Kingdom Protista


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Kingdom Protista

  1. 1. Kingdom Protista Mr. Nattapong Boonpong (B.Ed.) Bodindecha (Sing Singhaseni) B I O L O G Y
  2. 2. <ul><li>Even a low-power microscope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can reveal an astonishing menagerie of organisms in a drop of pond water </li></ul></ul>50  m Overview: A World in a Drop of Water
  3. 3. The Protozoa
  4. 4. <ul><li>These amazing organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belong to the diverse kingdoms of mostly single-celled eukaryotes informally known as protists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advances in eukaryotic systematics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have caused the classification of protists to change significantly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protists are more diverse than all other eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And are no longer classified in a single kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most protists are unicellular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And some are colonial or multicellular </li></ul></ul>Characteristic Protist
  5. 5. <ul><li>Protists, the most nutritionally diverse of all eukaryotes, include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photoautotrophs, which contain chloroplasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs, which absorb organic molecules or ingest larger food particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixotrophs, which combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protist habitats are also diverse in habitat </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And including freshwater and marine species </li></ul></ul></ul>Characteristic Protist (Continuous)
  6. 6. Habitat of Protist
  7. 7. <ul><li>Reproduction and life cycles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are also highly varied among protists, with both sexual and asexual species </li></ul></ul>Reproduction of Protist
  8. 8. A Sample of Protist Diversity
  9. 9. <ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Chemoheterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetative form is a trophozoite </li></ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction by fission, budding, or schizogony </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction by conjugation </li></ul><ul><li>Some produce cysts </li></ul>Protozoa
  10. 10. <ul><li>No mitochondria, ER, golgi complex, & centriole </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Are adapted to anaerobic environments </li></ul><ul><li>Lack plastids </li></ul>I. Diplomonadida & Parabasala
  11. 11. <ul><li>Diplomonads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have two nuclei and multiple flagella </li></ul></ul>Giardia intestinalis, a diplomonad (colorized SEM) Diplomonads & Parabasalids 5 µm
  12. 12. Giardiasis; Giardia lamblia
  13. 13. <ul><li>Parabasalids include trichomonads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which move by means of flagella and an undulating part of the plasma membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have parabasal body </li></ul></ul>Trichomonas vaginalis, a parabasalid (colorized SEM) Diplomonads & Parabasalids Flagella Undulating membrane 5 µm
  14. 14. Trichomoniasis; Trichomonas vaginalis
  15. 15. Trichonympha sp. , a parabasalid <ul><li>Have one nucleus and multiple flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Have parabasal body </li></ul>Diplomonads & Parabasalids
  16. 16. <ul><li>Move by flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Photoautotrophs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euglenoids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemoheterotrophs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trypanosoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Undulating membrane, transmitted by vectors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leishmania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flagellated form in sand fly vector, ovoid form in vertebrate host </li></ul></ul></ul>II. Euglenozoa
  17. 17. Euglenoids; Euglena Euglenozoa
  18. 18. การเคลื่อนที่ของยูกลีนา
  19. 19. <ul><li>Kinetoplastids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a single, large mitochondrion that contains an organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include free-living consumers of bacteria in freshwater, marine, and moist terrestrial ecosystems </li></ul></ul>Kinetoplastids
  20. 20. Kinetoplastids
  21. 21. <ul><li>The parasitic kinetoplastid Trypanosoma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes sleeping sickness in humans </li></ul></ul>9  m Kinetoplastids
  22. 22. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense Trypanosoma cruzi Trypanosomiasis, African ( African sleeping sickness ) Trypanosomiasis, American ( Chagas disease ) Kinetoplastids
  23. 23. Trypanosoma
  24. 24. Trypanosomiasis (African Sleeping Sickness); T. brucei gambiense & T. brucei rhodesiense
  25. 25. Trypanosomiasis (American Chagas Disease)
  26. 26. <ul><li>Alveolates have sacs beneath the plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the clade Alveolata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have membrane-bounded sacs (alveoli) just under the plasma membrane </li></ul></ul>Flagellum Alveoli 0.2 µm III. Alveolata
  27. 27. <ul><li>Dinoflagellates </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose in plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll a and c , carotene, xanthins </li></ul><ul><li>Store starch </li></ul><ul><li>Some are symbionts in marine animals </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotoxins cause paralytic shellfish poisoning </li></ul>Alveolata: Dinoflagellate
  28. 28. Alveolata: Dinoflagellate
  29. 29. Dinoflagellate หลายชนิด เช่น Gymnodinium & Trichodesmium จะทำให้เกิดปรากฏการณ์ “ red tide” ในทะเลและมหาสมุทรบางแห่ง และสร้างสารพิษออกมา ทำให้สัตว์น้ำตายครั้งละมาก ๆ โดยจะออกฤทธิ์ที่ระบบประสาท นอกจากนี้ Gymnodinium & Gonyaulax ยังสร้างพิษทำให้ปลาตายและมนุษย์ที่ได้รับสารพิษเข้าไปจะเสียชีวิตได้ Dinoflagellate: Red tide Bloom
  30. 30. Peridinium Trichodesmium Gonyaulax Gymnodinium Diniflagellate
  31. 31. <ul><li>Nonmotile </li></ul><ul><li>Intracellular parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Complex life cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmodium </li></ul>* Plasmodium vivax * Plasmodium malariae * Plasmodium ovale * Plasmodium falciparum Alveolata: Apicomplexa
  32. 32. Alveolata: Apicomplexa; Plasmodium sp. Infected mosquito bites human; sporozoites migrate through bloodstream to liver of human Sporozoites undergo schizogony in liver cell; merozoites are produced Merozoites released into bloodsteam from liver may infect new red blood cells Merozoites are released when red blood cell ruptures; some merozoites infect new red blood cells, and some develop into male and female gametocytes 1 2 3 4 6 Asexual reproduction Intermediate host Merozoite develops into ring stage in red blood cell Ring stage Merozoites Another mosquito bites infected humnan and ingests gametocytes 7 5 Ring stage grows and divides, producing merozoites Definitive host In mosquito’s digestive tract, gametocytes unite to form zygote 8 Male gametocyte Female gametocyte Zygote Sexual reproduction Resulting sporozoites migrate to salivary glands of mosquito 9 Sporozoites in salivary gland
  33. 33. Alveolata: Apicomplexa; Plasmodium sp.
