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Viral thinking - a viral marketing toolkit - get the expanded and updated version here: http://bit.ly/viralmarketingtoolkit

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Get the expanded and updated version here: http://bit.ly/viralmarketingtoolkit ...

Get the expanded and updated version here: http://bit.ly/viralmarketingtoolkit

An ebook about Viral marketing - how to maximize the potential for viral spread. You could call it a viral marketing toolkit, covering the background, the viral loop, tips for the content, lowering barriers, incentives for spread, reasons for failure and more.

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    Viral thinking - a viral marketing toolkit - get the expanded and updated version here: http://bit.ly/viralmarketingtoolkit Viral thinking - a viral marketing toolkit - get the expanded and updated version here: http://bit.ly/viralmarketingtoolkit Presentation Transcript

    • vi ral thinkingA new logic for a new media landscape by kristofer mencák
    • IntroductionIntroductionHave you ever dreamt about creating something viral? everHave you ever dreamt about creating something viral? Have you Haveyou ever tried to createspectacular viralspectacular viral you atried to create one of those one of those campaigns that wincampaigns thatyou make it? Cannes Lion? Did you make it?Cannes Lion? Did win you aI amnot going to to lie. I don’t think there’s a sure fire createtoviralI am not going lie. I don’t think there’s a sure fire way to way acreate Lion winner. Not all companies Notbuild their business on buildCannes a viral Cannes Lion winner. can all companies can thetheir business on the kind of viral successes BlendTec haskind of viral successes BlendTec has experienced. But I am an optimist. Iexperienced. But I am an optimist. I do believe there are toolsdo believe use to make you can use to make do think you can thinkyou can there are tools it more possible. I it more possible. I dooptimize for it. for it.you can optimizeWhat’s more, in in the shift that is taking place, thelandscape isWhat’s more, the shift that is taking place, the media mediafragmented, and companies have to companies have to rules. by thelandscape is fragmented, and play by the consumer’s play Withconsumer’s terms. With there, marketers have to fight for attentionthe amount of content out the amount of content out there,marketers have to fight for attention not only with other creatingnot only with other companies, but also with a lot of consumerscompanies, but also with a lot of consumers creating their owntheir own content. There are more and more messages, more and morecontent. There are more and more messages, more and moreinformation. So, consumers suffer from information overload, it is hardinformation. Not only from companies, but also from otherconsumers. So, consumers suffer from information overload, itto get through, and it gets even harder every day. That’s why optimizingis hard to becomes more and more important.for spread get through, and it gets even harder every day.That’s why optimizing for spread becomes more and moreviral or not – it’s a new way of thinking Today, whetherimportant.the goal is to create something viral or not, marketers needToday, whether the goal is to create something viral or not,to understand a new way of thinking, a new way to work –marketers need to understand a new way to work - and that isand that is to participate and create content that is worthy ofto participate and create content that is worthy ofconversations. Something that breaks through the clutter.conversations. Something that breaks through the clutter.Content needs to involve and engage the consumers.
    • Even though this in inway is a “Viral Marketing Toolkit”, I believe the ideas Even though this a a way is a “Viral Marketing Toolkit”, I believe the ideas in it are important for any marketing effort,in it are important for any marketing effort, whether online or offline. whether online or offline. Creating conversations isCreating conversations is fundamental for brands and businesses today. fundamental for brands and businesses today. And using theAnd using the tools in this toolkit will hopefully create better results for tools in this toolkit will hopefully create better results for youryour campaign and therefore a higher ROI. campaign and therefore a higher ROI.So, let’s get to it. Check your current idea against the following tips. Try to So, let’s get to it. Check your current idea against the followingimprove it, or maybe even come up with something new. I will update this tips. Try to improve it, or maybe even come up with somethingtext when I feel I have something to add. So, take a look at the download new.page to make sure you have the most recent version. Of course, I will alsopost any additions on the blog, so if you subscribe, you won’t add.it. I will update this text when I feel I have something to miss So, take a look at the download page to make sure you have the most recent version. Of course, I will also post any additions onA little background the blog, so if you subscribe, you won’t miss it.A little backgroundwhat is viral? A lot of people want to create a viral campaign.However, the fact that you or someone else is talking about creating aWhat is viral?viral campaign doesn’t mean that it really will be viral. It is something itbecomes,people want to create a viral campaign. However, it on.A lot of if the content is good enough, and it is easy enough to pass thefact that you or someone else is talking about creating a viralTo be truly viral, it has mean that it really will be viral. It is 1 (r > 1).campaign doesn’t to have a basic reproductive rate above something it becomes, if the content is good enough, and it isSo, the term “viral” is something we can really only use after seeing easy enough to pass it on. To be truly viral, it has to have anumbers that increase exponentially.1 (Rwant to see a graph similar to the basic reproductive rate above We > 1).curvature of a skateboard ramp. Of course, over time the curve flattensout and drops off, as the something we can really only use afterto So, the term “viral” is people interested have already been exposed seeing numbers that increase exponentially. We want to see ait. Then the long tail effects take over. If the content is good, this effect canrepresent a considerable number ofof a skateboard ramp. a quite large graph similar to the curvature views over time, and also Of course, over time the curve flattens out and drops off, as thepart of the total number of views. people interested have already been exposed to it. Then the long tail effects take over. If the content is good, this effect can represent a considerable number of views over time, and also a quite large part of the total number of views.
    • For marketing purposes, a time factor is alsois also relevant.r is above marketing purposes, a time factor relevant. Even if Even if Ris above one, itbe as interesting as interesting for marketers if theone, it might not might not be for marketers if the viral loop takes aviral to complete. a year to complete.year loop takesWhat is viral marketing? a short definition would be inwhat is viral marketing? Maybeplace? And I will definition would be Wikipedia. Viral marketing is...Maybe a short borrow it straight from in place? And I will borrowit straight from Wikipedia. Viral marketing is... “Marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networks to produce“Marketingin brand awareness or to achieve other marketing objectives to increases techniques that use pre-existing social networksproduce increases in brand awareness or to achieveanalogous to (such as product sales) through selfreplicating viral processes, othermarketing objectives (such as product sales)can be word-of-mouth the spread of pathological and computer viruses. It through self-replicating or enhanced by the network effects of theInternet.” of delivered viral processes, analogous to the spread wikipediapathological and computer viruses. It can be word-of-mouthWait a second, what is that by thedelivered or enhanced r again? network effects of the Internet.” “In epidemiology, the basic reproduction number (sometimes called- wikipedia basic reproductive rate or basic reproductive ratio) of an infection is the mean number of secondary cases a typical single infected case willWait ain a population with no immunity to the disease in the absence of cause second, what is that R again?“In interventions to control basic reproduction number (sometimes epidemiology, the the infection.” wikipediacalled basic reproductive rate or basic reproductive ratio) ofanthe marketingthe mean how manyof secondary cases a typicalIn infection is world, r is number people one single personsingle infected case will causethe a population on average.(infected by the message) will pass in message on to, with noimmunity to the disease in the absence of interventions tocontrol basic infection.” rate is affected by several factors including the “The the reproductive duration of infectivity of affected patients, the infectiousness of the- wikipedia and the number of susceptible people in the population that the organism, affected patients are in contact with” wikipediaIn the marketing world, R is how many people one singleperson (infected by the message) will pass the message onto, on average.
