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Kingdom Monera
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Kingdom Monera

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อาณาจักรมอเนอรา ประกอบด้วย สิ่งมีชีวิตพวกยูคาริโอต ได้แก่ แบคทีเรีย อารีแบคทีเรีย และสาหร่ายสีเขียวแกมน้ำเงิน

อาณาจักรมอเนอรา ประกอบด้วย สิ่งมีชีวิตพวกยูคาริโอต ได้แก่ แบคทีเรีย อารีแบคทีเรีย และสาหร่ายสีเขียวแกมน้ำเงิน

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  • 1. Biodiversity B I O L O G Y Mr. Nattapong Boonpong (B.Ed.) Bodindecha (Sing Singhaseni) 1
  • 2. Kingdom of Organism B I O L O G Y Mr. Nattapong Boonpong (B.Ed.) Bodindecha (Sing Singhaseni) 2
  • 3. 3
  • 4. Kingdom Monera B I O L O G Y Mr. Nattapong Boonpong (B.Ed.) Bodindecha (Sing Singhaseni) Prokaryotic Cells • Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells – Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for prenucleus. – Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true nucleus. 4
  • 5. Prokaryote Eukaryote • One circular • Paired chromosome, not in chromosomes, in a membrane nuclear membrane • No histones • Histones • No organelles • Organelles • Peptidoglycan cell • Polysaccharide cell walls walls • Binary fission • Mitotic spindle Glycocalyx • Outside cell wall • Usually sticky • A capsule is neatly organized • A slime layer is unorganized & loose • Extracellular polysaccharide allows cell to attach • Capsules prevent phagocytosis Cell Wall • Prevents osmotic lysis • Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria) 5
  • 6. Peptidoglycan • Polymer of disaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) & N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) • Linked by polypeptides Peptidoglycan Gram-positive cell walls Gram-negative cell walls • Thick peptidoglycan • Thin peptidoglycan • Teichoic acids • No teichoic acids • In acid-fast cells, • Outer membrane contains mycolic acid 6
  • 7. Gram-Positive cell walls • Teichoic acids: – Lipoteichoic acid links to plasma membrane – Wall teichoic acid links to peptidoglycan • May regulate movement of cations • Polysaccharides provide antigenic variation Gram-Negative Outer Membrane • Lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, phospholipids. • Forms the periplasm between the outer membrane and the plasma membrane. • Protection from phagocytes, complement, antibiotics. • O polysaccharide antigen, e.g., E. coli O157:H7. • Lipid A is an endotoxin. • Porins (proteins) form channels through membrane Gram-Negative Outer Membrane 7
  • 8. Gram Stain Mechanism • Crystal violet-iodine crystals form in cell • Gram-positive – Alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan – CV-I crystals do not leave • Gram-negative – Alcohol dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes in peptidoglycan – CV-I washes out Atypical Cell Walls • Mycoplasmas – Lack cell walls – Sterols in plasma membrane • Archaea – Wall-less, or – Walls of pseudomurein (lack NAM and D amino acids) Damage to Cell Walls • Lysozyme digests disaccharide in peptidoglycan. • Penicillin inhibits peptide bridges in peptidoglycan. • Protoplast is a wall-less cell. • Spheroplast is a wall-less Gram-positive cell. • L forms are wall-less cells that swell into irregular shapes. • Protoplasts and spheroplasts are susceptible to osmotic lysis. 8
  • 9. Fimbriae & Pili • Fimbriae allow attachment • Pili are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another Fimbriae 200 nm Flagella • Outside cell wall • Made of chains of flagellin • Attached to a protein hook • Anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body Flagella Arrangement 9
  • 10. Motile Cells • Rotate flagella to run or tumble • Move toward or away from stimuli (taxis) • Flagella proteins are H antigens (e.g., E. coli O157:H7) Motile Cells 10
  • 11. Plasma Membrane Plasma Membrane • Phospholipid bilayer • Peripheral proteins • Integral proteins • Transmembrane proteins Fluid Mosaic Model • Membrane is as viscous as olive oil. • Proteins move to function • Phospholipids rotate and move laterally 11
  • 12. • Some prokaryotes – Do have specialized membranes that perform metabolic functions 0.2 m 1 m Respiratory membrane Thylakoid membranes (a) Aerobic prokaryote (b) Photosynthetic prokaryote Nucleoid • The typical prokaryotic genome – Is a ring of DNA that is not surrounded by a membrane and that is located in a nucleoid region • Some species of bacteria – Also have smaller rings of DNA called plasmids Chromosome 1 m Endospores • Resting cells • Resistant to desiccation, heat, chemicals • Bacillus, Clostridium • Sporulation: Endospore formation • Germination: Return to vegetative state 12
  • 13. Endospores Endospore 0.3 m Type of Bacteria: Shape • Average size: 0.2 -1.0 µm  2 - 8 µm • Basic shapes: Type of Bacteria: Shape Spheres (Coccus/Cocci) 13
