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  • Wide view: Programmatic overviewBeliefs about language learnersNarrow in on strategic use of two languages in classroom practice and planning
  • a) if you are mostly working within a bilingual scenario (TBE or DL)b) if you are mostly working within a monolingual scenario (work with ELLs in TPI or General Ed setting)c) both
  • Smiley faces: pink=native speakers of LOTE/identified as ELLsBlue=native speakers of English/not identified as ELLNote in the “students served” column, the students for whom the programs are traditionally designed are represented on the left of the dotted line, while all other students who may be actually served are included to the right.Color: deeper color denotes deeper level of language proficiency. Note: recognizes the language development of native English speakers in their first language (ie. Everyone is engaged in language development, not just ELLs)
  • Smiley faces: pink=native speakers of LOTE/identified as ELLsBlue=native speakers of English/not identified as ELLNote in the “students served” column, the students for whom the programs are traditionally designed are represented on the left of the dotted line, while all other students who may be actually served are included to the right.Color: deeper color denotes deeper level of language proficiency. Note: recognizes the language development of native English speakers in their first language (ie. Everyone is engaged in language development, not just ELLs)Note that ESL can refer to a model/approach to entire program, but is an essential component to all other programs, including DL and TBE.Ask yourself – what relevance does the conversation about strategic use of two languages have in monolingual programs?
  • Add your thoughts to the chat:what relevance does the conversation about strategic use of two languages have in monolingual programs? (mostly asking about ELLs in general ed and TPI programs)
  • Look at these side by side to note basic elements of each.TPI and TBE mandated in ILDL is recognized as meeting the mandates of TBE – but goes above and beyond requirementsLOTE should be scaffolded – in TBE more likely for the variety of native language development among ELLs, in DL additionally scaffolded with the non-ELL students in mind.
  • The more robust the TPI program in terms of leveraging students’ use of their native language and providing NL supports, the more it resembles TBE…the more robust (closer to developmental program) the TBE, the more it resembles DL.
  • Thinking about program design – how are staff, schedules, resources allocated to accomplish the various elements of the program? (Column headings reflect input districts must report in their SIS.)How will these choices help or hinder strategic use of two languages?How can strategic use of two languages be maximized based on the structures? (e.g. if scaffolded content in English is taking place in a departmentalized context, how must content area teachers communicate and collaborate to ensure consistent practices in use of LOTE?)Whenis language the goal and when is language the means toward the goal?Administrators need to work with teachers so they have input on how to design programs and allocate resources so that teachers can thoughtfully implement each component as robustly as possible within their scenario (TPI, TBE, DL)
  • Must regularly check our own beliefs – these are the lens through which we should ultimately make programmatic and instructional decisions. Too often we are pressured to make these decisions through a pragmatic lens.Need to share these with colleagues to build common vision – toward collaborative decision making and consistency across the program.
  • Digestible read for participants to use in own PD/study groups/staff meetings. Available online. Most applicable to all ELLs, though some myths focus on Latino ELLs (majority language group among ELLs in IL).
  • If there will be no text based discussion of article, can quickly review the highlights/conclusions in the whole group.
  • Espinosa’s conclusions about parents are not directly relevant to this presentation but take the opportunity to note:Linguistic and cultural assets of parents can enhance strategic use of language in classroom – can be engaged as partners to give input on culture (e.g. share traditions from their culture), provide language models (e.g. do a read aloud in NL), and engaging them is critical to supporting teacher’s approach at home. Parents can support strategic use of two languages in any kind of program - from TPI to DL.
  • If we agree that bilingualism is a worthy goal, we must build programs that nurture it as much as possible. For EVERY child to have access and opportunities to add a language, not just learn a second language (English) at the expense of their LOTE.
  • Note: benefits of bilingualism have gotten growing attention in the mainstream media. But how much attention is there to the distinction – bilingualism for whom? For native English speakers? For ELLs?
  • Big ideas from Chapter 4 of Teaching for Biliteracy. Following slides follow this progression.
