Biodiversity
B
I
O
L
O
G
Y

    Mr. Nattapong Boonpong (B.Ed.)
     Bodindecha (Sing Singhaseni)
Kingdom of Organi
B
I
O
L
O
G
Y

    Mr. Nattapong Boonpong (B.Ed.)
     Bodindecha (Sing Singhaseni)
Kingdom Monera
B
I
O
L
O
G
Y

    Mr. Nattapong Boonpong (B.Ed.)
     Bodindecha (Sing Singhaseni)
Prokaryotic Cells

• Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
  Cells
  – Prokaryote comes from the Greek words
    for prenuc...
Prokaryote             Eukaryote


• One circular         • Paired
  chromosome, not in     chromosomes, in
  a membrane  ...
Glycocalyx

• Outside cell wall
• Usually sticky
• A capsule is neatly
  organized
• A slime layer is
  unorganized & loos...
Cell Wall
• Prevents osmotic lysis
• Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria)
Peptidoglycan
• Polymer of disaccharide
  N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) & N-acetylmuramic acid
  (NAM)
• Linked by polypeptides
Peptidoglycan
Gram-positive cell walls   Gram-negative cell walls
 • Thick peptidoglycan      • Thin peptidoglycan
 • Teichoic acids    ...
Gram-Positive cell walls
• Teichoic acids:
   – Lipoteichoic acid links to plasma membrane
   – Wall teichoic acid links t...
Gram-Negative Outer Membrane

• Lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, phospholipids.
• Forms the periplasm between the outer ...
Gram-Negative Outer Membrane
Gram Stain Mechanism


• Crystal violet-iodine crystals form in cell
• Gram-positive
  – Alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan
...
Atypical Cell Walls


• Mycoplasmas
   – Lack cell walls
   – Sterols in plasma membrane
• Archaea
   – Wall-less, or
   –...
Damage to Cell Walls


• Lysozyme digests disaccharide in peptidoglycan.
• Penicillin inhibits peptide bridges in peptidog...
Fimbriae & Pili

• Fimbriae allow
  attachment
• Pili are used to
  transfer DNA from
  one cell to another




         F...
Flagella


• Outside cell wall
• Made of chains of
  flagellin
• Attached to a protein
  hook
• Anchored to the wall
  and...
Flagella Arrangement
Motile Cells



• Rotate flagella to run or tumble
• Move toward or away from stimuli (taxis)
• Flagella proteins are H an...
Motile Cells
Plasma Membrane
Plasma Membrane

•   Phospholipid bilayer
•   Peripheral proteins
•   Integral proteins
•   Transmembrane proteins
Fluid Mosaic Model
• Membrane is as viscous as olive oil.
• Proteins move to function
• Phospholipids rotate and move
  la...
• Some prokaryotes
   – Do have specialized membranes that perform
     metabolic functions
       0.2 m                  ...
Nucleoid
• The typical prokaryotic genome
   – Is a ring of DNA that is not surrounded by a
      membrane and that is loc...
Endospores




•   Resting cells
•   Resistant to desiccation, heat, chemicals
•   Bacillus, Clostridium
•   Sporulation: ...
Endospores



        Endospore




                    0.3 m
Type of Bacteria: Shape

• Average size: 0.2 -1.0 µm   2 - 8 µm
• Basic shapes:
Type of Bacteria: Shape

Spheres (Coccus/Cocci)
Type of Bacteria: Shape

Rods (Bacillus/Bacilli)
Type of Bacteria: Shape

Spirals (Spirillum/Spirilli)
Type of Bacteria: Nutrition and metabolic adaptation

  • A great diversity of nutritional and metabolic
    adaptations h...
Type of Bacteria: Nutrition and metabolic adaptation

 • Major nutritional modes in prokaryotes
Type of Bacteria: Metabolic Relationships to Oxygen


     • Obligate aerobes
       – Require oxygen

     • Facultative ...
Reproduction

• Prokaryotes reproduce quickly by binary fission
   – And can divide every 20 minutes to 1–3 hours
Classification
• Subkingdom Archaebacteria
      - Euryarchaeota
      - Crenarchaeota
• Subkingdom Eubacteria
      - Pro...
Classification
Archaea

