Oral presentation is a participative two way communication process characterised by the formal and structured presentation of a message using visual aids. They are 1.Purposeful 2.Interacitive 3.Formal 4.Audience oriented.
for making an effective presentation concentrate on 4 Ps. Plan Prepare Practice Perform
I. Planning the presentation 1.Define the purpose: What is the purpose of this presentation? to demonstrate – a service, product To entertain To sell- a concept, product, idea To persuade-to change behaviour, attitude
2.Analyse the audience: Characteristics: age, gender, social, economic and educational backgrounds, religion, political affiliations, attitudes, attitudes(likes and dislikes)… Analyse Audience Needs and Expectations:
Why will they listen to me?
What are their interests?
What are their needs?
Recognise Factors for Getting and Maintaining Audience Attention: Listener will be more interested in the presentation if it meets their requirements.
How can I relate my presentation to the needs and expectation of my audience?
What style will appeal to my audience?
What are the changes that I should make?
3.Analyse the occasion: 4.Choose a Suitable Title: The title gives the audience the first glimpse of the presentation and they forms their first impressions.
II.Preparing The Presentation Develop the central idea: Core idea. 2.Develop the main ideas: a logical division of the central idea. Eg: central idea: unemployment in India Logical divisions: A. Causes B. Solutions 3.Gather the Supporting Material:
4.Plan Visual Aids: visual aids are eye-catchers. They serve as a speech note They give confidence They help focus on the theme of the presentation They increase audience interest They give clarity and precision
Any other following visual aids may be used: 1.Three-Dimensional visual aids Objects Models 2.Two-Dimensional visual aids: Drawings Photographs Slides Maps Tables –when you want to compare many data or represent a large amount of information
Graphs- linegraphs: for emphasizing relationships or trends of data. Bar graphs: for comparing amounts pie graphs: allows you to compare parts of a whole. Flow charts: describe a process. Organisation chart: show hierarchies in an organization. computer generated presentation Chalks OHP
Planning and using visual aids effectively: Relevant visual aids must be chosen. The visual aids should match the message. The presenter must be familiar with his/her visual aids. Computer software programs such as PowerPoint may be used to enhance the effectiveness of the presentation.
Handouts may be disturbed, ie, charts, summaries, outlines etc… in order to compliment the presentation.
Organising your presentation: Introduction: Introduce or relate the topic to your audience state the importance of your topic Question the audience Arouse the curiosity of the audience Begin with a quotation Body: the main content of the presentation. Conclusion:
III.Practicing/ Rehearsing the presentation 120 to 180 words per minutes is ideal
IV. Improving Delivery-Perform Improving Delivery involves understanding several delivery methods, choosing an appropriate method, and controlling and reducing stage fear.
3 delivery methods: The memorising method: Reading method-reading from the manuscripts. Outline method-with the help of delivery notes.
Handling Stage Fright To reduce stage fright: Concentrate on the 3 Ps: Planning, Preparing and Practice Set Realistic Goals Avoid negative thoughts Begin the presentation with a pause Speak slowly Learn and practice stress reduction techniques.
Paralinguistic Elements in Presentations. 1.The use of Voice: loud enough, stress key words properly, vary the pitch, give a pause before and after you make important points. 2. Eye Contact: maintaining good eye contact with the audience create rapport, make them alert and attentive
3. gestures: Should be natural and congruent with your message. Careful about holding hands 4.Posture: Leaning over podium, shifting your weight from leg to leg …. Stand straight while speaking with you’re your weight distributed evenly on your 2 legs.