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  1. 1. Presentation Skills<br />
  2. 2. Oral presentation is a participative two way communication process characterised by the formal and structured presentation of a message using visual aids.<br />They are<br />1.Purposeful<br />2.Interacitive<br />3.Formal<br />4.Audience oriented.<br />
  3. 3. for making an effective presentation concentrate on 4 Ps.<br />Plan<br />Prepare<br />Practice<br />Perform<br />
  4. 4. I. Planning the presentation<br />1.Define the purpose:<br />What is the purpose of this presentation?<br />to demonstrate – a service, product<br />To entertain<br />To sell- a concept, product, idea<br />To persuade-to change behaviour, attitude<br />
  5. 5. 2.Analyse the audience:<br />Characteristics: <br />age, gender, social, economic and educational backgrounds, religion, political affiliations, attitudes, attitudes(likes and dislikes)… <br />Analyse Audience Needs and Expectations:<br /><ul><li>Why will they listen to me?
  6. 6. What are their interests?
  7. 7. What are their needs?</li></li></ul><li>Recognise Factors for Getting and Maintaining Audience Attention:<br />Listener will be more interested in the presentation if it meets their requirements. <br /><ul><li>How can I relate my presentation to the needs and expectation of my audience?
  8. 8. What style will appeal to my audience?
  9. 9. What are the changes that I should make?</li></li></ul><li>3.Analyse the occasion:<br />4.Choose a Suitable Title:<br />The title gives the audience the first glimpse of the presentation and they forms their first impressions.<br />
  10. 10. II.Preparing The Presentation<br />Develop the central idea: Core idea.<br />2.Develop the main ideas: a logical division of the central idea.<br />Eg: central idea: unemployment in India<br /> Logical divisions: A. Causes B. Solutions<br />3.Gather the Supporting Material:<br />
  11. 11. 4.Plan Visual Aids: visual aids are eye-catchers.<br />They serve as a speech note<br />They give confidence<br />They help focus on the theme of the presentation<br />They increase audience interest<br />They give clarity and precision<br />
  12. 12. Any other following visual aids may be used:<br />1.Three-Dimensional visual aids <br />Objects<br />Models<br />2.Two-Dimensional visual aids:<br />Drawings<br />Photographs<br />Slides<br />Maps<br />Tables –when you want to compare many data or represent a large amount of information <br />
  13. 13. Graphs-<br />linegraphs: for emphasizing relationships or trends of data.<br />Bar graphs: for comparing amounts<br />pie graphs: allows you to compare parts of a whole.<br />Flow charts: describe a process.<br />Organisation chart: show hierarchies in an organization. <br />computer generated presentation<br />Chalks<br />OHP<br />
  14. 14. Planning and using visual aids effectively:<br />Relevant visual aids must be chosen. The visual aids should match the message. <br />The presenter must be familiar with his/her visual aids.<br />Computer software programs such as PowerPoint may be used to enhance the effectiveness of the presentation.<br />
  15. 15. Handouts may be disturbed, ie, charts, summaries, outlines etc… in order to compliment the presentation.<br />
  16. 16. Organising your presentation:<br />Introduction:<br />Introduce or relate the topic to your audience<br />state the importance of your topic<br />Question the audience<br />Arouse the curiosity of the audience<br />Begin with a quotation<br />Body: the main content of the presentation.<br />Conclusion: <br />
  17. 17. III.Practicing/ Rehearsing the presentation<br />120 to 180 words per minutes is ideal<br />
  18. 18. IV. Improving Delivery-Perform<br />Improving Delivery involves understanding several delivery methods, choosing an appropriate method, and controlling and reducing stage fear.<br />
  19. 19. 3 delivery methods:<br />The memorising method: <br />Reading method-reading from the manuscripts.<br />Outline method-with the help of delivery notes.<br />
  20. 20. Handling Stage Fright<br />To reduce stage fright:<br />Concentrate on the 3 Ps: Planning, Preparing and Practice<br />Set Realistic Goals<br />Avoid negative thoughts<br />Begin the presentation with a pause<br />Speak slowly<br />Learn and practice stress reduction techniques.<br />
  21. 21. Paralinguistic Elements in Presentations.<br />1.The use of Voice: <br />loud enough, <br />stress key words properly, <br />vary the pitch, <br />give a pause before and after you make important points.<br />2. Eye Contact: <br />maintaining good eye contact with the audience create rapport, make them alert and attentive<br />
  22. 22. 3. gestures:<br />Should be natural and congruent with your message.<br />Careful about holding hands<br />4.Posture:<br />Leaning over podium, shifting your weight from leg to leg ….<br />Stand straight while speaking with you’re your weight distributed evenly on your 2 legs.<br />
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