Cellular Switches andNeurodegenerative Diseases     Carolina Giraldo Benítez             Medicine           3rd Semester  ...
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INTRODUCTION• Is very important to know       • The proteins form complexes  how is the general function       to many fun...
CELLULAR SWITCHES: FROM THE RNA  WORLD TO THE MODERN PROTEIN             WORLDScience Daily (Feb. 9, 2012)                ...
CELLULAR SWITCHES: FROM THE RNA    WORLD TO THE MODERN PROTEIN               WORLD• The G protein FIhF is a group of  G pr...
CELLULAR SWITCHES: FROM THE RNA WORLD TO THE MODERN PROTEIN            WORLD• In this study find one protein that works li...
CELLULAR SWITCHES: FROM THE RNA   WORLD TO THE MODERN PROTEIN              WORLD• FIhF shows how the RNA world has been ch...
CELLULAR SWITCHES: FROM THE RNA  WORLD TO THE MODERN PROTEIN             WORLDPersonal CommentI think this is an important...
Neurodegenerative Diseases: Ring-Like   Structure Found in Elongator Protein                 ComplexScience Daily (Feb. 20...
Neurodegenerative Diseases: Ring-Like Structure Found in Elongator Protein               Complex                    • Chan...
Neurodegenerative Diseases: Ring-Like   Structure Found in Elongator Protein                 Complex• Elongator is formed ...
Neurodegenerative Diseases: Ring-Like   Structure Found in Elongator Protein                 Complex• Just RNAt joins to t...
Neurodegenerative Diseases: Ring-Like Structure Found in Elongator Protein               ComplexPersonal CommentIn this ca...
Medical Utility• Is necessary to know the mechanism of  molecular switches to understand the  mechanism of lots of molecul...
Medical Utility• This discovery is so useful, because it  can help us to create an antibiotic that  acts on effector of G ...
Medical Utility• The discover of the mode of action of the ring complex is an  important   step    about   what    happen,...
Medical Utility• Most important to cure the  diseases is prevent it, so if we  know why it happens we can  know how to pre...
References• MARTINEZ SÁNCHEZ, Lina María. Biología molecular. 2. ed.  Medellín: UPB. Fac. de Medicina• Cellular Switches: ...
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  1. 1. Cellular Switches andNeurodegenerative Diseases Carolina Giraldo Benítez Medicine 3rd Semester UPB
  2. 2. FOLDING
  3. 3. FOLDING
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION• Is very important to know • The proteins form complexes how is the general function to many functions, and is of G protein to understand necessary know what is the what is the importance of mechanism of each complex, the discovery that told us in but some complexes have the new. similar mechanisms, this make easier the study of that.• G protein is a switch protein and it does the hydrolysis of GTP using a GTPase to the transport through the membrane.
  5. 5. CELLULAR SWITCHES: FROM THE RNA WORLD TO THE MODERN PROTEIN WORLDScience Daily (Feb. 9, 2012) • The study was realized in the flagellum of bacteria. • Flagellum is an organelle which allows movement of the bacterium. • It is necessary to reach to environmental changes and to go to site of infection.
  6. 6. CELLULAR SWITCHES: FROM THE RNA WORLD TO THE MODERN PROTEIN WORLD• The G protein FIhF is a group of G proteins.• This group determines the position of new bacteria´s flagellum.• The switch FIhF apparently did not need effectors.• Effector is a stimulus to turn on the switch.
  7. 7. CELLULAR SWITCHES: FROM THE RNA WORLD TO THE MODERN PROTEIN WORLD• In this study find one protein that works like effector of FIhF.• Researchers described its mode of action .• The mode of action was compared with the interacting of complex formed by protein SRP54 and this receptor (FtsY) with the SRP RNA.
  8. 8. CELLULAR SWITCHES: FROM THE RNA WORLD TO THE MODERN PROTEIN WORLD• FIhF shows how the RNA world has been changed for the “modern” protein world. It was possible with a simple modification.
  9. 9. CELLULAR SWITCHES: FROM THE RNA WORLD TO THE MODERN PROTEIN WORLDPersonal CommentI think this is an important discover because if we know how is theoperation of simple organism will be easier to know how is thefunction of ourselves, but is necessary to promote theinvestigation because, today, are lots of things that we ignore andpossibly are the answer to many questions that we still have.
  10. 10. Neurodegenerative Diseases: Ring-Like Structure Found in Elongator Protein ComplexScience Daily (Feb. 20, 2012)• Proteic complex called elongator has a structure ring- like• Has been published a 3D structure of this complex. It gives tracks about its role inside the cell and its function in neurodegenerative diseases.
  11. 11. Neurodegenerative Diseases: Ring-Like Structure Found in Elongator Protein Complex • Changes in the proteins of elongator have been involved with familial dysautonomia and childhood epilepsy.
  12. 12. Neurodegenerative Diseases: Ring-Like Structure Found in Elongator Protein Complex• Elongator is formed by 6 different proteins.• The proteins do not work like just one trio, they form two identical trios to form a ring.• Researches think that this complex work like helicases complex that have a ring formed by six copies to the same protein to join with DNA or RNA
  13. 13. Neurodegenerative Diseases: Ring-Like Structure Found in Elongator Protein Complex• Just RNAt joins to the elongator ring.• RNAt is left in this place while the function of it is complete.• When it has finished ATP joins with the ring and it liberate the RNAt and everything starts again.
  14. 14. Neurodegenerative Diseases: Ring-Like Structure Found in Elongator Protein ComplexPersonal CommentIn this case we can seethe importance of eachstep in the formation ofproteins, but being soimportant we can see thecomplex of a process liketranslation.
  15. 15. Medical Utility• Is necessary to know the mechanism of molecular switches to understand the mechanism of lots of molecular diseases and make possible to find a cure or treatment.
  16. 16. Medical Utility• This discovery is so useful, because it can help us to create an antibiotic that acts on effector of G protein FIhF inhibiting the correct implantation of the new bacteria’s flagellum. If it happens the bacteria can not go to the site of infecting and it can not survive to environmental conditions.
  17. 17. Medical Utility• The discover of the mode of action of the ring complex is an important step about what happen, exactly, in neurodegenerative diseases. • This is a small step in the search for effective treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, because most of we have today do not reverse or stop the disease, they only make a control of it.
  18. 18. Medical Utility• Most important to cure the diseases is prevent it, so if we know why it happens we can know how to prevent it, especially when neurodegenerative diseases affects lots of people around the world. Old people is more affected by it.
  19. 19. References• MARTINEZ SÁNCHEZ, Lina María. Biología molecular. 2. ed. Medellín: UPB. Fac. de Medicina• Cellular Switches: From the RNA World to the Modern Protein World. Science daily (February 9, 2012)• Neurodegenerative Diseases: Ring-Like Structure Found in Elongator Protein Complex. Science daily (February 20, 2012)

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