    • So, there are different variables to play around withseveral factors “The basic reproductive rate is affected by to make somethingreach the threshold of 1. Here infectivity ofinterpretations: including the duration of are my short affected patients, the infectiousness of the organism, and the number of susceptibleIpeople in the population that the affected patients are in would interpret the duration of infectivity as how long someone contact with”actually remembers the content that we want to go viral and is able topass it on. The quality of the content affects this, as well as if we have - wikipediacreated incentives to come back to the content. In a way, the strongestcontent keeps us infected indefinitely. But, we need to know where to So, there are different variables to play around with to makefind the content again to be able to pass1. on. are my short something reach the threshold of it Here interpretations:The infectiousness of the organism would also have very much to dowith the quality of the content, the of infectivity as how long have I would interpret the duration appeal the content has. So, welearnt that quality content seems to the content that we want to go someone actually remembers be key in creating something thatmightand is able to pass it on. The quality of the content affects viral have a chance to go viral. this, as well as if we have created incentives to come back toThe number of In a way, the strongest content keeps us infected the content. susceptible people in the population that the affectedpatients are inBut, wewith would have something to dothe content indefinitely. contact need to know where to find with the contextyou chose to seed in. to brownieon. posted in a car forum might not again to be able A pass it recipespread quite as much as the latest paparazzi pictures of a new Ferrari. The infectiousness of the organism would also have very muchThe car enthusiasts are simply not interested enough in a brownie recipe, to do with the quality of the content, the appeal the contenteven though they might enjoy eating a brownie once in a while. It’skey has. So, we have learnt that quality content seems to be liketrying to lightsomething thatforest compared to a very dry one.viral. in creating a fire in a damp might have a chance to go In thedry one it is much more likely with a forest fire. The number of susceptible people in the population that theAlso, some patients are in prone to passing things have something affected people are more contact with would on. I am sure youhave some friends that send youchose little too often and some that to do with the context you stuff a to seed in. A brownie recipenever send you anything. Findingnot spread quite as much as the posted in a car forum might environments where people who tend latest paparazzi pictures of a new Ferrari. The car enthusiaststo pass things on gather could prove vital for a campaign. are simply not interested enough in a brownie recipe, even though they might enjoy eating a brownie once in a while. It’s like a very dry forest compared to a damp forest. In the dry one it is much more likely with a forest fire.
    • why some share? I believe that word of mouth has evolutionaryAlso, do wepeople are more prone to passing things on. I amsure you have some human race benefited from telling family andorigins. Put simply, the friends that send you stuff a little too oftenand some that neverbest roots and berries could be found, where thefriends about where the send you anything. Finding environmentswhere people who tend to pass things on gather could proveyear round waterhole was, or where the best hunting grounds were. In avital for a campaign.way, something that goes viral can be seen as digital word of mouth. AndWhy do we share? of the Internet, the power of it is manifold.thanks to the network effectsItbelieve that word of mouth has evolutionary origins. Put acrossI can spread to in-numerous people in the blink of an eye, and allthe world. It human freed benefited from telling family andsimply, the has been race from time and space.friends about where the best roots and berries could be found,Today, the year round vital information about where to findwherewe don’t only sharewaterhole was, or where the besthunting grounds information way, something that goesaviral canresources, but also were. In a that connects us to others. In worldbe seen don’t have time toof mouth. And thanks to the networkwhere we as digital word keep up with all our “connections”, the acteffects of the Internet, the power of it is manifold. It canof passing something on is a very easy way to reconnect. It is a way tospread to in-numerous people in the blink of an eye, and allshow that they are present in our minds. from time and space.across the world. It has been freedIt also boosts our ego. People are quite generous by nature. We likeToday, we don’t only share vital information about where toto share. We like to be alsoone who make that connectsdiscoverfind resources, but the information others laugh or us to others.something, or provide useful information. We like it because we knowIn a world where we don’t have time to keep up with all our“connections”, the act of passing something on is a very easythat we will be connected with the positive feeling the content brings theway to reconnect. It is a to be firstshow that – the one who knows,receiver. And we often want way to to share it they are present inourone who comes with the newest or the one who has that preciousthe minds.invite to an attractive service or tool.It also boosts our ego. People are quite generous by nature.We like to share. We like to be the one who make others laughor discover something, or provide useful information. We like itbecause we know that we will be connected with the positivefeeling the content brings the receiver. And we often want tobe first to share it - the one who knows, the one who comewith the newest or the one who has that precious invite to anattractive service or tool.
    • the “deal” in viral marketing is an exchange between the consumerThe “deal”and the business. The business starts by giving. The consumer gets a pieceThe deal in viral marketing is an exchange between theof remarkable content business. The business start by giving. Theconsumer and the to share with friends and family. In return, thebusiness getsgets a piece ofthat is becoming increasingly hard to get – aconsumer something back remarkable content to share withmomentand family. In return, from business gets something backfriends of undivided attention the a consumer.that is becoming increasingly hard to get - a moment ofundivided attention from a consumer.the viral loop can be built up in more or less complicated ways. Thebasic structure is:The viral loop Exposure > Interaction > Evaluation > Pass alongThe viral loop can be built up in more or less complicatedways. The basic structure is:Then the loop repeats itself for a new receiver, and hopefully it becomesviral. To achieve that, it is well worth the time to think about how thatExposure à Interaction à Evaluation à Pass alongvirality will be achieved. As we’ve seen, the basic reproductive number(or rate) needs to be above 1 for the campaign to become viral. And, ifThen the loop repeats itself for a new receiver, and hopefully itwe simplify it a bit, the two variables weis well worth r from areto havebecomes viral. To achieve that, it can calculate the time (I thinkchosen x and thatthis case):for virality will be achieved. As we’veabout how y in hopedseen, the basic reproductive number (or rate) needs to beabove 1 for the receivers of the campaign who pass And, if we simplify x = The ratio of campaign to become viral. it onit a bit, the two variables we can calculate R from are (I have y = The average number of people someone who passes it on, sends it to Thechosen X and Y in this case): first one, x, is between 0 and 1, representing 0 % and 100 % of receivers respectively. The second, y, could be between 1 up to (theoretically) infinity.X = The ratio of receivers of the campaign who pass it onY = The× y = r So, x average number of people someone who passes it on,sends it toWhat does this tell us? Well, x × y needs to have a product above 1 to goviral.first one, X,be,between 0 needs1, representing 0 % and 100 %The Since x can is at most, 1, y and to be above 1. Some examples:of receivers respectively. The second, Y, could be between 1upIfto is 50 %, y needs toinfinity. than 2 to become viral (0,5 × 2 = 1) x (theoretically) be more If x is 25 %, y needs to be more than 4 to become viral (0,25 × 4 = 1)So, X * Y = R If x is 10 %, y needs to be more than 10 to become viral (0,1 × 10 = 1)What does this tell us? Well, X * Y needs to have a productabove 1 to go viral. Since X can be, at most, 1, Y needs to be
    • So, when trying toexamples:above 1. Some build in a viral loop, think about the two factors thatwill affect the basic reproductive number, and try to do some reasonableestimates to Y expectations.If X is 50 %, setneeds to be more than 2 to become viral(0,5*2=1)If X is 25 %, Y needs to be more than 4 to become viralReasons for failure(0,25*4=1)If X is 10 %, Y needs to be more than 10 to become viral(0,1*10=1)Before starting off, let’s take a quick look at reasons why campaignsgenerally fail, not necessarily in order of importance.So, when trying to build in a viral loop, think about the twofactors that will affect the basic reproductiveCompetition fortryfirst, there is just too much information out there. number, andto do some reasonable estimates.attention is tougher than ever, and the clutter is incredible. So, only themost interesting material reaches an audience.Reasons for failuresecond, incentives are not take a quick look atproverbial ”carrot” isBefore starting off, let’s thought through. The why campaignsmissing or not attractive enough. For example,importance. where yourgenerally fail, not necessarily in order of a competitionown chances to win decrease when you invite others doesn’t incentivizeFirst, there is just too much information out there. Competitionpass-along.for attention is tougher than ever, and the clutter is incredible.third, businesses are often a bit too eager reaches in audience.So, only the most interesting material to squeezeanjust a little morebranding, and this can make the material uninteresting for the consumer.Second, incentives are not thought through. The proverbialfourth, is missing or not is not right. It is not For example, a”carrot” the technical set upattractive enough.easy enough to enjoycompetition where it on to others.the material or to pass your own chances to win decrease whenyou invite others doesn’t incentivize pass-along.fifth, the demands on the user are too big – maybe too muchinformation required, like name, email and phone number. This just aThird, businesses are often a bit too eager to squeeze in makeslittle more branding, and it and pass it on.the user hesitant to participate becomes quite uninteresting for theconsumer.sixth, the content is too internal – it is only really funny or interestingFourth, the technical set up is not right. It is not easy enough toto the agency and maybe the advertising world.enjoy the material or to pass it on to others.