• Archaea share
  certaintraits with
  bacteria
   – And other traits
      with eukaryotes
Classification: Subkingdom Archaebacteria


Euryarchaeota (Methanophile & Halophile)

Crenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidoph...
Archaea

• Some archaea
   – Live in extreme environments
• Extreme thermophiles
   – Thrive in very hot environments
Archaea
• Extreme halophiles
   – Live in high saline environments
Archaea
• Methanogens
  – Live in swamps and marshes
  – Produce methane as a waste product

• Hyperthermophiles
   – Pyro...
Microbial Diversity


• Bacteria size range
   – Thiomargarita
     (750 µm) to
     nanobacteria
     (0.02 µm) in
     r...
Classification: Subkingdom Archaebacteria

Crenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile)

   Pyrococcus abyssi (archaea)
      ...
Classification: Subkingdom Archaebacteria

Crenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile)


                P. furiosus (archaea...
Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria

Proteobacteria

      Rhizobium sp.
Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria

Proteobacteria

      Helicobacter pylori
Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria

Clamydias

 • Chlamydia trachomatis
       - May be transmitted to newborn's eyes
 ...
Nongonococcal Urethritis


• Chlamydia trachomatis
  – May be transmitted to newborn's eyes
  – Painful urination and wate...
Gonorrhea

• Neisseria gonorrhoeae
• Attaches to oral or urogenital mucosa by fimbriae
• Females may be asymptomatic; male...
Gonorrhea
Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria

Spirochete
Leptospirosis


• Leptospira interrogans
• Reservoir: Dogs and
  rats
• Transmitted by
  skin/mucosal contact
  from urine...
Syphilis

• Treponema pallidum
• Invades mucosa or through skin breaks
Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria

Gram-Positive Bacteria

         Lactobacillus sp.
         Streptomyces sp.
      ...
Classification
             Blue green algae (Cya
 I. Cyanophyta
   Morphology
     • Non nuclear membrane
     •   Cell w...
I. Cyanophyta
    Habitat
    •
    •             phycoplankton
    • Ex. Anabaena , Nostoc , Calothrix , Cylin
          ...
I. Cyanophyta
  Reproduction
     • Only asexual reproduction
         • Binary fission : Chroococcus , An
         • Frag...
Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria

Cyanobacteria
        Anabaena azollae

        Nostoc sp.

        Oscillatoria sp...
Anacystis
Chroococcus
                            Calothrix



               Anabaena


Oscillatoria               Nostoc
The End
Kingdom Monera
Kingdom Monera
Kingdom Monera
Kingdom Monera
Kingdom Monera
Kingdom Monera
Kingdom Monera
Kingdom Monera
Kingdom Monera
Kingdom Monera
Kingdom Monera
Kingdom Monera
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Kingdom Monera

4,686

Published on

2 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,686
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
129
Comments
2
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Kingdom Monera

