Atp

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Atp

  1. 1. BIOENERGETICS Copyright Cmassengale 1
  2. 2. What is Bioenergetics? The study of energy in living systems (environments) and the organisms (plants and animals) that utilize them Copyright Cmassengale 2
  3. 3. Energy   Required by all organisms May be Kinetic or Potential energy Copyright Cmassengale 3
  4. 4. Kinetic Energy   Energy of Motion Heat and light energy are examples Copyright Cmassengale 4
  5. 5. Potential Energy   Energy of position Includes energy stored in chemical bonds Copyright Cmassengale 5
  6. 6. Two Types of Energy Reactions Copyright Cmassengale 6
  7. 7. Endergonic Reactions   Chemical reaction that requires a net input of energy. energy Photosynthesis SUN photons 6CO2 + 6H2O → Light Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 (glucose) Copyright Cmassengale 7
  8. 8. Exergonic Reactions   Chemical reactions that releases energy Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O+ Energy ATP (glucose) Copyright Cmassengale 8
  9. 9. Metabolic Reactions of Cells Copyright Cmassengale 9
  10. 10. What is Metabolism?  The sum total of the chemical activities of all cells. cells Copyright Cmassengale 10
  11. 11. Two Types of Metabolism   Anabolic Pathways Catabolic Pathways Copyright Cmassengale 11
  12. 12. Anabolic Pathway   Metabolic reactions, which consume energy (endergonic), to build complicated molecules from simpler compounds. light SUN energy Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 (glucose) Copyright Cmassengale 12
  13. 13. Catabolic Pathway   Metabolic reactions which release energy (exergonic) by breaking down complex molecules in simpler compounds energy Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP (glucose) Copyright Cmassengale 13
  14. 14. Cellular Energy ATP Copyright Cmassengale 14
  15. 15.  ATP Components: 1. adenine: nitrogenous base 2. ribose: five carbon sugar 3.phosphate group: chain of 3 adenine phosphate group P P P ribose Copyright Cmassengale 15
  16. 16. Adenosine Triphosphate   Three phosphate groups-(two with high energy bonds Last phosphate group (PO4) contains the MOST energy Copyright Cmassengale 16
  17. 17. Breaking the Bonds of ATP    Process is called phosphorylation Occurs continually in cells Enzyme ATP-ase can weaken & break last PO4 bond releasing energy & free PO4 Copyright Cmassengale 17
  18. 18. How does ATP work ?   Organisms use enzymes to break down energy-rich glucose to release its potential energy This energy is trapped and stored in the form of adenosine triphosphate(ATP) Copyright Cmassengale 18
  19. 19. How Much ATP Do Cells Use?  It is estimated that each cell will generate and consume approximately 10,000,000 molecules of ATP per second Copyright Cmassengale 19
  20. 20. Coupled Reaction - ATP  The exergonic hydrolysis of ATP is coupled with the endergonic dehydration H2O process by transferring a phosphate group to another H2O molecule. Copyright Cmassengale 20
  21. 21. Hydrolysis of ATP ATP + H2O → ADP + P (exergonic) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) P P P Hydrolysis (add water) P P + P Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Copyright Cmassengale 21
  22. 22. Hyrolysis is Exergonic Energy Used by Cells Copyright Cmassengale 22
  23. 23. Dehydration of ATP ADP + P → (endergonic) ATP + H2O Dehydration (Remove H2O P P + P Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) P Copyright Cmassengale P P 23
  24. 24. Dehydration is Endergonic Energy is restored in Chemical Bonds Copyright Cmassengale 24
  25. 25. Review Copyright Cmassengale 25
  26. 26. How many high energy phosphate bonds does ATP have? Copyright Cmassengale 26
  27. 27. Which is true of photosyntheis? Anabolic or Catabolic Exergonic Or Endergonic Copyright Cmassengale 27
  28. 28. The breakdown of ATP is due to: Dehydration or Hydrolysis H2O added or H2O removed Copyright Cmassengale 28
  29. 29. Which Reactions are often Coupled in Organisms Hydrolysis BOTH or Dehydration Anabolism or BOTH Catabolism Endergonic or BOTH Copyright Cmassengale Exergonic 29
  30. 30. Ready for the test? If not, review and try again!!! Copyright Cmassengale 30
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