    • and seventh, it doesn’t catch user are tooquickly enough. It has to Fifth, the demands on the the attention big - maybe too much engage quickly. Sometimes within 5–10 seconds. phone number. This information required, like name, email and makes the user hesitant to participate and pass it on. In all fairness, there is yet another reason campaigns might fail – when a campaign really takesis too internalcapacity can’t handle all the traffic. Sixth, the content off and server - it is only really funny or interesting to the agency and advertising world. Make sure the servers have enough capacity and are redundant. And seventh, it doesn’t catch the attention quickly enough. It Six areas to work with has to engage quickly. Sometimes within 5-10 seconds. IIn all fairness, there is yet another reason campaigns might fail think there are six main areas to work with when trying to create something campaign really takes off and server capacity can’t - when a viral: handle all the traffic. Make sure the servers have enough capacity and are redundant. 1. The target 2. The content Six areas to work with 3. The incentives 4. The barriers I think there are six main areas to work with when trying to 5. The seeding create something viral: 6. Tracking, evaluation & improvement 1. The target 2. The content I have tried to sort my tips into these six areas even though some tips are 3. The incentives tangential to, and could belong in, more than one of them. Using more 4. The barriers of the tips in seeding 5. The each of these areas would hopefully produce even better 6. results. Tracking, evaluation & improvement1 targettried to sort my tips reach?theseveryareas even though I have Who do you want to into It is six important to know who you want toare tangential content. If you don’t know this, you than some tips reach with your to, and could belong in, more don’t knowof them. Using produce, you don’t in each what environments to one what content to more of the tips know in of these areas would hopefully produce even better results. seed it and you probably have very slim chances of creating something viral. But the content does not have to be 100 % adapted to the target. 1. Target Who do you want to reach? It is very important to know who you want to reach with your content. If you don’t know this, you don’t know what content to produce, you don’t know in
    • Sometimes it can be a to seed to give it a probably have a very what environments good idea it and youlittle broader appeal. Then more people will create something viral. slim chance to enjoy it and these people will know who to pass it on to. In a way, content that is viral can become “intelligent”. It finds it’s But the content does not have to be 100 %in the primary target intended audience through the ones who are not adapted to the target. Sometimes it can be athe content and instinctively know group. Rather, these people watch good idea to give it a little broader appeal. Then more people will enjoy it and these who would like to watch it – pass it on to. In a – and passes it on to is people will know who to the intended target way, content that them. viral can become “intelligent”. It finds it’s intended audience2 through the ones who are not in the primary target group. content If I ask you towatch theviral campaign, or ten viral know Rather, these people mention a content and instinctively campaigns, you will watch it - the intended target - great content. who would like to give me examples of campaigns with and passes it on to is no escaping it – for a campaign to go truly viral, amazing There them. content is key. 2. Content So, what kind of content a viral campaign, or ten viral If I ask you to mentionworks? What will make people want to campaigns, you willmy experience, you can put one word on it – pass something on? In give me examples of campaigns with great content. There is no escaping it -about. You need a social “remarkable” – something worth remarking for a campaign to go truly viral, amazing content is key. object that people can gather around. Something which people want to tell others, something that sparks conversations, something to discuss. So, what kind of content works? What will make people want The content needs to buildIn my value, tie people closer together or to pass something on? social experience, you can put one maybe even tear them apart a - something worth remarking about. word on it - “remarkable” little. It needs to create engagement and get You need a social objectaction.people can gather around. people involved so they take that Something which people want to tell others, something that sparks conversations, something to have a production budget Even though some material that spreads discuss. The content needs to build social value, tie people closer togetherto create around zero dollars, execution is extremely important or maybe even tear them apart a little. It needs to create engagement something viral. Some campaigns benefit if they look like home made. and get people involved so they take action. Others, built on a different idea, need a lot more work. Even though some material that spreads have a production A lot of the viral content triggers execution this and won’t important budget around zero dollars, depend on is extremely work if the idea isn’t successfully carried out. to create something viral. Some campaigns benefit if they look like home made. Others, built on a different idea, need a lot more work.
    • Without greatviral content triggersusually won’t spread. And if it A lot of the content, the campaign depend ondoesn’t spread, there will not be any isn’t successfully carried out. this and won’t work if the idea value created for the business behindit. Here are some viral content triggers. Without great content, the campaign usually won’t spread.something funny And if it doesn’t spread, there will not be any value createdWe like funny stuff. We like it. Here areAnd theviral contentif we can for the business behind to be funny. some easiest way is triggers. Something funnyfree-ride on something that is funny. So, if we get the chance, we pass iton so that we are associated with that funniness just a little bit. Funny We like funny stuff. We like to be funny. And the easiest way isworks,can free-ride love something that is funny. So, if we get the if we because we all on a good laugh. It is one of the best ways toconnect with people.it on is pretty funny. associated with that chance, we pass This so that we are funniness just a little bit. Funny works, because we all love asomething spectacular the best ways to connect with people. good laugh. It is one ofThe best place funny. http://www.youtube.com/watch? This is pretty to go to see something spectacular might be a circus. v=S1ZZreXEqSY  You can almost count on seeing something that seems impossible to Something spectaculardo. Maybe it is this “mystery” that appeals to us, a wow-feeling. And ifsomethingplace to go to see somethingwant to talk about it, and a The best “wows” us we want to share it, we spectacular might bewe want You can experience it. Insane street soccer can count as seems circus. others to almost count on seeing something that prettyspectacular, even though it is faked. “mystery” that appeals to us, impossible to do. Maybe it is this a wow-feeling. And if something “wows” us we want to sharesomething sexy about it, and we want others to experience it, we want to talkWell, sex sells. There’s no denying it. And believe it spectacular, even it. Insane street soccer can count as pretty or not, it is primarily though it is faked. http://www.youtube.com/watch?men who are on the viewing end of this and women who are featured in v=Jl39guVpofwthe content. But, cases of the contrary also exist.Something sexyMaybe it is something very ingrained in the male psyche, somethingWell, sex sells. There’s no denying it. And believe it or not, it isevolutionary, that makes men wantviewing end of this To be womenprimarily men who are on the to see naked women. and very briefand clear, our sex drive. the content. But, cases of the contrarythat are featured inalso exist.I believe the sharing might actually often be smaller for something sexythan for other viral triggers. Butingrained in the maleinteractions itMaybe it is something very the amount of views or psyche,something evolutionary, that makes men want to see nakedwomen. To be very brief and clear, our sex drive.