  • 14. Type of Bacteria: Shape Rods (Bacillus/Bacilli) Type of Bacteria: Shape Spirals (Spirillum/Spirilli) Type of Bacteria: Nutrition and metabolic adaptation • A great diversity of nutritional and metabolic adaptations have evolved in prokaryotes • Examples of all four models of nutrition are found among prokaryotes – Photoautotrophy – Chemoautotrophy – Photoheterotrophy – Chemoheterotrophy 14
  • 15. Type of Bacteria: Nutrition and metabolic adaptation • Major nutritional modes in prokaryotes Type of Bacteria: Metabolic Relationships to Oxygen • Obligate aerobes – Require oxygen • Facultative anaerobes – Can survive with or without oxygen • Obligate anaerobes – Are poisoned by oxygen Reproduction • Prokaryotes reproduce quickly by binary fission – And can divide every 20 minutes to 1–3 hours 15
  • 16. Classification • Subkingdom Archaebacteria - Euryarchaeota - Crenarchaeota • Subkingdom Eubacteria - Proteobacteria - - - - - - Chlamydias - Spirochetes - Gram-positive bacteria - Cyanobacteria Classification Archaea • Archaea share certaintraits with bacteria – And other traits with eukaryotes 16
  • 17. Classification: Subkingdom Archaebacteria Euryarchaeota (Methanophile & Halophile) Crenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile) Archaea • Some archaea – Live in extreme environments • Extreme thermophiles – Thrive in very hot environments Archaea • Extreme halophiles – Live in high saline environments 17
  • 18. Archaea • Methanogens – Live in swamps and marshes – Produce methane as a waste product • Hyperthermophiles – Pyrodictium – Sulfolobus • Methanogens – Methanobacterium • Extreme halophiles – Halobacterium 18
  • 19. Microbial Diversity • Bacteria size range – Thiomargarita (750 µm) to nanobacteria (0.02 µm) in rocks Classification: Subkingdom Archaebacteria Crenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile) Pyrococcus abyssi (archaea) • 3,500 m deep in the Southeast Pacific. • Optimally at 103°C (217°F) • 200 atms Classification: Subkingdom Archaebacteria Crenarchaeota (Thermophile & Acidophile) P. furiosus (archaea) • In the marine sand surrounding sulfurous volcanoes. • Optimally at 100°C (212°F) • Highly resistant to radiation • May possess an efficient system for repairing DNA. 19
  • 20. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Proteobacteria Rhizobium sp. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Proteobacteria Helicobacter pylori Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Clamydias • Chlamydia trachomatis - May be transmitted to newborn's eyes - Painful urination and watery discharge • Mycoplasma hominis • Ureaplasma urealyticum 20
  • 21. Nongonococcal Urethritis • Chlamydia trachomatis – May be transmitted to newborn's eyes – Painful urination and watery discharge • Mycoplasma hominis • Ureaplasma urealyticum Gonorrhea • Neisseria gonorrhoeae • Attaches to oral or urogenital mucosa by fimbriae • Females may be asymptomatic; males have painful urination and pus discharge • Treatment with antibiotics • Untreated may result in – Endocarditis – Meningitis – Arthritis – Ophthalmia neonatorum Gonorrhea 21
  • 22. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Spirochete Leptospirosis • Leptospira interrogans • Reservoir: Dogs and rats • Transmitted by skin/mucosal contact from urine- contaminated water • Diagnosis: Isolating bacteria or serological tests Syphilis • Treponema pallidum • Invades mucosa or through skin breaks 22
  • 23. Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Gram-Positive Bacteria Lactobacillus sp. Streptomyces sp. Bacillus sp. Classification I. Cyanophyta I. Cyanophyta Blue green algae (Cyanobacteria) Morphology • Non nuclear membrane • Cell wall ; Cellulose & Pectin • Non flagella • Cyanophycean Starch • Pigment : chlorophyll a , B - carotene , Flavicin & phycobilin 2 type ; c - phycoerythrin & c - phycocyanin ทําใหมสีน้ําเงิน ี I. Cyanophyta I. Cyanophyta Habitat • น้ําจืด น้ําเค็ม ในดินที่ชนแฉะ ื้ • บางชนิดเปน phycoplankton พบในน้ําจืดและทะเลสาบทั่วไป • Ex. Anabaena , Nostoc , Calothrix , Cylindrospermum , Tolypothrix Oscillatoria etc. การดํารงชีวิต • Mutualism ; lichen :- • Gloeocapsa & Nostoc is phycobionts • Anabaena azollae & Azolla filiculoides • Blue green algae & Protozoa พวก rhizopod ที่เรียกวา cyanellae 23
  • 24. I. Cyanophyta I. Cyanophyta Reproduction • Only asexual reproduction • Binary fission : Chroococcus , Anacystis , nidular • Fragmentation : Oscillatoria • Akinete : การสรางจะถูกกระตุนดวย glucose และถูกยับยั้งดวย KNO3 & NH4Cl : เปนโครงสรางที่มีผนังหนา และมีอาหารสะสมภายใน • Heterocyst : ตรึง N2 ในอากาศ Anabaena , Nostoc , Oscillatoria , Calothrix Classification: Subkingdom Eubacteria Cyanobacteria Anabaena azollae Nostoc sp. Oscillatoria sp. Calothrix sp. 24
  • 25. Anacystis Chroococcus Calothrix Anabaena Oscillatoria Nostoc The End 25