Materials&Process Selection

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Materials&Process Selection

  1. 1. DFMA Selection of Manufacturing Processes
  2. 2. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Goals of DFMA: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Product Structure simplification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parts consolidation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of Mfg & Assy. times </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. DFMA NTTF Attributes of Part Mfg. Process Capabilities Selection of Manufacturing Processes
  4. 4. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Attributes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geometric Features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Material Properties + ??? </li></ul></ul></ul>Attributes of Part Mfg. Process Capabilities
  5. 5. DFMA NTTF One Part Sequence of different Processes to achieve all required attributes
  6. 6. DFMA NTTF Number of Manufacturing Processes? Number of Materials ??
  7. 7. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Points on selection of Mfg. Processes: </li></ul><ul><li>Many combinations of materials & processes are not possible (See compatibility matrix) </li></ul><ul><li>Many combinations of processes are not possible. Hence do not appear in any processing sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Some processes affect only one attribute of part(surface treatment / heat treatment) </li></ul><ul><li>Sequences of processes have a natural order of shape generation </li></ul>
  8. 8. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Manufacturing Processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary(Main shape generation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Casting / Forging / Injection Molding </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary(Form features / refine) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machining / Grinding / Broaching </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary(do not affect geometry, improving a single feature only) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat treatment / Finishing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Manufacturing Processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solidification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bulk Deformation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Material Removal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Profile Generating </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sheet Forming </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Solidification: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sand Casting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investment Casting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Die Casting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Injection Molding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structural Foaming </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Bulk Deformation: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impact Extrusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold Heading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Closed Die Forging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Powder Metallurgy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot Extrusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotary swaging </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Material Removal: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grinding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EDM </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Profile Generating: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wire EDM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roboform? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Sheet Forming: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stamping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bending </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thermoforming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metal Spinning </li></ul></ul></ul>
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  25. 25. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Depression: </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to form recesses or grooves in the surface of part (I direction & II direction) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g: Processes with split molds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generating continuous profiles to direction of extrusion / to axis of cutting medium </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forging </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Uniform Wall Thickness: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sheet Metal Forming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotomolding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Centrifugal casting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Uniform Cross Section: </li></ul><ul><li>Parts where any cross section normal to part axis are identical (Excluding draft) </li></ul>
  28. 28. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Axis of Rotation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts whose shapes are generated by rotation about a single axis </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Reg X Section: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cross sections normal to part axis contain a regular pattern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g Hex / Splined shaft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in shape maintaining a regular pattern is permissible (Splined shaft with a hex head) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Capt Cav = Captured Cavity = Cavity with reentrant surfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bottle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Enclosed: </li></ul><ul><li>Hollow & completely enclosed </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotomolding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blow-molding </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>Draft Free: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capability of producing constant cross section in the direction of tool motion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ No draft’ can be obtained without cost penalty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sintering </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep Drawing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Injection Molding? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PDC(?)Brake shoes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. DFMA NTTF <ul><li>DFA Capability Attributes: </li></ul><ul><li>(P Consol) = Part Consolidation = Ability to incorporate several functional requirements into a single piece, eliminating need for multipart assemblies </li></ul><ul><li>(Alignmt) = Alignment = Ease of incorporating positive alignment or location features which will aid assembly of mating parts </li></ul><ul><li>(IntFast) = Integral Fasteners = Scope of fastening elements that can be designed into part(Snap-fit) </li></ul>
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