    • gets once the sharing might actually often be smaller stillI believeposted somewhere is higher, so the actual spread is for verysomething sexy thanwords” could be triggers. But the amount ofhigh. Marina’s “Hot for for other viral an example of something thatviews orsexiness to create gets once posted somewhere is higher,plays on interactions it interest and spread.so the actual spread is still very high. Marina’s “Hot for words”could be an example of something that plays on sexiness tosomething taboocreate interest andtaboo often teases us to pass it on. It is theYes, something that is spread. http://www.youtube.com/user/hotforwordsforbidden fruit that we cannot taste. But, this trigger doesn’t work quiteSomething that is funny or spectacular. The funnier, the more viral.like something tabooThe something that is more often teases taboo, the more viral,Yes, more spectacular, thetabooviral. The more us to pass it on. It is upthe point! If it isfruit that we cannot taste. your this trigger maybeto a forbidden a bit taboo, you can send it to But, friends, butdoesn’t work quite like something that is funny or spectacular.not to your mom and dad. If it is very taboo, you only send it to yourThe funnier, the more viral. The more spectacular, the morevery closest friends. And ifthe more viral, upcan’t send it to anyone,viral. The more taboo, it is too taboo, you to a point! If it is a bitand there is no chance it it to your friends, but video that can yourtaboo, you can send will be viral. Diesel did amaybe not toserve asmom and of thisIf it is very taboo, you only send it to your veryan example dad. trigger quite well.closest friends. And if it is too taboo, you can’t send it toanyone, and there is no chance it will be viral. Diesel did aa secretvideo that can is in essence “scarce information” and we all knowSomething secret illustrate this point quite well.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lCIXGYx7PaEwhat scarcity does to us. It tells us something has value. And if somethingA secret like to pass it on. But, just as with the taboo trigger, ifhas value, wesomething is too secret, we can’t pass it on to information” and it isSomething secret is in essence “scarce everyone we know. Ifwe allknow what scarcitykeep it secret to keep us something has value.too secret, we need to does to us. It tells the value, so we can’t pass itAnd if somethingit willvalue, virallike to pass it on. But, just ason. Too secret, and has not be we at all.with the taboo trigger, if something is too secret, we can’t passit on to everyone we know.If it is too secret, we need to keep it secret to keep the value,so we can’t pass it on. Too secret, and it will not be viral at all.
    • something personal Something personal Ifthere is something we like to hear it is our own name. And if something If there is something we like to hear it is our own name. And ifis personal, targeted just totargeted just likeus, Withtend digital tools, something is personal, us, we tend to to it. we new to like it.it is also very easy to createitpersonalized campaigns. The kind that wows With new digital tools, is also very easy to createus just a bit, even though it can be very easy towows us just a bit, even personalized campaigns. The kind that integrate someone’s namein a little flash movie. When we are integrate someone’s someone a though it can be very easy to given the chance to give name in little flash movie. When we are given the chance to giveelse this experience, we like to do it. So, personal campaign material has someone else this experience, we like to do it.a good chance to spread if well done. This is a brilliant example from the So, personal campaign material has a good chance tomarketing of TV series Dexter. spread if well done. This is a brilliant example from thea “revenge” TV series Dexter. http://www.icetruck.tv/ marketing ofIindex.php?id=1f65bda5e79ca6955abebf7ab73bc821 don’t mean revenge in the traditional sense. It would not go viral, just A “revenge”back and forth between two persons. I mean if you are maybe “fooled” bysomeone, realize your gullibility andthen get the chance to get back. But, I don’t mean revenge in the traditional sense. It would not goyou get back on someone else. It wouldn’t work with the mean if you viral, just back and forth between two persons. I one who fooledyou since they“fooled” by someone, realize your gullibility andat are maybe are already aware of the prank. You need to “get back”someone else, or several others. Somehow, fooling get back on then get the chance to get back. But, you someone else makesyou get overelse. you got fooled yourself in theone place. fooled you someone that It wouldn’t work with the first who It restores since they are already aware of the prank. You need to “getyour selfat someoneyou got fooled, butothers. Somehow, fooling If back” image. Sure, else, or several you also fooled some others.you’re a guy,else makes youbit fooled by thisyou got fooled yourself someone you might feel a get over that one! in the first place. It restores your self image. Sure, you got fooled, but you also fooled some others. If you’re a guy, you might feel fooled by this one! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LE6cH3TKr-g  
    • something controversialSomething controversialThere are several themes that we see over and over again in contentThere are several themes that we see over and over again inthat goes viral. Controversy Controversy isIf you of them. inyou cancontent that goes viral. is one of them. one can build If somecontroversy, an controversy, an a “pro or con” or maybe somethingbuild in some issue where there isissue where there is a “pro orcon” or maybe something that even breaksgood general sparkthat even breaks the general consensus, you have a the chance toconsensus, you have a good chance to spark conversationsconversations and create something that goes viral. This example is noand create something that goes viral. This is no doubtdoubt controversial to a lot of people!controversial to a lot of people! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qg1ckCkm8YIa challengerA challengerThe story about David and Goliath is a classic. We always root for theunderdog. about David and sympathizers there is a We always rootThe story And when you have Goliath is a classic. good possibilitythey will help you in And when and spread the message.for the underdog. your struggleyou have sympathizers there is agood possibility they will help you in your struggle and spreada current eventthe message.Current events are great to tie your content to. It can be some eventA current eventtaking place, a national holiday, or a topic that is on the agenda in theCurrent events are great to tie your content to. It can be somenews. The upside is that it can give the content a necessary positiveevent taking place, a national holiday, or a topic that is on themomentum. the news. The upside is that it is what it is thecurrentagenda in The downside is of course that it can give – a contentevent. And with that the attention will The downside once the eventa necessary positive momentum. usually taper out is of coursethat it is what it is - a current event. And with that the attentionis over. Taking advantage of current news events requires quick action,will usually taper out once the event is over.while calendar events might be easier to plan for. OfficeMax has madethe original http://www.elfyourself.com/ events to a yearlyquickTaking advantage of current news success requires recurringcampaign.action, while calendar events might be easier to plan for.OfficeMax has made the original http://www.elfyourself.com/success to a yearly recurring campaign.
    • a causeA causeCauses circulating on the Internet is something we have gotten used to.Causes circulating on the Internet is something we havePut simply, people Put simply, people want to be part ofgotten used to. want to be part of something greater than themselves,something that matters. It might be most relevant for organizations Itsomething greater than themselves, something that matters.working formost relevant but businesses can also tap into this bettermight be a better world, for organizations working for a in forexamplebut businesses can also tapAnimal Cruelty”examplelot ofworld, CSR efforts. Causes like “Fight into this in for attracts a CSRefforts. Causes like “Fight Animal Cruelty” attracts a lot ofpeople.people. http://www.causes.com/causes/74  UncertaintyuncertaintyThis is pretty similar to using “something controversial” in the senseThis is pretty similar to using “something controversial” in thethat two different “camps” often appear,often appear, discussing thesense that two different “camps” discussing the issue. But it feedson uncertainty about something. Is it true or not? Is it possible?true orissue. But it feeds on uncertainty about something. Is it Can itbe done?itI possible?one is it be done? I think this onetheaffectednot? Is think this Can affected to a certain extent by is Zeigarnikto a certain extent by the Zeigarnik effect. Following traditioneffect. Following tradition here, let’s grab the definition directly fromhere, let’s grab it directly from wikipedia:wikipedia:“The Zeigarnik effect states that people remember “The Zeigarnik effect states that people remember uncompleted oruncompleted or interrupted tasks better than completed interrupted tasks better than completed ones”ones”We like to come to some kind of closure. We don’t like unfinishedthoughts,to come to some kind of closure. We don’t like thought.We like and something that is uncertain creates an unfinishedIt is kind of a cliffhanger. Until we have solved itis uncertain our ownunfinished thoughts, and something that and come to createsan unfinished thought. It is kind of a cliffhanger. Until we haveconclusion, we like to talk about it. And once two different camps appear,solved it and come to our own conclusion, we like to talkthe discussion can rage twomonths. The Ronaldinho clip for Nike is aabout it. And once for different camps appear, the discussionprimerage for months. The Ronaldinho clip for Nike is a primecan example.example. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i_JS1YG8H2c
    • something newSomething newIt is always interesting to try new stuff, and being first with somethingIt is always interesting to try new stuff, and being first withcreates socialcreates social status. New things are oftenmakes itsomething status. New things are often scarce, and scarcity scarce,attractive. Diamonds are attractive. Diamonds are are so expensiveand scarcity makes it beautiful, but the reason they beautiful, butthe reason they areSo, something thatthat they are scarce.seenis that they are scarce. so expensive is is new, that hasn’t beenbefore, is often tried and often passed on. It is a quick way to let othersSo, something that is new, that hasn’t been seen before, isknow that you are “in the know”, the “go to-guy“. Of course, somethingoften tried and often passed on. It is a quick way to let othersentirely newyou are “in the know”, the “go to”-guy.be honest,know that might be a bit hard to come up with. But, togetting the other triggers above right isn’t easy either. The good news isOf course, something entirely newthere are other tools in your box!that you can combine the triggers. And might be a bit hard tocomethis video first spread, before Youtube even existed, video on theWhen up with. But, to be honest, getting the other triggersabove right isn’t easy either. The good news is that you canInternet was rare.combine the triggers. And there are other tools in your box!When this video first spread, before Youtube even existed,the unexpectedvideo on the Internet was rare. http://youtube.com/watch?The unexpected is by definition a surprise. Surprise is often a positivev=Ofrvn5nvgggthing. Surprise is something we want to share. It breaks expectations andThe unexpectedputs a smile on your face, makes our jaws drop, or frightens the livingThe unexpected The unexpected is an elementSurpriseof Internetdaylights out of us. is by definition a surprise. in a lot is often apositive thing. Surprise is something we want to share. It breaksmemes, but most obvious maybe inon your face, makes our jawsexpectations and puts a smile the ones frightening us.drop, or frightens the living daylights out of us.The unexpected is an element in a lot of Internet memes, butmost obvious maybe in the ones frightening us.