  • Some important points to highlight on this slide:ELLs are not a monolithic group – they represent a wide spectrum of diversity across many dimensionsWe have to challenge our assumptions about which of these variables “go together” – e.g. while it is common for refugees to have significantly interrupted schooling, some refugees may be highly educated and on grade level in their native language. OR, while a newcomer may be identified as an ELL, they may not be at the earliest stages of English Language Development because they had the opportunity to learn English in their country of origin. ORNot all ELLs are immigrants. LANGUAGEWhether we label them by their language “deficit” (e.g. LEP) or more positively by their learning process (ELL), we are defining them first by their language – but we need to look at all aspects of diversityWhat is spoken in their home may not be the language they prefer to use (in some or all contexts) – the language listed on the HLS may not be the language with which they identify…Home language (language spoken in the home) may not be their “native” or first language but a heritage languageWhat ELLs demonstrate in social language may be at a different level from their academic language (in either English or their home language)Parents may have different levels of language development than student in either/both languagesBACKGROUNDELLs can range from Newcomer to 2nd, 3rd, 4th generationELLs can range from very Unfamiliar/Resistant to US culture to very well acclimated/embraces US culture The immigration experience (for ELLs or for their parents, grandparents) is not the same for all (e.g. some immigrate by choice, some for economic necessity, some for political necessity/fear)CULTUREMay be different ethnic cultures among ELLs of from the same country of origin/heritage. (Also culture may vary across geographic areas of one country)LEARNER PROFILEELLs can have a range of Cognitive, Behavioral, Physical GIFTS or disabilities – we can often conflate or confuse linguistic or cultural attributes with their range of other abilitiesRange from Interrupted Formal Education to having grade level academics in home country/native languageOTHER DEMOGRAPHICSThis and all of the other variables apply to all students in some way. Some are more of a stretch and less of immediate use to teachers to know about their students (e.g. we ALL have at least one country of origin/heritage if we go back far enough in the generations, and we either have lost or maintained some level of the language of our ancestors) but all kids have language and culture and background and a unique learner profile…
  • 2012 – Common Core connections embedded
  • New! Followsformat of WIDA ELD standards, but tailored to specific nature of SpanishSLD standards look at lang development across content and throughout day - Distinct from Spanish Language Arts Standards (content area paradigm)
  • Distinct from new WIDA SLD standards. Use these to inform Spanish Language Arts planning (content area paradigm)
  • Raise your hand if you reference WIDA standards regularly in your planning and formative assessment
  • Planning instructionally and planning programmatically go hand in hand.Program designers (ideally administrators and teachers --- and parents and students) have to think through the necessary conditions (staff, materials, supports, schedules, etc.) to make effective and strategic use of two languages possible.
  • Before we get into biliteracy unit structure, address some more general questions that are often hot topics in language use.
  • If LOTE is only seen as a tool to provide ELLs with access to content until they can survive content instruction in English…that’s one storyIf development of LOTE is recognized as a benefit in and of itself (and to the development of literacy in English), done both through content and explicit NL development, that is another.
  • Teachers, no matter how fluent, need to prepare for teaching in the LOTE to make sure they have the vocabulary and essential language for the teaching of a particular unit without code-switching.Teachers must also anticipate how they will respond to students when they code-switch in different contexts.Instruction in LOTE – student response in English or mix of Eng and LOTE – teacher response must be guided by understanding why the student has code-switched.
  • Here Idefer to LOTE as language of heavy lifting – raise its status and ensure ample time allocated to it. But note that it can go either way.TPR – leads them into a new concept through experience and examples
  • LEA is a great practice and highlights how we may need to undertake big shifts from how we traditionally approach language arts – here we are starting with Doing and Writing, vs a more traditional Listening and Reading (before Writing).
  • [LOTE] is added by me (not in orginal text).
  • Double helix analogy – Bilinguals are not 2 parallel monolinguals within the same brain - we are double helix of language usersA biliteracy curriculum mirrors the double helix.
  • Bridging happens – bilinguals do it anyway - but when teachers are intentional about facilitating it (plan for the Bridge), it is much more powerful.
  • Note that it goes two ways. LOTE to English and English to LOTE.