  1. 1. Biodiversity B I O L O G Y Mr. Nattapong Boonpong (B.Ed.) Bodindecha (Sing Singhaseni)
  2. 2. Kingdom of Organi B I O L O G Y Mr. Nattapong Boonpong (B.Ed.) Bodindecha (Sing Singhaseni)
  3. 3. Kingdom Monera B I O L O G Y Mr. Nattapong Boonpong (B.Ed.) Bodindecha (Sing Singhaseni)
  4. 4. Prokaryotic Cells • Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells – Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for prenucleus. – Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true nucleus.
  5. 5. Prokaryote Eukaryote • One circular • Paired chromosome, not in chromosomes, in a membrane nuclear membrane • No histones • Histones • No organelles • Organelles • Peptidoglycan cell • Polysaccharide cell walls walls • Binary fission • Mitotic spindle
  6. 6. Glycocalyx • Outside cell wall • Usually sticky • A capsule is neatly organized • A slime layer is unorganized & loose • Extracellular polysaccharide allows cell to attach • Capsules prevent phagocytosis
  7. 7. Cell Wall • Prevents osmotic lysis • Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria)
  8. 8. Peptidoglycan • Polymer of disaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) & N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) • Linked by polypeptides
  9. 9. Peptidoglycan
  10. 10. Gram-positive cell walls Gram-negative cell walls • Thick peptidoglycan • Thin peptidoglycan • Teichoic acids • No teichoic acids • In acid-fast cells, • Outer membrane contains mycolic acid
  11. 11. Gram-Positive cell walls • Teichoic acids: – Lipoteichoic acid links to plasma membrane – Wall teichoic acid links to peptidoglycan • May regulate movement of cations • Polysaccharides provide antigenic variation
  12. 12. Gram-Negative Outer Membrane • Lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, phospholipids. • Forms the periplasm between the outer membrane and the plasma membrane. • Protection from phagocytes, complement, antibiotics. • O polysaccharide antigen, e.g., E. coli O157:H7. • Lipid A is an endotoxin. • Porins (proteins) form channels through membrane
  13. 13. Gram-Negative Outer Membrane
  14. 14. Gram Stain Mechanism • Crystal violet-iodine crystals form in cell • Gram-positive – Alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan – CV-I crystals do not leave • Gram-negative – Alcohol dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes in peptidoglycan – CV-I washes out
  15. 15. Atypical Cell Walls • Mycoplasmas – Lack cell walls – Sterols in plasma membrane • Archaea – Wall-less, or – Walls of pseudomurein (lack NAM and D amino acids)
  16. 16. Damage to Cell Walls • Lysozyme digests disaccharide in peptidoglycan. • Penicillin inhibits peptide bridges in peptidoglycan. • Protoplast is a wall-less cell. • Spheroplast is a wall-less Gram-positive cell. • L forms are wall-less cells that swell into irregular shapes. • Protoplasts and spheroplasts are susceptible to osmotic lysis.
  17. 17. Fimbriae & Pili • Fimbriae allow attachment • Pili are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another Fimbriae 200 nm
  18. 18. Flagella • Outside cell wall • Made of chains of flagellin • Attached to a protein hook • Anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body
  19. 19. Flagella Arrangement
  20. 20. Motile Cells • Rotate flagella to run or tumble • Move toward or away from stimuli (taxis) • Flagella proteins are H antigens (e.g., E. coli O157:H7)
  21. 21. Motile Cells
  22. 22. Plasma Membrane
  23. 23. Plasma Membrane • Phospholipid bilayer • Peripheral proteins • Integral proteins • Transmembrane proteins
  24. 24. Fluid Mosaic Model • Membrane is as viscous as olive oil. • Proteins move to function • Phospholipids rotate and move laterally
  25. 25. • Some prokaryotes – Do have specialized membranes that perform metabolic functions 0.2 m 1 m Respiratory membrane Thylakoid membranes (a) Aerobic prokaryote (b) Photosynthetic prokaryote
  26. 26. Nucleoid • The typical prokaryotic genome – Is a ring of DNA that is not surrounded by a membrane and that is located in a nucleoid region • Some species of bacteria – Also have smaller rings of DNA called plasmids Chromosome 1 m
  27. 27. Endospores • Resting cells • Resistant to desiccation, heat, chemicals • Bacillus, Clostridium • Sporulation: Endospore formation • Germination: Return to vegetative state
  28. 28. Endospores Endospore 0.3 m
  29. 29. Type of Bacteria: Shape • Average size: 0.2 -1.0 µm 2 - 8 µm • Basic shapes:
  30. 30. Type of Bacteria: Shape Spheres (Coccus/Cocci)
  31. 31. Type of Bacteria: Shape Rods (Bacillus/Bacilli)
