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Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
Mutations powerpoint
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Mutations powerpoint

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by kritika choudhary …

by kritika choudhary
ppt on mutation
description on types of mutation

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  • 1.  Changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA May occur in somatic cells (aren’t passed to offspring) May occur in gametes (eggs & sperm) and be passed to offspring
  • 2.  Mutations happen regularly Almost all mutations are neutral Chemicals & UV radiation cause mutations Many mutations are repaired by enzymes
  • 3.  Some type of skin cancers and leukemia result from somatic mutations Some mutations may improve an organism’s survival (beneficial)
  • 4.  SPONTANEOUS MUTATION INDUCED MUTATION
  • 5. SPONTANEOUS MUTATION they are mainly caused during dna replication or by incorporation of incorrect nucleotide in the growing dna chain . They occur naturally by changes in DNA sequence during replication.
  • 6.  Induced mutation are caused by the changes in DNA brought about by some environmental factor called mutagens. E.g.- UV light,x-rays,gamma rays etc…,
  • 7.  May Involve: › Changing the structure of a chromosome › The loss or gain of part of a chromosome
  • 8.  Five types exist: › Deletion › Inversion › Translocation › Nondisjunction › Duplication
  • 9.  Due to breakage A piece of a chromosome is lost
  • 10.  Chromosome segment breaks off Segment flips around backwards Segment reattaches
  • 11.  Occurs when a gene sequence is repeated
  • 12.  Involvestwo chromosomes that aren’t homologous Partof one chromosome is transferred to another chromosomes
  • 13.  Failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis Causes gamete to have too many or too few chromosomes Disorders: Klinefelter’s Syndrome – XXY chromosomes › Down Syndrome – three 21st chromosomes › Turner Syndrome – single X chromosome
  • 14.  Change in the nucleotide sequence of a gene May only involve a single nucleotide May be due to copying errors, chemicals, viruses, etc.
  • 15.  Include: › Point Mutations › Substitutions › Insertions › Deletions › Frameshift
  • 16.  Change of a single nucleotide Includesthe deletion, insertion, or substitution of ONE nucleotide in a gene
  • 17.  Sickle Cell disease is the result of one nucleotide substitution Occurs in the hemoglobin gene
  • 18.  Inserting or deleting one or more nucleotides Changes the “reading frame” like changing a sentence Proteins built incorrectly
  • 19.  Original: The fat cat ate the wee rat. Frame Shift (“a” added): › The fat caa tet hew eer at.
  • 20.  This type of mutations generate a visible morphological alterations. E.g-shape,colour,&size.
  • 21.  They are fatal in nature leading to the death of individuals .
  • 22.  Conditional mutations are normal under one condition (permissive), but abnormal under another (restrictive). These are extremely useful for studying processes such as development and DNA replication.
  • 23.  These mutations cause loss or of some biochemical or nutritional function in the cell.
  • 24. 2n = 46 34
  • 25. 2n = 46 35
  • 26. 2n = 47 36
  • 27. 2n = 47 37
  • 28. 2n = 47 38
  • 29. 2n = 45 39

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