COORDINATION PROCESSES Coordination is the process through which two or more organs interact and complement the functions of one another. Coordination occurs because of two systems: the nervous and the endocrine systems.
NERVOUS SYSTEM consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves (1) receive and transmit stimulus; (2) interpret and analyze a stimulus; (3) and evoke a proper response by an effector. The Nervous System
THE ORGANIZATIONAL CHART OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Central Brain Nervous System Spinal (CNS) CordNervous SympatheticSystem Parasympathetic Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System Somatic Sensory (PNS) Motor
THE NEURON Bundles of cells and the basic unit of the nervous system send electrical signals that direct all of your body’s activitiesNeuron
STRUCTURAL PARTS OF A NEURON Dendrites – receives the information Cell Body – where signals travel Axon – carries the signals Synapse - place where TRIVIA: the longest axon in the worldand dendrites come axons measures around together feet! 15 Neuron
The synapse carries a signal from cell to cell TRIVIA: How many 1 synapses are in one neuron? 1,000 to 10,000!! 3 4 2
TYPES OF NEURONS SENSORY OR AFFERENT NEURONS- Carry impulses towards the integrating centers• MOTOR OR EFFERENT NEURONS- Carry impulses away from integrating centers to the body’s effectors, the muscles or glands• CONNECTOR OR ASSOCIATION NEURONS- Main component; integrates information and relays the impulse from the sensory neurons to the motor neurons
THE BRAIN made of about 100 billion nerve cells Divided into three parts: a. Forebrain b. Midbrain c. HindbrainBrain and its parts
THE SPINAL CORD Neural cable that extends from the base of the brain to the hips Axons from the brain carries down signals to the spinal cord TRIVIA: There are 1 billion neurons in the spinal cord
THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Somatic System - These nerves act as transmission lines between the internal and external environment, and CNS Autonomic System – regulates internal organs o Sympathetic o Parasympathetic
ENDOCRINE GLANDSAND THEIR SECRETIONS Parathyroid Glands - The secretion of these glands is the parathormone (PTH) which regulates the use of substances such as calcium.
ENDOCRINE GLANDS AND THEIR SECRETIONS• Adrenal Glands- on top of the kidneys- The adrenal medulla secretes a hormone permits the body to react quickly and strongly during emergencies
ENDOCRINE GLANDS AND THEIR SECRETIONS Pancreas- located near the stomach and the duodenum- Functions: (1) to produce and release digestive enzymes into the small intestines and (2) to secrete several hormones into the bloodstream- is found in a cluster of cells called the islets of Langerhans TRIVIA: Alpha cells secrete glucagon, beta cells secrete insulin, and delta cells secrete somatostatin.
ENDOCRINE GLANDS AND THEIR SECRETIONS Gonads- Located in the seminiferous tabules in the testes are the interstitial cells which secrete the male sex hormones called testosterone or androgen which affects the production of sperm cells.
ENDOCRINE GLANDSAND THEIR SECRETIONS Pineal Gland - pea-sized gland located in the midbrain. - melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns.
ENDOCRINE GLANDS AND THEIR SECRETIONS Thymus Gland- found under the breastbone and active during childhood.- site of development of immune system to form anti-bodies.
ENDOCRINE GLANDSAND THEIR SECRETIONS Digestive Hormones - Gastrin, secreted from the stomach - The secretion stimulates the release of pancreatic juice to neutralize the stomach acid.
DISORDERS OF ENDOCRINE GLANDS Disorders of the Pituitary Gland Giantism - over secretion of growth hormone Dwarf or Midget – insufficient of growth hormone
DISORDERS OF ENDOCRINE GLANDS• Disorder of the Thyroid Gland Hyperthyroidism (Graves’ Disease) – over secretion of TSH or a thyroid tumor Hypothyroidism (Goiter) – insufficient iodine
DISORDERS OF ENDOCRINE GLANDS Disorders of the Adrenals Addison’s Disease – underactivity of the cortex Cushing’s Disease – overactivity of the cortex Adrenogenital Syndrome – accelerrated sexual development
DISORDERS OF ENDOCRINE GLANDS• Disorders of the Pancreas Diabetes meilitus – not enough insulin Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar – excessive insulin
REFERENCESCampbell, Karen L., Campbell, John R., Kenealy, Douglas M. 2003. Animal Sciences: 4th Edition. New York: The McGraw-Hill Comp. Inc. pp.192-193, 196-202.Campbell, Neil A., Mitchell, Lawrence G., Reece, Jane B. 1999. Biology: 5th Edition. California: The McGraw-Hill Comp. Inc. pp. 898-910, 960-964.Carino, Virginia S., Realuyo, Zenaida M. 2003. Basic Concepts of Biological Science. Quezon City: Katha Publishing Corp. pp.148-167.