  32. 32. Type of Bacteria: Shape Spirals (Spirillum/Spirilli)
  33. 33. Type of Bacteria: Nutrition and metabolic adaptation • A great diversity of nutritional and metabolic adaptations have evolved in prokaryotes • Examples of all four models of nutrition are found among prokaryotes – Photoautotrophy – Chemoautotrophy – Photoheterotrophy – Chemoheterotrophy
  34. 34. Type of Bacteria: Nutrition and metabolic adaptation • Major nutritional modes in prokaryotes
  35. 35. Type of Bacteria: Metabolic Relationships to Oxygen • Obligate aerobes – Require oxygen • Facultative anaerobes – Can survive with or without oxygen • Obligate anaerobes – Are poisoned by oxygen
  36. 36. Reproduction • Prokaryotes reproduce quickly by binary fission – And can divide every 20 minutes to 1–3 hours
  37. 37. Classification • Subkingdom Archaebacteria - Euryarchaeota - Crenarchaeota • Subkingdom Eubacteria - Proteobacteria - - - - - - Chlamydias - Spirochetes - Gram-positive bacteria - Cyanobacteria
  38. 38. Classification
  39. 39. Archaea • Archaea share certaintraits with bacteria – And other traits with eukaryotes
  40. 40. Classification: Subkingdom Archaebacteria Euryarchaeota (Methanophile & Halophile) Crenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile)
  41. 41. Archaea • Some archaea – Live in extreme environments • Extreme thermophiles – Thrive in very hot environments
  42. 42. Archaea • Extreme halophiles – Live in high saline environments
  43. 43. Archaea • Methanogens – Live in swamps and marshes – Produce methane as a waste product • Hyperthermophiles – Pyrodictium – Sulfolobus • Methanogens – Methanobacterium • Extreme halophiles – Halobacterium
  44. 44. Microbial Diversity • Bacteria size range – Thiomargarita (750 µm) to nanobacteria (0.02 µm) in rocks
  45. 45. Classification: Subkingdom Archaebacteria Crenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile) Pyrococcus abyssi (archaea) • m deep in the Southeast Pacific. • Optimally at 10 C (217 F) • 200 atms
  46. 46. Classification: Subkingdom Archaebacteria Crenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile) P. furiosus (archaea) • In the marine sand surrounding sulfurous volcanoes. • Optimally at 100 C (212 F) • Highly resistant to radiation • May possess an efficient system for repairing DNA.
  47. 47. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Proteobacteria Rhizobium sp.
  48. 48. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Proteobacteria Helicobacter pylori
  49. 49. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Clamydias • Chlamydia trachomatis - May be transmitted to newborn's eyes - Painful urination and watery discharge • Mycoplasma hominis • Ureaplasma urealyticum
  50. 50. Nongonococcal Urethritis • Chlamydia trachomatis – May be transmitted to newborn's eyes – Painful urination and watery discharge • Mycoplasma hominis • Ureaplasma urealyticum
  51. 51. Gonorrhea • Neisseria gonorrhoeae • Attaches to oral or urogenital mucosa by fimbriae • Females may be asymptomatic; males have painful urination and pus discharge • Treatment with antibiotics • Untreated may result in – Endocarditis – Meningitis – Arthritis – Ophthalmia neonatorum
  52. 52. Gonorrhea
  53. 53. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Spirochete
  54. 54. Leptospirosis • Leptospira interrogans • Reservoir: Dogs and rats • Transmitted by skin/mucosal contact from urine- contaminated water • Diagnosis: Isolating bacteria or serological tests
  55. 55. Syphilis • Treponema pallidum • Invades mucosa or through skin breaks
  56. 56. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Gram-Positive Bacteria Lactobacillus sp. Streptomyces sp. Bacillus sp.
  57. 57. Classification Blue green algae (Cya I. Cyanophyta Morphology • Non nuclear membrane • Cell wall ; Cellulose & Pectin • Non flagella • Cyanophycean Starch • Pigment : chlorophyll a , B - carotene , F phycobilin 2 type ; c - phycoer
  58. 58. I. Cyanophyta Habitat • • phycoplankton • Ex. Anabaena , Nostoc , Calothrix , Cylin Oscillatoria etc. • Mutualism ; lichen :- • Gloeocapsa & Nostoc is phycobionts • Anabaena azollae & Azolla filiculoides • Blue green algae Protozoa rhiz
  59. 59. I. Cyanophyta Reproduction • Only asexual reproduction • Binary fission : Chroococcus , An • Fragmentation : Oscillatoria • Akinete : gl KNO3 & NH4Cl : • Heterocyst : N2 Anabaena , Nostoc , O
  60. 60. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Cyanobacteria Anabaena azollae Nostoc sp. Oscillatoria sp. Calothrix sp.
  61. 61. Anacystis Chroococcus Calothrix Anabaena Oscillatoria Nostoc
  62. 62. The End

×