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Kingdom Monera

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  • 1. Biodiversity B I O L O G Y Mr. Nattapong Boonpong (B.Ed.) Bodindecha (Sing Singhaseni)
  • 2. Kingdom of Organi B I O L O G Y Mr. Nattapong Boonpong (B.Ed.) Bodindecha (Sing Singhaseni)
  • 3. Kingdom Monera B I O L O G Y Mr. Nattapong Boonpong (B.Ed.) Bodindecha (Sing Singhaseni)
  • 4. Prokaryotic Cells • Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells – Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for prenucleus. – Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true nucleus.
  • 5. Prokaryote Eukaryote • One circular • Paired chromosome, not in chromosomes, in a membrane nuclear membrane • No histones • Histones • No organelles • Organelles • Peptidoglycan cell • Polysaccharide cell walls walls • Binary fission • Mitotic spindle
  • 6. Glycocalyx • Outside cell wall • Usually sticky • A capsule is neatly organized • A slime layer is unorganized & loose • Extracellular polysaccharide allows cell to attach • Capsules prevent phagocytosis
  • 7. Cell Wall • Prevents osmotic lysis • Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria)
  • 8. Peptidoglycan • Polymer of disaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) & N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) • Linked by polypeptides
  • 9. Peptidoglycan
  • 10. Gram-positive cell walls Gram-negative cell walls • Thick peptidoglycan • Thin peptidoglycan • Teichoic acids • No teichoic acids • In acid-fast cells, • Outer membrane contains mycolic acid
  • 11. Gram-Positive cell walls • Teichoic acids: – Lipoteichoic acid links to plasma membrane – Wall teichoic acid links to peptidoglycan • May regulate movement of cations • Polysaccharides provide antigenic variation
  • 12. Gram-Negative Outer Membrane • Lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, phospholipids. • Forms the periplasm between the outer membrane and the plasma membrane. • Protection from phagocytes, complement, antibiotics. • O polysaccharide antigen, e.g., E. coli O157:H7. • Lipid A is an endotoxin. • Porins (proteins) form channels through membrane
  • 13. Gram-Negative Outer Membrane
  • 14. Gram Stain Mechanism • Crystal violet-iodine crystals form in cell • Gram-positive – Alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan – CV-I crystals do not leave • Gram-negative – Alcohol dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes in peptidoglycan – CV-I washes out
  • 15. Atypical Cell Walls • Mycoplasmas – Lack cell walls – Sterols in plasma membrane • Archaea – Wall-less, or – Walls of pseudomurein (lack NAM and D amino acids)
  • 16. Damage to Cell Walls • Lysozyme digests disaccharide in peptidoglycan. • Penicillin inhibits peptide bridges in peptidoglycan. • Protoplast is a wall-less cell. • Spheroplast is a wall-less Gram-positive cell. • L forms are wall-less cells that swell into irregular shapes. • Protoplasts and spheroplasts are susceptible to osmotic lysis.
  • 17. Fimbriae & Pili • Fimbriae allow attachment • Pili are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another Fimbriae 200 nm
  • 18. Flagella • Outside cell wall • Made of chains of flagellin • Attached to a protein hook • Anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body
  • 19. Flagella Arrangement
  • 20. Motile Cells • Rotate flagella to run or tumble • Move toward or away from stimuli (taxis) • Flagella proteins are H antigens (e.g., E. coli O157:H7)
  • 21. Motile Cells
  • 22. Plasma Membrane
  • 23. Plasma Membrane • Phospholipid bilayer • Peripheral proteins • Integral proteins • Transmembrane proteins
  • 24. Fluid Mosaic Model • Membrane is as viscous as olive oil. • Proteins move to function • Phospholipids rotate and move laterally
  • 25. • Some prokaryotes – Do have specialized membranes that perform metabolic functions 0.2 m 1 m Respiratory membrane Thylakoid membranes (a) Aerobic prokaryote (b) Photosynthetic prokaryote
  • 26. Nucleoid • The typical prokaryotic genome – Is a ring of DNA that is not surrounded by a membrane and that is located in a nucleoid region • Some species of bacteria – Also have smaller rings of DNA called plasmids Chromosome 1 m
  • 27. Endospores • Resting cells • Resistant to desiccation, heat, chemicals • Bacillus, Clostridium • Sporulation: Endospore formation • Germination: Return to vegetative state
  • 28. Endospores Endospore 0.3 m
  • 29. Type of Bacteria: Shape • Average size: 0.2 -1.0 µm 2 - 8 µm • Basic shapes:
  • 30. Type of Bacteria: Shape Spheres (Coccus/Cocci)
