • Cell wall ; Cellulose & Pectin • Non flagella • Cyanophycean Starch • Pigment : chlorophyll a , B - carotene , Flavicin & phycobilin 2 type ; c - phycoerythrin & c - phycocyanin ท้าให้มีสีน้าเงิน
    • I. Cyanophyta Habitat • น้้าจืด น้้าเค็ม ในดินที่ชื้นแฉะ • บางชนิดเป็น phycoplankton พบในน้้าจืดและทะเลสาบทั่วไป • Ex. Anabaena , Nostoc , Calothrix , Cylindrospermum , Tolypothrix Oscillatoria etc. การด้ารงชีวิต • Mutualism ; lichen :- • Gloeocapsa & Nostoc is phycobionts • Anabaena azollae & Azolla filiculoides • Blue green algae & Protozoa พวก rhizopod ที่เรียกว่า cyanellae
    • I. Cyanophyta Reproduction • Only asexual reproduction • Binary fission : Chroococcus , Anacystis , nidular • Fragmentation : Oscillatoria • Akinete : การสร้างจะถูกกระตุ้นด้วย glucose และถูกยับยั้งด้วย KNO3 & NH4Cl : เป็นโครงสร้างที่มีผนังหนา และมีอาหารสะสมภายใน • Heterocyst : ตรึง N2 ในอากาศ Anabaena , Nostoc , Oscillatoria , Calothrix
    • Classification: Subkingdom EubacteriaCyanobacteria Anabaena azollae Nostoc sp. Oscillatoria sp. Calothrix sp.
    • AnacystisChroococcus Calothrix Anabaena Oscillatoria Nostoc
    • The End