    • 3 incentives In addition to great content, there are several incentives you 3. Incentives can play around with to make people pass your material on. In addition to great content, there are several incentives you network effects with to make people pass your material on. can play around If you can build in network effects in your campaign, built on incentives Network effects for the users or receivers, you can also create a campaign that goes viral. And, if cansucceedin network effects in your campaign, built you If you you build to combine great content with network effects, on incentives for the users or receivers, you can also create a might just have one of those spectacular campaigns everybody dream campaign that goes viral. And, if you succeed to combine about! In short, awith network effects, youthat makes doing or great content network effect is something might just have one of owningspectacular campaigns everybody dreamor other friends those something more valuable the more other people about! are using it. A classic example is the fax machine. If there is only one fax and one user, there’s nothing you can do with it. Ifmakes doing or In short, a network effect is something that there is another user owning something more valuable the more other people or and another fax, we can at least fax each other. If there are three, the other friends are using it. A classic example is the fax machine. utility doubles. The more people thatuser, there’s nothing you can If there is only one fax and one have it and use it, the higher the utility. If you can createanother user and another fax, we can at do with it. If there is the same mechanics in your campaign, you’ve got a shot at viral other. If there are three, the utility doubles. The least fax each success. more people that have it and use it, the higher the utility. If you challenges & competitions (gamein your campaign, you’ve can create the same mechanics mechanics) If thereshot at viral we have learnt from applications such as Farmville got a is something success. and location based iPhone apps such as Gowalla and Foursquare, it’s Challenges & Competitions (Game Mechanics) that people like to compete. Feedback mechanisms such as points, If there is something we have learnt from applications such as badges, leader boards, and different levels can incentivize us to do Farmville and location based iPhone apps such as Gowalla thingsFoursquare, it’s that peoplealike to compete. Feedback and we otherwise might not do. In way, you could say it is classical conditioning. The rewards we getbadges, leader boards,teach us to mechanisms such as points, for performing the action and do it again.levels can incentivize us to do things we otherwise different In viral marketing, game mechanics can form the rules and might not do. In a way, you could say it is classical incentives that encourage a receiver to pass content on. conditioning. The rewards we get for performing the action teach us to do it again. In viral marketing, game mechanics can form the rules and incentives that encourage a receiver to pass content on.
    • Stickiness Here I am not really referring to the stickiness of the message, Stickiness how long you remember it. But rather I am talking about how sticky the Here I am not really referring to the stickiness of the message, campaign material is. If you canBut rather I am talking about how how long you remember it. create reasons to come back for more of the campaign material, material is. If you can create also will to sticky the campaignthere is a greater chance that users reasons want come it on tofor moremore person. The chances for viral spread go up. to pass back just one of the campaign material, there is a greaterto stay longer orusers also willcould be to get more information Reasons chance that to come back want to pass it on to just one more person. The chances for viral spread go up. Reasons or a campaign inor to come back couldget more points. to stay longer several steps, or maybe to be to get more information or a campaign in several steps, or maybe to get So, cliffhangers and game mechanics can be a great help. An example of more points. something both sticky and viral is chatroulette.com. Whether you think it’s interesting or horrible, there’s no denyingcansticky. You never know So, cliffhangers and game mechanics it is be a great help. A what awaits you if of click “Next” instead of closing viral the recent exampleyousomething both sticky and downis browser chatroulette.com. Whether you think it’s interesting or horrible, or going to another site. Just one more click... there’s no denying it is sticky. You never know what awaits you4 barriers “Next” instead of closing down the browser or if you click goingit easy make to another site. Just one more click... First rule: Keep it simple. Don’t force someone who receives the 4. Barriers a wall to pass it on. Make it easy, in as few steps as content to climb possible. Don’t make them have to leave the computer to participate in Make it easy a competition. Can they receive their result without even clicking once, First rule: Keep it simple. Don’t force someone who receives or with just one click? Can you eliminate the need to fill in information the content to climb a wall to pass it on. Make it easy, in as entirely? Can they pass it Don’t make them have toand filling in an few steps as possible. on with just one or two clicks leave the computer to participate in a competition. Can they receive email address or signing in to Facebook? The more you ask from them, their result without even clicking once, or with just one click? the less people will participate. The easier the more viral. Can you eliminate the need to fill in information entirely? Can they pass it on with just one or two clicks and filling in an email address or signing in to Facebook? The more you ask from them, the less people will participate. The easier the more viral.
