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11 mn01 review 2
11 mn01 review 2
11 mn01 review 2
11 mn01 review 2
11 mn01 review 2
11 mn01 review 2
11 mn01 review 2
11 mn01 review 2
11 mn01 review 2
11 mn01 review 2
11 mn01 review 2
11 mn01 review 2
11 mn01 review 2
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11 mn01 review 2

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solar driven absorption chiller for telecom shelter cooling

solar driven absorption chiller for telecom shelter cooling

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  • 1. Project Phase – I Review -IISolar driven Absorption Chiller (SAC) - Phase Change Material (PCM) Integrated Technology (SAPIT) for cooling telecommunication shelters in India Undertaken by: Anirudh B Mentored by: Dr.R.Velavan 11MN01 Associate Professor School of Energy PG Scholar PSG College of Technology ME Energy Engineering School of Energy PSG College of Technology
  • 2. Literature survey for review IIAn experimental investigation on passive cooling system comprising phase change material and two-phase closed thermosyphon for telecom shelters in tropical and desert regionsA.Shanmuga Sundaram , R.V.Seeniraj , R.VelrajEnergy and Buildings (2010)The authors have developed a passive cooling system employing PCMand TPCT for an alternative to conventional cooling systems to providethermal management of telecommunication equipments in telecomsheltersThermodynamic and economic performance of the LiBr–H2Osingle stage absorption water chillerTomasz M.MrozApplied Thermal Engineering (2006)The authors have developed and installed a single stage LiBr-H2Oabsorption chiller in a municipal CHP plant to study the energyefficiency and economic analysis of the system
  • 3. Literature survey for review IIEnergy and economic analysis of an integrated solar absorption cooling and heating system in different building types and climatesTiago Mateus , Armando C. OliveiraApplied Energy, (2009)The authors have modeled and simulated an integrated solar absorptioncooling and heating system in buildings of three different regions usingTRNSYS and evaluated the total energy cost and CO2 emissions reductionExergy calculation of lithium bromide–water solution and its application in the exergetic evaluation of absorption refrigeration systems LiBr-H2OReynaldo Palacios-Bereche, R. Gonzales, S. A. NebraInternational Journal of Energy Research(2010)The authors have calculated the physical and chemical exergies of the systemby evaluating the irreversibilities and extending it to determine the exergeticefficiency of the system, thereby providing this as a reference to calculatefor other complex systems
  • 4. Model of a telecommunication shelter
  • 5. Interior of the cabinet
  • 6. Meteorological data collection (DBT deg C)for peelamedu regionYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec1970 25.329 25.79 27.5 28.296 27.417 26.01 25.18 25.207 25.732 25.646 25.432 24.3631971 25.27 25.748 26.923 28.239 27.199 25.099 24.702 25.128 25.603 25.513 24.93 24.071972 23.995 25.547 26.851 28.695 26.85 26.745 25.175 25.968 26.431 26.035 25.654 25.4861973 25.505 26.404 28.005 29.356 28.66 26.488 25.884 24.899 26.001 25.901 25.287 24.8511974 24.817 25.692 27.714 28.842 27.454 26.665 25.358 24.99 25.673 