  • Not an exhaustive list…
  • The extension from one unit provides a natural launching pad for a new unit that begins in that (extension) language. E.g. Soc Studies unit primarily in Spanish Bridge in both Sp and Eng – extension activity in English allows for highlighting more universal concepts/vocabulary that can be thematically connected across disciplines - provides a lead-in to a Science unit primarily in English (while the next Social Studies unit begins in Spanish).
  • The extension from one unit provides a natural launching pad for a new unit that begins in that (extension) language. E.g. Soc Studies unit primarily in Spanish Bridge in both Sp and Eng – extension activity in English allows for highlighting more universal concepts/vocabulary that can be thematically connected across disciplines - provides a lead-in to a Science unit primarily in English (while the next Social Studies unit begins in Spanish).Double helix analogy. This structure for the curriculum is a bit like a parking garage in which the up ramp curls around the down ramp – and there are points of intersection where we are guided to cross over to the other ramp (Bridge).
  • Beeman and Urow – contains Biliteracy Unit Framework, Unit template, focus on Spanish-English biliteracy in programs designed with biliteracy as a goalMenken and Kleyn – big idea – power of reintroducing native language instruction to ELLs who have not recently or ever had formal NL instruction.Fu – good reference on how to use NL and Eng across settings – including where English is the primary language of instruction (TPI). Addresses code-switching.
  • https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/PTSFXGT

Strategic use of two languages.final.share withparticipants.webinar.1.22.14(1) Strategic use of two languages.final.share withparticipants.webinar.1.22.14(1) Presentation Transcript

  • Strategic Use of Two Languages Webinar -- January 22, 2014 Olivia Mulcahy, Illinois Resource Center
  • Housekeeping  Check speakers  Find raise hand icon  Chat feature  Technical questions 2 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • Strategic Use of Two Languages  plan what language should be used for what purpose so as to reach deeper levels of academic language.  identify when the bridge (explicit teaching for transfer) between two languages should occur  explore how to create bilingual units of study using the strategic, rather than random use of Spanish and English. 3 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • Pause to…  Reflect  Weigh in on a poll  In what type of instructional setting do you work?  Share an Insight  Pose a Question 4 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • Analyze: Bilingual programs’ linguistic goals and variety of intended/actual learners EDUCATION OF LANGUAGE LEARNERS MODE MODEL PROGRAMS BILINGUAL Two-Way Immersion One-Way Immersion DUAL (Developmental Bilingual LANGUAGE Education) One-Way Immersion (World Language Immersion) BILINGUAL 5 Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE) Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014 STUDENTS SERVED LINGUISTIC PROGRAM GOAL
  • Analyze: Monolingual programs’ linguistic goals and variety of intended/actual learners EDUCATION OF LANGUAGE LEARNERS MONOLIGUAL MODE 6 MODEL PROGRAMS ENGLISH AS Transitional Program of A SECOND Instruction (TPI) LANGUAGE* WORLD LANGUAGE World Language FLES or FLEX GENERAL EDUCATION General Program of Instruction (For ELLs, English “submersion”) Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014 STUDENTS SERVED LINGUISTIC PROGRAM GOAL
  • Pause to…  Reflect  Weigh in on a poll  Share an Insight  What relevance 7 does the conversation about strategic use of two languages have in monolingual programs? Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC,  Pose a Question 2014
  • Elements of Programs for ELLs TPI TBE • ESL • Scaffolded Content in English • History and Culture of US and Home Country • LOTE* Supports 8 DL • ESL • Scaffolded Content in English • History and Culture of US and Home Country • (Scaffolded) Content in LOTE • LOTE development Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC,*LOTE= English 2014 • ESL • Scaffolded Content in English • History and Culture of US and Home Country • (Scaffolded) Content in LOTE • Robust LOTE Development toward balanced biliteracy Language Other Than