    • shorter is better Shorter is betterShort content is better than long content. This is of course because if Short content is better than long content. This is of coursecontent is toocontent is too long,get to the end.not get to the end. because if long, people will not people will If they don’t get tothe end,don’t get to the end, they will maybe not even see the If they they will maybe not even see the brand connection and willdefinitely not pass it on. But, of definitely not pass it on. But, afford brand connection and will course, high quality content can ofto be a bithigh quality content can afford to be aone longer. The course, longer. The most important thing is that the bit interacting most important thing is that the one interacting doesn’t getdoesn’t get bored.first 5-10 seconds havehave to captivate theuser. A bored. So, the So, the first 5–10 seconds to captivate the user. Acliffhanger can do the trick.trick. Several cliffhangers throughout cliffhanger can do the Several cliffhangers throughout the content the content might sustain the audience longer.might sustain the audience longer. For games, videos and applications,load times are essential. They shouldn’t take long and shouldn’t interrupt For games, videos and applications, load times are essential.the user. They shouldn’t take long and shouldn’t interrupt the user.avoid a brand bonanza Avoid a brand bonanzaMost companies are interested in brand awareness and liking. Theywant to be both seenare interestedin viral marketing, which doesn’t Most companies and liked. But, in brand awareness and liking.rely on paid media like traditional advertising, thereviralvery fine line They want to be both seen and liked. But, in is a marketing, which doesn’t rely on paid media like traditional advertising,between being totally ignored, being noticed as a brand, ora brand, there is a very fine line between being noticed as maybe evenbeing liked. If even or beingtoo obvious, people will react and maybe being liked the branding is totally ignored. If the branding is toonot pass it people will react and maybe not pass balanced with obvious, on. So, the branding element often has to be it on. So, thethe quality of the content. Stronger content means it with the quality branding element often has to be balanced can afford more of the content. Stronger content means it can afford moreobvious branding. obvious branding.If the brand has a very strong connection with the content,and it isintegrated with the a very stronghave an evenstronger virality. The best If the brand has story, it might connection with the content, and it is integrated with the story, it might have an evenway is to show in actions whywaycompany should be liked instead of stronger virality. The best the is to demonstrate why thetelling in words. company should be liked instead of telling why.The stronger the connection between brand and content, the betterThe stronger the connection between brand and content, thepeople will remember what brand what brand was behind thebetter people will remember was behind the content, and maybecontent, and maybe even refer to it with the brand name, justas with “Dove Evolution”. If the brand in itself is remarkable,
    • even refer to it of a viral success multiply. This is because of If thethe chances with the brand name, just as with “Dove Evolution”.thebrand fans that provide a very loyalof a viral success multiply. Thisbrand in itself is remarkable, the chances base where you can startthe spread.the brand fans that provide a very loyal base where you canis because ofstart the spread.Optimize for spreadoptimize for spreadFormatsFormats – Use the smallest common denominator. If people need aUse the smallest common denominator. If people need a plug-plugin or special software to interact with your content, don’t expect it toin or special software to interact with your content, don’tgo viral. Use formats that most peoplethat mostif possible, you can evenexpect it to go viral. Use formats have, and people have, and ifpossible, you can even provide several formats. When it isprovide several formats. When it comes to video, embeddable flashcomes to video, embeddable flash is probably the best optionprobably the best option for now, but allowing download of a .wmv filefor now, but allowing download of a .wmv file can be ancan be an added benefit. Posting a video online in .mov is not the bestadded benefit. Posting a video online in .mov is not the bestformat, but helps when provided in addition toadvertising businessformat. Even though most people in the flash. Even though mostpeople in it a lot of others can’t.can see the advertising business can see .mov, a lot of others can’t.For the future, html5 might make things even even easier, now,for the future, html5 might make things easier, but for but sticknow, stick to flash. Anything that immediately accessible to theprimarily to flash. Anything that isn’t isn’t immediately accessibleto the normal user should be avoided. And not the possibilitynormal user should be avoided. And not offering users offering usersthe possibility to easily snatch the embed-code to post theto easily snatch the embed-code to post the content on their own site orcontent on their own site or blog is a big mistake.blog is a big mistake.The only exception is if thethe contenthave to offerto so spectacularThe only exception is if content you you have is offer is sospectacular that it doesn’t matter if people need to downloadthat it doesn’t matter if people need to download and install newand install new software - they will happily do it anyway. Then,software – they will it ok. do it anyway. Then, and only then, is it ok.and only then, is happilyTools Services – What tools does your target audience use? Do they useTools & & ServicesTwitter? Facebook? your target audience Do they read blogs? InternetWhat tools does Youtube? StumbleUpon? use? Do they useTwitter? Facebook?popular tools come and go. But, whatever theyis developing fast, and Youtube? StumbleUpon? Do they readblogs? Internet isoffer them an easy way to popularcontent on in thoseuse, make sure you developing fast, and pass the tools comeand go.
    • channels. Of course, working deep links that are easy to copy are also But, whatever they use, make sure you offer them an easy required,pass the contentwants to mail channels. Of course, way to if someone simply on in those it to their friends and family. working deep links that are easy to copy are also required, if These tools might spell the to mail it to their friends and family. or someone simply wants difference between a campaign taking off not – what makes thespell the difference between a threshold and These tools might basic reproductive rate pass the 1.0 campaign go viral. off or not it what makes the basicviral it becomes. rate taking The easier - is to pass it on, the more reproductive pass the 1.0 threshold and go viral. The easier it is to pass it on,5 the more viral it becomes. seeding What is the idea of quarantine? Well, it is to limit contact with a contagious or poisonous agent. To not expose any more people to it.Seeding seeding is the opposite of quarantine. You want to 5. The idea with maximize contact with the viral agent. This means creating “satellites of The idea behind seeding content” in a lot of different places, where people can be exposed to it. What is the idea of quarantine? Well, it is to limit contact with a contagious or poisonous agent. To not expose any more Without exposing anyone to the material, no one will ever get “infected”. people to it. So, it is key to expose people to it to start the spread and create a critical volume. Once the right people and the right environments have been The idea with seeding is the opposite of quarantine. You want exposed, the spread will start to take care of itself. But only if the content o maximize contact with the viral agent. This means creating really has viral content” in a lot of different places, where “satellites of potential. people can be exposed to it. context How do you start a fire? Well, firsttheall you needno one will ever get Without exposing anyone to of material, some dry wood. Without it, it will beis key to expose people to it the startit will dry “infected”. So, it difficult. Once you have started to fire, the up the rest of the wooda critical volume. Once the right people spread and create and it will set that on fire too. and the right environments have been exposed, the spread will start to take care of itself. But only if the content really has viral potential and it has reached the right environments. Context How do you start a fire? Well, first of all you need some dry wood. Without it, it will be difficult. Once you have started the fire, it will dry up the rest of the wood and it will set that on fire too.
    • What does this mean for a campaign? Well, you should startWhatdoes this mean for a viralviral campaign? Well, you shouldstart seeding the environments mostto your idea or campaign. Theseeding the environments most receptive receptive to your idea orcampaign. The environments with the “driest tinder”. Thisenvironments with the “driest tinder”. This means not only the biggestmeans not only the biggest video or entertainment sites. If thevideo or entertainment sites. If the material is country specific, startmaterial is country specific, start with local sites. The morewith local sites. The more contextualOnce they have embraced it,contextual they are the better. they are the better. Once they haveembraced it, it can start to other environments, to a to a moreit can start spreadingspreading to other environments,moremainstream audience. And you can start spreading it on a broadermainstream audience. And then then you can start spreading it ona broader scale.scale.But, it is often important to to first reach mostmost interested and try it often important first reach the the interested peoplepeople them advocates for the idea. To increase of the idea. Toto make and try to make them advocates adoption, the contentincrease adoption, the content needs to be relevant to theneeds to be relevant to the target audience, but you have probably alreadytarget audience, but you have probably already figured thatfigured that one out. Relevance and the context alsoalso result a aone out. Relevance and the right right context result in inhigher quality on the views get.higherquality on the views you you get.A huba hubAs a general rule, spreading the content in a lot of locationslocations isAs a general rule, spreading the content in a lot of is good. But,depending on the content,on the content, it can to have a a goodgood. But, depending it can also be a good idea also be hub foridea to haveEither your own campaign.for example Youtube. Thisthe campaign. a hub for the site or using Either your own site orusing as the central location where users can find the content and otherworks for example Youtube. This works as the central locationwhere users can find the content and other related material. Ifrelated material. If it is your own site, videos should still be available onit is your own site, videos should still be available on YoutubeYoutube though,that isthat is where most users go to search for videos.though, since since where most users go to search for videos.mainstream mediaMainstream mediaUsually it is best to take advantage of the fact that people want to beUsually it is best to take advantage of the fact that peoplefirst with be latest. No the feels good about feels good aboutwant to the first with one latest. No one passing something onthat has also gotten full pages in newspapers, and is used in a bannerpassing something on that has also gotten full pages innewspapers, and is used in a banner bombardment.bombardment.
