'Reconciliation' Policies and Gender Regimes


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Presentation at IAFFE 2010, Annual Conference held in Buenos Aires

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'Reconciliation' Policies and Gender Regimes

  1. 1. 'Reconciliation' Policies and Gender Regime Carmen Castro García University Complutense of Madrid (SP) IAFFE 2010. Annual Conference, Buenos Aires (AR)‏
  2. 2. PHD RESEARCH IN PROGRESS Analysis different models of well-being society, taking into account in a feminist approach: 1. Relationship between welfare state and gender equality 2. Relationship between labour market and family care, who they affect and in what sense. 3. How women's rights provided by the Welfare State are included in the social rights. 4. Which kind of reconciliation policies are established and what's its effect on women's independence.
  3. 3. PHD RESEARCH IN PROGRESS Differences about policies for balance between work and family and especially treatment on maternity, paternity and parental leave are designed much by the Gender Regime (Diane Sainsbury) and the commitment to gender equality that by the political party at the government.
  4. 4. Gender Regimes <ul><li>Proveedor económico masculino / mujer cuidadora </li></ul><ul><li>Male-breadwinner </li></ul><ul><li>Proveedor(a) y cuidador(a) en igualdad </li></ul><ul><li>Individual earner – carer </li></ul>Gender Division of Labor <ul><li>Separación roles de género </li></ul><ul><li>Separate gender roles </li></ul><ul><li>New Gender division of Labor </li></ul>
  5. 5. Towards a new Gender contract? Direction of Public Policies: Oriented to Gender Equality or Reinforce Gender Bias? Gender equality, a goal both in paid and non-paid work. Use of Time. Effects of parental leave on the labor market Use of parental leave is influenced by social moral and patterns Regulation of parental leave influences men's behavior in terms of how it is used 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 .
  6. 6. Carlos Ortin Carlos Ortin We need to balance Gender equality, a goal both in paid and non-paid work Dichotomy about 'free choice': having children and pursuing a career. Effect on demographic issues. Autonomous and economic independence for women working at part-time. Optical illusion? Returning to the employment at risk. Measures that are trapping women in gender division of labor EVIDENCES 2.
  7. 7. Gender Gap at Employment in EU, 2007 Source: EUROSTAT (2007)‏
  8. 8. Women Men
  9. 9. Maternal employment rates compared to female employment rates
  10. 10. Source: EUROSTAT (2007)‏ Effects of Maternity/Paternity on employment Women Men
  11. 11. Effect on the salary gap and on occupational segregation. Effects of parental leave on the labor market EVIDENCES 3. 4. Use of parental leave is influenced by social mores and patterns Social changes: familiar diversity, new masculinity, egalitarian attitudes 5. Regulation of parental leave influences men's behavior in terms of how it is used Non-transferable + Payment + length and flexibility
  12. 12. Source: Castro,C. 2008; Castro,C, Pazos,M. (2007)‏
  13. 13. Source: OECD, 2007. Family Database
  14. 16. Source: Castro,C. Medialdea, B. (2010)‏
  15. 17. Joint (to share)/ transferable Leave, MEANS: - Women: More time as caregivers with the children; - Women: More time off labour market - Women: More risky for employers CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Individual Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Maternity and Paternity: equal and non-transferable </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of desincentives for women's employment </li></ul><ul><li>Public System of Childcare </li></ul><ul><li>Public Services for care </li></ul>RE QUI RE MENTS
  16. 18. GENDER SIMETRY / GENDER EQUALITY INDEX PROPOSAL <ul><li>PARENTAL LEAVE (maternity, paternity & parental) </li></ul><ul><li>- % Paid </li></ul><ul><li>- Non Transferable </li></ul><ul><li>- Incentives for Men's Take up </li></ul><ul><li>- Gender Bias in PL configuration </li></ul><ul><li>- Transferable </li></ul><ul><li>PAID AND NON PAID WORK </li></ul><ul><li>- Use of time </li></ul><ul><li>ECEC PUBLIC SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>- Formal childcare: % Children under 3 years </li></ul>
  17. 19. POLICY ACTION PLENT Petition to European Parliament to approve a Directive on parental leave www.equalandnontransferable.org Establish that parental leave must be, for both parents, NON TRANSFERABLE, OF THE SAME LENGTH AND WITH THE SAME COMPULSORY PART and PAID at 100% Specify a “Gender Equality Road Map”
  18. 20. Thank you for your attention and suggestions! Carmen Castro García [email_address]