  • Programmatic support of bilingualism and biliteracy TPI 9 TBE Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014 DL
  • Instructional contexts SelfContained Departmenta Pull-out lized History and Culture of US and of Home Country ESL Scaffolded Content in English Scaffolded Content in LOTE LOTE development LOTE supports 10 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014 Push-in Team Teaching
  • Pause to…  Reflect  What beliefs about language and language learners ground you and guide you?  Weigh in on a poll  Share an Insight  Pose a Question 11 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • Challenging Common Myths About Young English Language Learners By Linda M. Espinosa, Foundation for Child Development, Policy Brief, Advancing PK-3, January, 2008 http://fcdus.org/sites/default/files/MythsOfTeachingELLsEsp inosa.pdf Strategic Use of Two Languages; IRC, Mulcahy, 2014
  • Conclusions: Bilingualism 1. All young children are capable of learning two languages. Becoming bilingual has long-term cognitive, academic, social, cultural, and economic benefits. Bilingualism is an asset. - Espinosa, 2008 Strategic Use of Two Languages; IRC, Mulcahy, 2014
  • Conclusions: Home language 2. Young ELL students require systematic support for the continued development of their home language. 3. Loss of the home language has potential negative long-term consequences for the DLL child’s academic, social, and emotional development, as well as for the family dynamics. Strategic Use of Two Languages IRC, Mulcahy, 2014 - Espinosa, 2008
  • Conclusions: Programs 4. Teachers and programs can adopt effective strategies to support home language development even when the teachers are monolingual English speakers. 5. Dual language programs are an effective approach to improving academic achievement for ELL children while also providing benefits Strategic Use of Two Languages; IRC, Mulcahy, to native English speakers. 2014 -
  • Conclusions: Parents Hispanic Spanish-speaking children enter Kindergarten with many social strengths that are the result of positive parenting practices that need to be acknowledged and enhanced. 7. Hispanic parents value highquality early education and will enroll their young children if programs are affordable and accessible. Strategic Use of Two Languages; IRC, Mulcahy, 6. 2014 - Espinosa, 2008
  • Benefits of being bilingual  Cognitive  Academic  Social / Cultural  Economic Strategic Use of Two Languages; IRC, Mulcahy, 2014
  • Bilingualism in the Mainstream Media How the Brain Benefits from Being Bilingual (Time, 2013) New Study Shows Brain Benefits of Bilingualism (NPR, 2013) 18 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014 Why Bilinguals are Smarter (The New York Times, 2012)
  • Pause to…  Reflect  Weigh in on a poll  Share an Insight  What is resonating for you?  Pose a Question 19 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • Strategic use of two languages  Knowing our students  Planning for language use  Integrating literacy and content-area 20 instruction  Beginning with concrete activity  Moving from concrete to abstract  Reading and writing comprehensible text  Making cross-linguistic connections through the bridge Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014 • Beeman and Urow, 2013
  • Knowing our students and their assets Language Background Culture Learner Profile Other Demo. Strategic Use of Two Languages; IRC, Mulcahy, 2014 •Home (Native/Heritage) Language(s) •Preferred Language(s) for Different Purposes •Stage of English Development •Stage of Home (Native/Heritage) Language Development •Country of Origin/Heritage •Immigrant or U.S. Born •Length of Time in U.S. •Socio-Political Context (Refugee/Asylee?) •Ethnic Culture •Family Culture •Religion •Level of Acculturation to U.S. •Formal Education Experience •Learning Style •Communication Style •Aptitudes and Abilities •Personality and Interests •Race/Ethnicity •Age •Socio-Economic Status •Gender Identity •Sexual Identity
  • Planning for Language Use  Programmatically (grade levels, vertical alignment)  Instructionally (classroom level, differentiated by language development)  Teachers’ use of Language in the classroom  Students’ use of Language in the classroom 22 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • WIDA ELD Standards: 2012 Amplification Language Learners and Language Learning; IRC, Mulcahy, 2014