    • If you have the budget and are thinking about using bought media, it If you have the budget and are thinking about using boughtis usuallyit is usually better a bit later,out athe early adoptersthe early media, better to roll it out to roll it once bit later, once haveembraced the material. And whenmaterial. focus on the most start, adopters have adopted the you start, And when you relevant focus on the most relevant environments. So, even a viralenvironments. So, even a viral campaign should be planned with campaign should be planned with different phases wheredifferent phases where different media are used. Smaller, more different media are used. Smaller, non-paid and non-paid andmore contextual sites the beginning andlarger, maybe paid and more contextual sites in in the beginning and larger, maybe paid andmainstream sites latersites later on. more mainstream on.Promote participationpromote participationWhat ififyou already engaged a lot ofa lot of in your production? If theyWhat you already engaged people people in yourare proud to havethey are proud toalready been part of it, you forproduction? If been part of it, you have have a lot of advocatesyour material, and lot of advocatesto post it in their own networks oralready have a they will be happy for your material, and theywill be happy to post it in their networks or pass it on, to createpass it on, to create an initial spread. Make sure to ask them if they wantan initial spread. Make sure to ask them if they want to beto be informed when the campaign material is is ready and maketoinformed when the campaign material ready and make sureget their get their contact information.sure to contact information. A great titlea great title”Dynamite surfing” is a great title. title. It you ayouwhat it’s about and is ”Dynamite surfing” is a great It tells tells bit a bit what it’smemorable, butmemorable,sparks in interest. it sparks us curious. AIt about and is most of all it but most of all It makes in interest.great title makes peoplegreat title makes makes them remember link, it makes us curious. A click on the link, it people click on the it andfind it again, and it makes other people find it more easily, makes other makes them remember it and find it again, and it since people people find it more easily, since people use the same words touse the same words to link to the content. It to find in searchfind in link to the content. It becomes easier becomes easier to enginessearch engines or on searches onand similar. similar. or on searches on Youtube Youtube andgreat footage Great imagesWe are often very visual. We scan information, and our eyes often We are often very visual. We scan information, and our eyesstop briefly on images. A great imagegreat image catches our eye often stop briefly on images. A catches our eye and makes usinterested. Whenever you can,Wheneverimages usedchoose the and makes us interested. choose the you can, for thumbnails.If autogenerated, make sure you cutautogenerated, make sure you images used for thumbnails. If the movie in a way so that the cut the movie in a way so that the autogenerated thumbnail isn’t taken from an uninteresting sequence of the movie. A movie that starts by fading in from black could end up with an
    • autogenerated thumbnail isn’t taken from an uninteresting sequence entirely black thumbnail. Make sure it doesn’t happen for your campaign. A movie that starts by fading in from black could end up of the movie. with an entirely black thumbnail. Make sure it doesn’t happen to your 6. Tracking, evaluation & improvement campaign.6 tracking, evaluation & improvement Tracking tracking Proper tracking is essential to be able to say if the campaign Proper tracking is essential to be able can also campaign has been a has been a success or not. But, itto say if thehelp you during the campaign. ABut, it can also help you duringyou campaign.what success or not. good tracking system lets the know in A good environments lets you know in what environments the content has tracking system the content has been well received, where it has spread the most and how many people interact with it. been well received, where it has spread the most and how many people interact with it. With this information, you can figure out in which environments the likelihood of viral spread and interaction is the highest. With this information, you can figurejust reach the tipping point. Reach out there and you might out in which environments the likelihood of viral spread and interaction is the highest. Reach out there Evaluate andreach the tipping point. and you might just improve This is very important. Once you have created a campaign, evaluate and improve use what you have learnt to make the viral or not, you should Once onehave created a campaign, viral or not, you should use what next you better, even more successful. Ask yourself: Did it go viral? Where didmake the next one better, evenWhat successful. Ask you have learnt to it work? Why did it work? more worked best? What didn’tit go viral? Where did it work? Why did it done What yourself: Did work well? What could have been work? better? How could we have tweaked the content to make it even worked best? What didn’t work well? What could have been done better? more attractive? How could we have made it even easier to How could we have tweaked the content to make it even moremore pass it on? How could we have reached out in even attractive? contextual environments? easier to pass it on? How could we have How could we have made it even reached out in even more contextual environments? Use your learnings when creating your next campaign.
    • Four quick questionsFour quick questionsLet’s finish off with a little cheat sheet. There are four questionsLet’s finish offask yourselfcheat sheet. There a campaign: youyou should with a little when creating are four questionsshould ask yourself when creating a campaign: 1. Why notice – what catches the attention? 1. Why notice? 2. Why interact – what keeps the attention? 2. Why interact? 3. Why act – what makes someone want to pass it on? 4. Why not 3. Why act? act – what could make someone not want to 4. Why not on? pass it act?Why notice - what catches the attention?why notice – what catches the attention? If there is nothing thatcatches the nothing that consumer, the attention of a consumer,If there is attention of a catches there is nothing that will be passedthere is nothing that will be passed on. It could be a strikingon. It could be a striking headline, an interesting image, or maybe topheadline, an interesting image, or maybe top ratings by otherratings by other consumers. A lot of means it ismeans it is somethingconsumers. A lot of comments comments something peoplepeopleabout. Therefore, it is interesting. Make sure to think throughcare care about. Therefore, it is interesting. Make sure to thinktitles, headlines, images and the thumbnails the thumbnails that arethrough titles, headlines, images and that are created by videocreated by video sites for example.sites for example.why interact – what keeps keeps theOnce someone has started Why interact - what the attention? attention?interacting, there ishas started interacting, there is awell care of it! Once someone a small window of opportunity. Take smallThe first 10 seconds of a video are well care of it! Could there be a little window of opportunity. Take very important. The first 10 seconds of a video are very important. Could there be a littlecliffhanger included? What is it that will keep the attention? Make sure cliffhanger included? What is it that will keep the attention?load times are quick. If noare quick. If a video towatchesno one will Make sure load times one watches no one the end, a video topass it on. no one will pass it on. the end,why act – what makes someone want to pass it on? What is the incentivethat will make a consumer pass the content on? Is there an expectedpositive experience for the receiver? Does the one passing it on stand togain something from passing it on; points, social value or something else?
    • why not actwhat makes someone want to pass itWhy act - – what could prevent someone from passing it on? Haveyou minimized any reasons that the consumer would not want to passon?something on? Is it too commercial? Do you demand too much from theWhat is the incentive that will make a consumer pass theconsumeron? Is there an expected positive experience forpasscontent in terms of information? Have you made the process to theit on as easy and quick as possible? Have you optimized it somethingreceiver? Does the one passing it on stand to gainfor sharing onfrom passing it on; points, socialIn general, somethingthe consumerthe platforms the target group uses? value or is the value else?gets higher than the effort it takes to pass it on? Hard to evaluate, yes, butWhy thinking about.worth not act - what could prevent someone frompassing it on?avoid you minimized any reasons that What happens if would notHave the ”problems” with success the consumer thecampaign really takes off? Is server it too commercial? aboutwant to pass something on? Is capacity enough? WhatDo youdemand too much of the of a campaign is extremely important, andbandwidth? The server set up consumer in terms of information?Have you made the process to pass it onhas the potential to be asmaybe even more so when the campaign really as easy and quick apossible? Have you optimized it for sharing on the platformssuccess. This set up needs to be thought through and made redundant.the target group uses?You also need to make sure the mailing server doesn’t make all mailssent become marked as spam in inboxes, which would effectively kill theIn general, is the value the consumer gets higher than theeffort it takes to pass it on? Hard to evaluate, yes, but worthcampaign.thinking about.Avoid the ”problems” with successWhat happens if the campaign really takes off? Is servercapacity enough? What about bandwidth?The server set up of a campaign is extremely important, andmaybe even more so when the campaign really has thepotential to be a success. This set up needs to be thoughtthrough and made redundant. You also need to make surethe mailing server doesn’t make all mails sent become markedas spam in inboxes, which would effectively kill the campaign.