  • 31. Type of Bacteria: Shape Rods (Bacillus/Bacilli)
  • 32. Type of Bacteria: Shape Spirals (Spirillum/Spirilli)
  • 33. Type of Bacteria: Nutrition and metabolic adaptation • A great diversity of nutritional and metabolic adaptations have evolved in prokaryotes • Examples of all four models of nutrition are found among prokaryotes – Photoautotrophy – Chemoautotrophy – Photoheterotrophy – Chemoheterotrophy
  • 34. Type of Bacteria: Nutrition and metabolic adaptation • Major nutritional modes in prokaryotes
  • 35. Type of Bacteria: Metabolic Relationships to Oxygen • Obligate aerobes – Require oxygen • Facultative anaerobes – Can survive with or without oxygen • Obligate anaerobes – Are poisoned by oxygen
  • 36. Reproduction • Prokaryotes reproduce quickly by binary fission – And can divide every 20 minutes to 1–3 hours
  • 37. Classification • Subkingdom Archaebacteria - Euryarchaeota - Crenarchaeota • Subkingdom Eubacteria - Proteobacteria - - - - - - Chlamydias - Spirochetes - Gram-positive bacteria - Cyanobacteria
  • 38. Classification
  • 39. Archaea • Archaea share certaintraits with bacteria – And other traits with eukaryotes
  • 40. Classification: Subkingdom Archaebacteria Euryarchaeota (Methanophile & Halophile) Crenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile)
  • 41. Archaea • Some archaea – Live in extreme environments • Extreme thermophiles – Thrive in very hot environments
  • 42. Archaea • Extreme halophiles – Live in high saline environments
  • 43. Archaea • Methanogens – Live in swamps and marshes – Produce methane as a waste product • Hyperthermophiles – Pyrodictium – Sulfolobus • Methanogens – Methanobacterium • Extreme halophiles – Halobacterium
  • 44. Microbial Diversity • Bacteria size range – Thiomargarita (750 µm) to nanobacteria (0.02 µm) in rocks
  • 45. Classification: Subkingdom Archaebacteria Crenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile) Pyrococcus abyssi (archaea) • m deep in the Southeast Pacific. • Optimally at 10 C (217 F) • 200 atms
  • 46. Classification: Subkingdom Archaebacteria Crenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile) P. furiosus (archaea) • In the marine sand surrounding sulfurous volcanoes. • Optimally at 100 C (212 F) • Highly resistant to radiation • May possess an efficient system for repairing DNA.
  • 47. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Proteobacteria Rhizobium sp.
  • 48. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Proteobacteria Helicobacter pylori
  • 49. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Clamydias • Chlamydia trachomatis - May be transmitted to newborn's eyes - Painful urination and watery discharge • Mycoplasma hominis • Ureaplasma urealyticum
  • 50. Nongonococcal Urethritis • Chlamydia trachomatis – May be transmitted to newborn's eyes – Painful urination and watery discharge • Mycoplasma hominis • Ureaplasma urealyticum
  • 51. Gonorrhea • Neisseria gonorrhoeae • Attaches to oral or urogenital mucosa by fimbriae • Females may be asymptomatic; males have painful urination and pus discharge • Treatment with antibiotics • Untreated may result in – Endocarditis – Meningitis – Arthritis – Ophthalmia neonatorum
  • 52. Gonorrhea
  • 53. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Spirochete
  • 54. Leptospirosis • Leptospira interrogans • Reservoir: Dogs and rats • Transmitted by skin/mucosal contact from urine- contaminated water • Diagnosis: Isolating bacteria or serological tests
  • 55. Syphilis • Treponema pallidum • Invades mucosa or through skin breaks
  • 56. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Gram-Positive Bacteria Lactobacillus sp. Streptomyces sp. Bacillus sp.
  • 57. Classification Blue green algae (Cya I. Cyanophyta Morphology • Non nuclear membrane • Cell wall ; Cellulose & Pectin • Non flagella • Cyanophycean Starch • Pigment : chlorophyll a , B - carotene , F phycobilin 2 type ; c - phycoer
  • 58. I. Cyanophyta Habitat • • phycoplankton • Ex. Anabaena , Nostoc , Calothrix , Cylin Oscillatoria etc. • Mutualism ; lichen :- • Gloeocapsa & Nostoc is phycobionts • Anabaena azollae & Azolla filiculoides • Blue green algae Protozoa rhiz
  • 59. I. Cyanophyta Reproduction • Only asexual reproduction • Binary fission : Chroococcus , An • Fragmentation : Oscillatoria • Akinete : gl KNO3 & NH4Cl : • Heterocyst : N2 Anabaena , Nostoc , O
  • 60. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Cyanobacteria Anabaena azollae Nostoc sp. Oscillatoria sp. Calothrix sp.
  • 61. Anacystis Chroococcus Calothrix Anabaena Oscillatoria Nostoc
  • 62. The End