  • WIDA Spanish Language Development Standards Standard Abbreviation Spanish Language Development Standard 1 Emergent bilinguals communicate for Social and Instructional purposes within the school setting Social and Instructional Language Spanish Language Development Standard 2 Emergent bilinguals communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Language Arts The language of Language Arts Spanish Language Development Standard 3 Emergent bilinguals communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Mathematics The language of Mathematics Spanish Language Development Standard 4 Emergent bilinguals communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Science The language of Science Spanish Language Development Standard 5 Emergent bilinguals communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Social Studies The language of Social Studies http://www.wida.us/standards/sld.aspx 24 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • WIDA Spanish Language Arts Standards 1. READING AND LITERATURE: Read and respond to literature and other writings representative of Spanishspeaking societies. Rationale: Reading is essential. It is the process by which people gain information and ideas from books, newspapers, manuals, letters, contracts, advertisements, and numerous other materials. Using strategies for constructing meaning before, during and after reading wil l help students connect what they read now with what they have learned in the past. Students who read well and widely build a strong foundation for learning in all areas of life. A. Apply reading strategies to improve understanding of Spanish printed text EARLY ELEMENTARY LATE ELEMENTARY 1.A.1a Demonstrate understanding of concepts of print (e.g. parts of a book, title, author, left-right tracking, topbottom). 1.A.1b Apply word analysis skills, (e.g., Spanish phonics including phonemic awareness, letter-sound correspondence, spelling patterns, syllabification, diphthongs, syllable juncture, accent marks, diérisis, and tildes) to decode new words. 1.A.2a Identify and use organizational features of texts, such as headings, paragraphs, and format, to improve understanding. 1.A.2b Apply word analysis skills to decode and comprehend unfamiliar words. 25 MIDDLE/JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 1.A.3b Apply knowledge of word origins and derivations, including cognates, to comprehend words used in specific content areas (e.g., scientific, political, literary, mathematical). Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014 HIGH SCHOOL 1.A.4b Identify and analyze Spanish word origins and derivations and use idioms, analogies, metaphors and similes to extend vocabulary development.
  • Pause to…  Reflect  Weigh in on a poll  Do you reference 26 WIDA standards regularly in your planning and formative assessment?  Share an Insight  Pose Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, a Question Strategic Use of 2014
  • Program Design Considerations  Content Allocation  How is content organized within and across the curricula?  How much time is needed for each subject area?  Language Allocation  What (subject areas, units, lessons) will be taught in English, in the LOTE? – Across the grades?  TBE – planned at program level, ultimately determined closer to the individual student level  DL – determined at the program level  Resource Allocation  Staff  Materials  Supports (TPI – supports in the LOTE?) 27 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • FAQs on Language Use  How long do they need native language instruction?  How can I support LOTE development if I don’t speak it myself?  Is Code-switching ok? 28 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • How much NL do they need? Depends on how we define “College and Career Ready” Not surprisingly, "the need to understand other cultures and languages" was identified by Daniel Yankelovich as one of five imperative needs to which higher education must respond in the next ten years if it is to remain relevant. "Our whole culture," Yankelovich says, "must become less ethnocentric, less patronizing, less ignorant of others, less Manichaean in judging other cultures, and more at home with the rest of the world. Higher education can do a lot to meet that important challenge.”