    • ExtrasExtras Gather datagather data Some campaigns also have clever ways to gather moredata on campaigns also have clever ways my gather more data Some who interacts with the content. One of to favorites is thecampaigninteracts TV-series Dexter. It actually gathered the name, the on who made for with the content. One of my favourites isage, sex, email address, industry you work in and in some cases eventhe campaign made for TV-series Dexter. It actually gathered the name, age, sex, email address, industry you work in and inphone numbereven the phone number of the recipients of the some cases of the recipients of the campaign. It was done brilliantlyin that campaign, creating a brilliantly in that campaign, creating a campaign. It was done personal touch and remarkability. The personal touch and remarkability. And the informationinformation gathered was included in the content and actually improvedon the experience. But beware, the content to improve on the gathered was included in in general, the more information you experience. But beware, in general, the more information yougather, the higher the barrier to spread, and the lower the virality. So, it gather, the higher the barrier to spread, and the lower theshould preferably be done in a smart way and add to the experience. virality. So, it should preferably be done in a smart way andadd to the experience.an interesting twist Mark Granovetter once wrote about thestrength of weak ties. twist it concludes that we get more interesting An interesting In short,information, such as job tips, from our weak ties, the people we know Mark Granovetter once wrote about the strength of weak ties.more as acquaintances rather thanget more interesting information, In short, it concludes that we close friends. They constitute theouter limits oftips, network, so therefore they are more likely to sit more such as job our from our weak ties, the people we know oninformation that is not immediatelyclose friends. They constitute as acquaintances rather than available to ourselves or our closest. the outer limits of our network, so therefore they are more likelyWhat about using these weaker ties in a campaign? I guess it could spread to sit on information that is not immediately available toquicker around theclosest. What about using these weaker ties in ourselves or our world, jumping from network to network. BurgerKing did this with guess it could spreadSacrifice, where Facebook a campaign? I the campaign Whopper quicker around the world, jumping from network to network. Burger King did thisusers were encouraged to “defriend” 10 connections on Facebook to get with the campaign Whopper Sacrifice, where Facebook usersa free Whopper. I assume most of the defriended people were among were encouraged to “defriend” 10 connections on Facebookpeople’sa free Whopper. I assume most of the defriended to get weaker ties. No doubt an interesting twist.people were among people’s weaker ties. No doubt aninteresting twist.
    • share! Feel free to share this ebook with friends and collegues. Spread Now I am back 100% in the online world, at The Viral Company inShare!it virally. There will always be an updated version to be found on the Stockholm, working with online strategyworld, at The Viral I have Now I am back 100 % in the online and communication.Feel free to share this ebook with friends and collegues.download page. learnt a lot when it comes to working with online strategies andwhat Company in Stockholm, understanding human motivation andSpread it virally. There will always be an updated version to be digital distribution.found at the download page. can help a campaign go viral, both from theory and practice, and I hopeThis ebook is published under a Creative Commons Attribution- II have been ablea lot when itof that on tounderstanding pass this on have learnt to pass some comes to you. Feel free to humanShareAlike license.This ebook is published under a Creative Commons Attribution- to your friends andwhat can help a campaign go viral, both from motivation and collegues.ShareAlike license. reading and practicing, and I hope I have been able to passthanks to I would like to thank the people who have generously contactthat on to you. Feel free please contact me at: some of If you want to get in touch, to pass this on to your friendshelped me with feedback on this text and made it a lot better. InThanks to and collegues. Email: kristofermencak@gmail.comalphabetical order: Valerio Franco (doublebblog.it), Anton JohanssonI would like to thank the people who have generously helped Blog: http://www.kristofermencak.com(antonjohansson.com), Henrik Johansson (theviralcompany.com),me with feedback on this text and made it a lot better. Contact Twitter: @kristofermencakDaniel Mencák (danielmencak.se), Patrick Möller (flavors.me/ If you want to get in touch, please contact me at: Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/kristofermencakIn alphabetical order: Valerio Franco (doublebblog.it), Antonpatrickmoeller), Cedric Rainotte (bwat.be), Niclas Strandh (digitalpr.se) Email: kristofermencak@gmail.comJohansson (antonjohansson.com), Henrik Johansson Skype: kristofermencakPere Tufet (tonterias.com) and Emmanuel Vivier (emmanuelvivier.com). Blog: http://www.kristofermencak.com/(theviralcompany.com), Daniel Mencák, Patrick Möller LinkedIn profile: http://www.linkedin.com/in/kristofermencak Twitter: @kristofermencak(flavors.me/digitalpogo), Cedric Rainotte (bwat.be), Niclas anAnd of course, if you have feedback to give, do not hesitate to send me Cell-phone: +46 76 700 00 30 Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/kristofermencakStrandh kristofermencak@gmail.com.email on (digitalpr.se) Pere Tufet (tonterias.com) and Emmanuel Skype: kristofermencakVivier www.emmanuelvivier.com. LinkedIn profile: http://www.linkedin.com/in/kristofermencakabout me My name is Kristofer Mencák and I have a background Cell-phone: +46 76 700 00 30And of course,School of Economics where I give,ado not hesitatefrom Stockholm if you have feedback to took M.Sc. in BusinessAdministration. email on kristofermencak@gmail.com.to send me anAfter a couple of years working within webdesign andSEO my interest in customer satisfaction, word of mouth and viralAbout grew. I read about it a lot and decided I needed to startmarketing meMy name is Kristofer Mencák and I have a background frompracticing.Stockholm School of Economics where I took a M.Sc. inBusiness Administration. Afterworked withof years viral campaignsSo, I joined GoViral in 2005 and a couple igniting working withinwebdesign and SEO my interest in customer satisfaction, wordfor three years. After that I worked for communications agency JMWof mouth and viral marketing grew. I read about it a lot andKommunikation with tofocus on social media.decided I needed a start practicing.So, I joined GoViral in 2005 and worked with igniting viralcampaigns for three years. After that I worked incommunications agency JMW Kommunikation with a focus onsocial media.
    • photo creditsPhoto credits: Watch: Thanks to Sprogz Dandelion seeds – frontpage: Thanks to TibchrisDandelion seeds – frontpage: Thanks to Tibchris Times Square: Thanks to Francisco Diez Tools: Thanks to Steve Snodgrass Skateboard ramp: Thanks to Collin WTimes Square: Thanks to Francisco Diez Model of a virus: Thanks to eviltomthai Lighting match: Thanks to brandbildSkateboard ramp: Thanks Dragon W Forest fire: Thanks to H to Collin Water hole: Thanks to yador Hub: Thanks to jaredModel of a virus: Thanks to eviltomthai Roller coaster: Thanks to daveynin Carrot: Thanks to brettf Surfing: Thanks to thelastminuteForest fire: Thanks to H Dragon Bullseye: Thanks to ogimogi Tape measure: Thanks to chefranden Chess: Thanks to Richard ’Tenspeed’ HeavenWater hole: Thanks to yador Fireworks: Thanks to ericlbc Attention sign: Thanks to Kiwi Flickr Parakeets: Thanks to Caza_no_7Roller coaster: Thanks to daveynin Diary/Calendar: Thanks to sunshinecity Server backside: Thanks to indigoprimeCarrot: Thanks to brettf Bullfight: Thanks to pasotraspaso ”True”: Thanks to Keng Susumpow Twisted flower: fauxto_digitBullseye: Thanks to ogimogi Diamonds: Thanks to LadyDragonflyCC - Frozen Series Loaded Spider’s web: Thanks to Canned MuffinsChess: Thanks to Richard ’Tenspeed’ Heaven Hoop on fire: Thanks to Kissimmee – the heart of Florida Watch: Thanks to ericlbcFireworks: Thanks to Sprogz Tools: Thanks to Steve SnodgrassParakeets: Caza_no_7 to brandbild Lighting match: Thanks Hub: Thanks to jaredDiary/Calendar: Thanks to sunshinecity Surfing: Thanks to thelastminute Tape measure: Thanks to chefrandenBullfight: Thanks to pasotraspaso Attention sign: Thanks to Kiwi Flickr Server backside: Thanks to indigoprime”True”: Thanks to Keng Susumpow Twisted flower: Thanks to fauxto_digitDiamonds: Thanks to LadyDragonflyCC - Frozen Series LoadedAll photos are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.Spider’s web: Thanks to Canned MuffinsHoop on fire: Thanks to Kissimmee – the heart of Florida