  34. 34. Apicomlexa; Malaria
  35. 35. <ul><li>Ciliates, a large varied group of protists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are named for their use of cilia to move and feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have large macronuclei and small micronuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The micronuclei </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function during conjugation, a sexual process that produces genetic variation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conjugation is separate from reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which generally occurs by binary fission </li></ul></ul>Alveolata: Ciliates
  36. 36. <ul><li>Structure and Function in the Ciliate Paramecium caudatum </li></ul>50 µm Thousands of cilia cover the surface of Paramecium. The undigested contents of food vacuoles are released when the vacuoles fuse with a specialized region of the plasma membrane that functions as an anal pore. Paramecium, like other freshwater protists, constantly takes in water by osmosis from the hypotonic environment. Bladderlike contractile vacuoles accumulate excess water from radial canals and periodically expel it through the plasma membrane. Food vacuoles combine with lysosomes. As the food is digested, the vacuoles follow a looping path through the cell. Paramecium feeds mainly on bacteria. Rows of cilia along a funnel-shaped oral groove move food into the cell mouth, where the food is engulfed into food vacuoles by phagocytosis. Oral groove Cell mouth Micronucleus Macronucleus FEEDING, WASTE REMOVAL, AND WATER BALANCE Contractile Vacuole Alveolata: Ciliates
  37. 37. CONJUGATION AND REPRODUCTION 8 7 2 MICRONUCLEAR FUSION Diploid micronucleus Diploid micronucleus Haploid micronucleus MEIOSIS Compatible mates Key Conjugation Reproduction Macronucleus Two cells of compatible mating strains align side by side and partially fuse. 1 Meiosis of micronuclei produces four haploid micronuclei in each cell. 2 3 Three micronuclei in each cell disintegrate. The remaining micro- nucleus in each cell divides by mitosis. The cells swap one micronucleus. 4 The cells separate. 5 Micronuclei fuse, forming a diploid micronucleus. 6 Three rounds of mitosis without cytokinesis produce eight micronuclei. 7 The original macro- nucleus disintegrates. Four micronuclei become macronuclei, while the other four remain micronuclei. 8 Two rounds of cytokinesis partition one macronucleus and one micronucleus into each of four daughter cells. 9 Alveolata: Ciliates
  38. 38. Stentor Paramecium Ciliates
  39. 39. Stentor polymorphus Stentor roeseli Epistylis rotans Vorticella Paramecium bursaria Euplotes Strombidium Trichodina pediculus Suctoria Ciliates
  40. 40. <ul><li>Stramenopiles have “hairy” and smooth flagella </li></ul><ul><li>The clade Stramenopila </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Includes several groups of heterotrophs as well as certain groups of algae </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most stramenopiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Have a “hairy” flagellum paired with a “smooth” flagellum </li></ul></ul>IV. Stramenopila (Algae) Smooth flagellum Hairy flagellum 5 µm
  41. 41. Algae
  42. 42. <ul><ul><ul><li>Are the largest and most complex algae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are all multicellular, and most are marine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Brown algae (kelp) </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose + alginic acid cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll a and c , xanthophylls; fucoxanthrin </li></ul><ul><li>Store carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Harvested for algin </li></ul>Stramenopila: Brown algae (Phaeophyta)
  43. 43. <ul><li>Kelps, or giant seaweeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live in deep parts of the ocean </li></ul></ul>Stramenopila: Brown algae
  44. 44. Laminaria saccharia - สกัดเอา algin มาทำยา อาหาร เส้นใย ยาง สบู่ ฯลฯ - ใช้ทำปุ๋ย K ไ ด้ Padina & Fucus - ใช้ทำปุ๋ย K ได้ Sargassum ( สาหร่ายทุ่น ) - มีไอโอดีนสูง และยังให้ algin Laminaria & Sargassum - สามารถนำมาตากแห้ง ต้มน้ำดื่มแก้ร้อนใน คอพอก และฟอกเลือด Giant kelp - สร้างสาร algin มาทำยา อาหาร เส้นใย กระดาษ ยาง สบู่ และเป็นสาหร่ายที่มีขนาดใหญ่ที่สุด เป็นที่อยู่อาศัย หลบภัยและอาหารของสัตว์น้ำนานาชนิดใต้ท้องทะเล Laminaria Padina Fucus Brown algae
  45. 45. Sargassum Kelp Brown algae
  46. 46. Brown algae (a) The seaweed is grown on nets in shallow coastal waters. (b) A worker spreads the harvested sea- weed on bamboo screens to dry. (c) Paper-thin, glossy sheets of nori make a mineral-rich wrap for rice, seafood, and vegetables in sushi.