  • Ideas for LOTE use in the “monolingual” classroom:  LOTE versions of text books available for 30 reference  Lending library of trade books in the LOTE  Native language tutors  Guest speakers/readers of LOTE  Time/space for students to discuss, respond, brainstorm with each other in LOTE  Students draft essays in their native language (Danling Fu)  Student partners create co-authored bilingual books (Jim Cummins)  Partnering with ethnic/cultural orgs that provide Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014 “Saturday school” to coordinate themes/share
  • Pause to…  Reflect  Weigh in on a poll  Share an Insight  What are your thoughts on code-switching?  Pose a Question 31 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • A rule of thumb on Codeswitching  Code-switching is normal for bilingual learners and is to be expected, but the mixing of languages by the teacher in an academic setting poses problems. (Beeman and Urow, 2013) 32 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • Beginning a biliteracy unit  Unit begins in one language 33 (LOTE) – stays in this language until the Bridge  Builds on students linguistic and cultural assets  Engaging, multimodal, experiential  Highly comprehensible, concrete activity  Focus on developing academic oracy and background Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, knowledge 2014 • Beeman and Urow,
  • Moving from Concrete to Abstract… “[The teacher] knows that because of the great variety of linguistic, cultural, and academic backgrounds that her students bring to class, she must start with a highly comprehensible, concrete activity in order to create a comprehensible context for reading and writing.” • Beeman and Urow, 2013 …Reading and Writing Comprehensible Text “The [Language Experience Approach] LEA takes advantage of a highly comprehensible activity students have participated in together and models how oral language is connected to written language.” Beeman and Urow, 2013 34 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • Biliteracy Unit Framework: 3 Premises  Begins in Spanish (LOTE) and sets aside time specifically for Spanish (LOTE)  Includes a planned time for teaching about the connection between the two languages – the Bridge  Supports the teaching of elements unique to each language 35 • Beeman and Urow, Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2013 2014
  • An Effective Biliteracy Unit Framework  Tackles the issue of allocation of time and     36 resources Provides a structure for planning for the strategic use of Spanish [LOTE] and English Includes activities and strategies that reflect the distinct linguistic and cultural rules of Spanish [LOTE] and English Includes strategies for transferring skills and understanding between languages Integrates instruction in literacy skills with meaningful content Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, and • Beeman IRC, 2014 Urow, 2013
  • What is the Bridge? A time and space for facilitating cross-linguistic transfer and for developing metalinguistic awareness • Spanish BRIDGE • Spanish • English Heavy Lift 37 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014 • English Extension
  • Bridging and the Bridge “The Bridge is a part of a unit that has been planned and organized by the teacher. Bridging, or translanguaging, however, is more flexible and spontaneous than the Bridge and need not involve the teacher. Bridging occurs during the Bridge and whenever students and teachers make connections between the two languages.” 38 • Beeman IRC, Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, and 2014 Urow, 2013
  • Pause to…  Reflect  Weigh in on a poll  Share an Insight  How have you facilitated bridging?  Pose a Question 39 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • What happens during the Bridge? Teacher guides students to  Explore similarities and differences between the two languages (contrastive analysis)  Transfer what students have learned in/about one language to the other  Connect content area knowledge and skills learned in one language to the other language • Beeman and Urow, 2013 40 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • What can it look like?  Cognate studies  Partnering to summarize/review key concepts 41 learned in the LOTE and identify their labels in English  Creating anchor charts to show similarities and differences between some aspect of the two languages  Students applying/creating Total Physical Response gestures to vocabulary in both languages Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC,  Interactive discussions of how phrasing in 2014
  • Units in Context • Spanish BRIDGE • Spanish • English • English Heavy Lift Extension Theme • English Heavy Lift 42 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014 • Big Ideas • Crossdisciplinary Connections BRIDGE • Spanish • English • Spanish Extension
  • Eg. DL program Language Allocation: Social Studies in Spanish; Science in English Social Studies Unit 1 •Spanish Heavy Lift BRIDGE •Spanish •English Social Studies Unit 2 •English Extension Theme •English Heavy Lift 43 •Spanish Heavy Lift •Big Ideas •Cross-disciplinary Connections BRIDGE •Spanish •English BRIDGE •Spanish •English •English Extension Theme •Spanish Extension Science Unit 1 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014 •English •Big Ideas •Cross-disciplinary Connections BRIDGE •Spanish •English Heavy Lift Science Unit 2 •Spanish Extension
  • Pause to…  Reflect  Weigh in on a poll  Share an Insight  An ah-ha! moment  Pose a Question 44 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • Check these out…  Teaching for Biliteracy; Strengthening Bridges Between Languages, Beeman and Urow, 2013  The Difficult Road for Long-Term English Learners, Kate Menken and Tatyana Kleyn, 2009  Writing Between Languages, Danling 45 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014 Fu, 2009
  • Wrapping up… 46 Strategic Use of Two Languages, Mulcahy, IRC, 2014
  • Thank you! Olivia Mulcahy omulcahy@cntrmail.org Illinois Resource Center (224) 366-8555 Strategic Use of Two Languages; IRC, Mulcahy, 2014