25.782 25.801 25.1071975 24.765 26.714 27.921 28.922 27.375 25.265 25.342 25.228 25.281 25.291 25.331 24.4461976 24.144 25.028 27.552 27.711 28.264 26.767 25.457 25.386 26.162 26.342 25.672 25.3061977 25.141 26.367 27.675 28.737 27.074 26.275 25.107 26.134 25.961 25.952 25.598 24.8591978 25.113 25.864 27.582 28.767 26.811 25.228 24.444 25.029 25.893 26.184 25.918 25.2031979 26.097 26.772 28.015 28.867 27.827 26.093 24.525 25.532 25.56 25.963 25.197 25.7461980 25.012 26.367 27.639 28.194 28.005 24.921 24.401 25.117 26.256 25.957 26.169 25.8251981 25.634 26.503 27.662 28.512 27.807 25.246 24.92 24.94 25.343 25.936 25.337 25.0091982 25.181 26.521 27.871 29.312 27.849 26.505 25.801 26.062 26.566 26.922 26.616 25.2451983 25.503 27.483 28.619 29.696 29.329 27.66 26.295 25.965 25.752 26.526 26.023 25.5421984 25.724 26.008 26.98 27.996 28.987 25.8 25.375 25.697 26.124 25.892 26.212 25.3081985 25.991 26.926 28.435 29.195 28.356 25.679 25.668 25.75 26.473 26.168 25.792 25.7531986 25.533 26.248 28.096 29.54 28.712 26.505 26.353 25.472 26.217 26.788 26.054 26.128
  • 7. Meteorological data collection (DBT deg C)for peelamedu regionYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec1987 25.85 26.079 27.784 29.379 28.801 26.729 27.076 26.147 27.431 26.962 26.694 26.0071988 25.672 27.502 28.565 28.383 28.578 27.087 25.9 25.923 26.001 26.831 26.077 25.251989 25.364 25.71 27.258 28.807 28.254 26.145 25.667 25.883 25.807 26.407 26.244 25.4861990 25.144 26.735 28.087 29.395 27.792 26.701 25.593 25.672 26.408 26.398 26.094 25.4861991 25.997 26.71 28.295 28.906 29.13 26.296 25.613 25.379 26.738 25.989 25.862 25.0811992 24.501 26.399 27.452 28.976 27.981 26.623 25.47 25.697 26.089 26.024 26.01 24.7481993 24.696 25.831 27.752 28.893 28.39 26.856 25.442 26.112 26.264 25.995 25.912 25.1071994 25.482 26.538 27.876 28.183 28.321 26.457 25.357 26.055 26.611 26.169 25.951 25.0181995 25.662 27.092 27.698 28.735 27.518 27.316 25.971 26.143 26.444 26.732 26.72 25.1981996 25.918 26.527 28.105 28.51 28.991 26.718 25.976 25.848 26.001 26.234 26.538 24.7551997 25.718 26.599 27.82 27.915 28.317 27.635 26.119 26.126 26.559 26.705 26.732 26.411998 26.48 27.596 28.911 29.62 28.583 27.453 25.939 26.335 26.077 26.26 26.408 25.6041999 25.613 26.409 28.442 28.374 26.614 26.182 25.619 26.126 26.884 26.301 26.289 25.4782000 26.178 26.879 27.88 28.582 28.094 26.004 25.892 25.562 26.384 26.288 26.563 25.3172001 26.218 27.578 28.41 28.541 28.001 26.442 25.901 25.686 26.604 26.285 26.447 25.5212002 26.214 26.173 28.171 28.899 28.104 26.828 26.382 26.152 27.238 26.701 26.274 25.891Courtesy: Indian Meteorological department (www.indiawaterportal.org)
  • 8. Cooling load calculations for telecom shelterSolar heat gain: 𝑄 𝑠 = 𝑈𝐴 𝑇 𝑠𝑜𝑙−𝑎𝑖𝑟 − 𝑇𝑖Where, U - overall heat transfer coefficient of wall and roof, 𝑊/𝑚2 𝐾 A -wall and roof area in 𝑚2 𝑇𝑖 - Indoor air temperature, 𝑜 𝐶Shelter material: interior and exterior surfaces made of galvanized steelseparated by polyurethane foamHeat transfer coefficient for galvanized steel, hgs=25 𝑊/𝑚2 𝐾Heat transfer coefficient for polyurethane foam, hi=0.0972 𝑊/𝑚2 𝐾Overall heat transfer coefficient is calculated to be, U=0.09645 𝑊/𝑚2 𝐾 𝛼𝐸 𝑡 𝜀∆𝑅Sol-air temperature: 𝑇 𝑠𝑜𝑙−𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 𝑇 𝑜 + − ℎ𝑜 ℎ𝑜 𝑇 𝑜 - outside air temperature, degC 𝛼 = 0.026 for light coloured surfacesℎ𝑜 𝜀∆𝑅 = 0K for vertical surfaces and 4K for horizontal surfacesCourtesy: ASHRAE Fundamentals 2005