  47. 47. <ul><li>Diatoms </li></ul><ul><li>Pectin and silica cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll a and c , carotene, xanthophylls </li></ul><ul><li>Store oil </li></ul><ul><li>Fossilized diatoms formed oil </li></ul><ul><li>Produce domoic acid </li></ul>Stramenopila: Diatoms ( Bacillariophyta ) 3 µm
  48. 48. <ul><li>Accumulations of fossilized diatom walls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compose much of the sediments known as diatomaceous earth </li></ul></ul>Diatomaceous earth
  49. 49. Pinnidaria Navicular Asterionella Melorista Diatoms
  50. 50. <ul><li>Red algae </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Most multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>No flagella stage </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll a and d , phycobiliproteins (phycocyanin & phycoerythrin ) </li></ul><ul><li>Store glucose polymer </li></ul><ul><li>Harvested for agar and carrageenan </li></ul>V. Rhodophyta (Red algae)
  51. 51. Rhodophyta (Red algae)
  52. 52. Porphyra ( จี่ฉ่าย ) - ใส่แกงจืดเป็นอาหาร Gracilaria ( สาหร่ายผมนาง หรือ สาหร่ายวุ้น ) - นำมาสกัดวุ้นผสมในอาหารเลี้ยงเชื้อจุลินทรีย์ (agar) - ใช้เพาะเลี้ยงเนื้อเยื่อ - ทำแคปซูลยา ทำยา ทำเครื่องสำอางค์ ครีมโกนหนวด ฯลฯ Chondrus Plumoria Andrus Corellina Polysiphinia Gelidium Grinnellia Porphyra Polysiphinia Red algae
  53. 53. Gelidium Chodrus crispus Red algae
  54. 54. <ul><li>Green algae </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular, multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>or colonial form </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll a and b </li></ul><ul><li>Store glucose polymer </li></ul><ul><li>Gave rise to plants </li></ul><ul><li>Are named for their grass-green chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>Are divided into two main groups: chlorophytes and charophyceans </li></ul><ul><li>Are closely related to land plants </li></ul>VI. Chlorophyta (Green algae)
  55. 55. Chlorophyta (Green algae)
  56. 56. Chlorophyta (Green algae)
  57. 57. Chlorophyta (Green algae)
  58. 58. Spirogyra Chlorophyta (Green algae)
  59. 59. Micrasterias rotata Cell division Micrasterias fimbriata Staurastrum Hyalotheka dissilens Closterium lunula Staurodesmus convergens Euastrum verrucosum Volvox aureus Draparnadia platyzonata Mougeotia Pediastrum Chlorophyta (Green algae)
  60. 60. Chlorophyta (Green algae)
  61. 61. Chara sp., Overlap between Protista with Plant Chlorophyta (Green algae)
  62. 62. <ul><li>Cellular slime molds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resemble amoebas, ingest bacteria by phagocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells aggregate into stalked fruiting body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some cells become spores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plasmodial slime molds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multinucleated large cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm separates into stalked sporangia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclei undergo meiosis and form uninucleate haploid spores </li></ul></ul>VII. Mycetozoa (Slim Molds)
  63. 63. Cellular Slim Molds
  64. 64. Plasmodial Slim Molds
  65. 65. Slim Molds
  66. 66. Slim Molds
  67. 67. Slim Molds
  68. 68. Slim Molds
  69. 69. Slim Molds
  70. 70. Slim Molds
  71. 71. Rhizopodium; Amoeba
  72. 72. Amoebiasis
  73. 73. Acanthamoeba spp. & Balamuthia mandrillaris
  74. 74. <ul><li>Entamoeba coli - in Large intestine; colon </li></ul><ul><li>Entamoeba gingivalis - in Mouth; teeth & gill </li></ul><ul><li>Entamoeba histolytica - in Small intestine </li></ul>Entamoeba
  75. 75. <ul><li>Entamoeba histolytica ; Amoebic Dysentery </li></ul><ul><li>Amoeba feeds on RBCs and GI tract tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis by observing trophozoites in feces </li></ul><ul><li>Treated with metronidazole </li></ul>Entamoeba histolytica
  76. 76. The End