  • 9. Cooling load calculations for telecom shelterMonth Dry bulb temp Average daily solar Sol-air temp, Solar heat gain, deg C irradiation , 𝑾/𝒎 𝟐 𝑲 deg C W Jan 25.62 632.8 42.07 9.88 Feb 26.62 728.9 45.58 11.90 Mar 27.99 811.3 49.08 13.93 Apr 28.80 758.9 48.53 13.62 May 28.28 730.2 47.26 12.88 Jun 26.51 605.3 42.25 9.98 Jul 25.77 561.6 40.37 8.89 Aug 25.81 579.1 40.87 9.18 Sep 26.35 624.1 42.58 10.17 Oct 26.36 555.4 40.80 9.14 Nov 26.21 526.7 39.91 8.63 Dec 25.44 556.7 39.91 8.63Courtesy: NASA Surface meteorology and solar energy
  • 10. Equipment heat gain in the telecom shelter:S.No Unit name Number of Heat load, W units1 Power cabinet :electronics 1 4502 2G cabinet 1:electronics 1 10503 2G cabinet 2:electronics 1 10504 2G cabinet 3:electronics 1 10505 Nokia Node B - RRU 1 1 1506 Nokia Node B - BBU 1 1007 Nokia Node B - RRU 2 1 1508 Nokia Node B - ALM 1 509 Nokia Node B - RRU 3 1 15010 2G,3G,power Cabinet door fans (150CFM) 20 10011 Rectifier fans (48CFM) 8 10 Total heat load 4310Courtesy: Bharathikrishanan Muralidharan, “Energy based Design optimization ofTelecommunication cabinets”, MS thesis, University of Texas, 2010
  • 11. Tonnage of refrigeration requiredActual cooling load required for telecom shelter:Solar heat gain + Equipment heat gainBut the solar heat gain is negligible compared to the equipment heatgain therefore it is neglected.Type of Actual Signific Actual Scaled Actual Actual Scaled ScaledCooling coolin ance of cooling down TR TR down download g cooling load , cooling require require TR TR load, load W load, W d d with require require W PCM d d with PCMEquipme 4310 To be 4310 500 1.22 TR 2.5TR 0.15TR 0.5TRnt heat includegain dSolar 14 Negligib - - - - - -heat gain leDue to economic constraints, the cooling load for the telecom shelteris scaled down to 500W.
  • 12. Theoretical model of SACThermal energy required by the absorption chiller, 𝑄𝑐 𝑄 𝑐ℎ = 𝐶𝑂𝑃 𝑐ℎWhere, 𝐶𝑂𝑃 𝑐ℎ is the coefficient of performance of the absorptionchiller which varies with demand is given in a fourth order polynomialfor partial load efficiency of absorption chiller, 4 3 2 𝐶𝑂𝑃 𝑐ℎ = 𝑎𝑓𝑐ℎ + 𝑏𝑓𝑐ℎ + 𝑐𝑓𝑐ℎ + 𝑑𝑓𝑐ℎ + 𝑒Where, 𝑓𝑐ℎ is the ratio of the cooling load and the chiller nominalcapacity and given by 𝑄𝑐 𝑓𝑐ℎ = 𝐶𝐻 𝑐𝑎𝑝Energy balance applied at the chiller can be given by, 𝑄 𝑐ℎ = 𝑚 𝑐ℎ 𝐶 𝑐ℎ (𝑇ℎ1 − 𝑇ℎ2 )Courtesy: N. Fumo, V. Bortone, J. C. Zambrano, “Solar Thermal Driven Cooling System for a DataCenter in Albuquerque New Mexico”, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, ASME(2011)
  • 13. Future work in phase IDaily cooling load profile of a telecom shelter in Coimbatore regionDetermination of theoretical COP for part load efficiency of absorption chiller (by polynomial curve fitting)Determination of thermal energy required by the absorption chillerDetermination of cooling load of telecom shelter under transient condition using TRNSYS softwareDetermination of the required area of the solar thermal collectorsDetermination of capacity of the other heat transfer elements in the chiller( like cooling tower, evaporator, condenser)

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