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Lek og arbeid i world of warcraft

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  • ETTER SLIDE: Vise Eternal HINT: Er ikke helt som på videoen Likevel et spennende fenomen The game I have choosen as part of my study is World of Warcraft. Also called WoW for shot. For those who do not know it: It was released in 2004 by the game company Blizzard it has become the most popular MMORPG, atleast in the western world. To explain the game I am going to explain the genre: The genre is MMORPG or Massive Multiplayer Online Roleplaying Game. Breaking it down: 1) Massive Multiplayer Online: It’s a persistant virtual world, as in: a synchronous graphical representation of a place. World of Warcraft is a tounge-and-cheek version of more classical Tolkiens Lord of the Rings world: swords and magic, dragons and goblins. This game world is then duplicated across several servers, where as much as 30 000 players can be logged in at any time. In total several hundred servers, giving room to the approx 10-12 million players (been a while since player nubmers have been released). So, thats the massive multiplayer. Then there is the Online Roleplaying part. 2) Online Roleplaying: You are represented through an avatar: which can be a dwarf, orc, troll, gnome, elf – going with the fantasy theme. But the avatar is very important as the overarching for the game is to develop this avatar. Both solving quests, but also modify the attributes of the avatar by equipping magical items The last part of MMORPG is the G for Game and its in the gameplay that the avatar is developed. 3) Game: There are many ways to develop the avatar, which means that its better to think of WoW as a gaming platform rather then a single game. The primary game is that of using the avatar to kill virtual monsters. This granst the avatar points and magical items that will enhance it and make it better at (pause) killing monsters. There are other: Killing of other avatars in battlegrounds or arenas Completing of achievements, an achievementsystem that works as meta quests: Like eating 50 types of food, or visit every zone in the game. Ah: Making virtual money Emergent styles of play: Griefing, which is to destroy other peoples play experience. But the primary one is still: killing of monsters and this also can happen in several ways. In my analysis I am going to look at one subset of the killing of monster game:raiding
  • Kontrasten mellom visjonen for hva spilling er (som jeg må innrømme jeg finner en del i spillstudier) og hva spilling faktisk går ut på.
  • En lignende brytning mellom den videoen – og hva som faktisk skjer I spill – er det jeg ser når jeg hører om lek og spill slik det gjerne framtstilles. Det blir en visjon av noe som man tror skjer, men har altfor skjeldent noe meed realiteten å gjøre. ” Summing up the formal characteristic of play, we might call it a free activity standing quite consciously outside ‘ordinary’ life as being ‘not serious’ but at the same time absorbing the player intensely and utterly. It is an activity connected with no material interest, and no profit can be gained by it. It proceeds within its own proper boundaries of time and space according to fixed rules and in an orderly manner. It promotes the formation of social groupings that tend to surround themselves with secrecy and to stress the difference from the common world by disguise or other means. ”
  • The rise of digital games – humo ludens, renewed interest: Also new forms of play occuring The trad def, no longer viable Learning: games are design for critical learning, increase in literacy: collective problem solving, fostering scientific habits of mind Expertise: embodied, external, not something you just pick up Cheating: Rules are indeed there, but they are not necessarely the arbiter of what goes on. Cheating – being able to circumvent code is relevant Emergence: new player practices are developing Work: Its dicotomy is quite descriptive in some cases NOTE: STILL ENJOYABLE! Still fun, flow, immersion. But not perhaps with the ideas of play that we have learned from seeing kids play, cause as user studies have shown: Grownups are the ones that play. The average game player is 35 years old and has been playing games for 12 years. The average age of the most frequent game purchaser is 39 years old. Forty percent of all game players are women. In fact, women over the age of 18 represent a significantly greater portion of the game-playing population (34 percent) than boys age 17 or younger (18 percent).
  • Need another framework to understand play Powergamer – hacker Now norm Seems more like work then play: long periods of effort with reward in mind
  • What type of material I gathered: journal, chatlog, videorecordings, just being at the various sites that were in use: blogs, forums
  • What type of material I gathered: journal, chatlog, videorecordings, just being at the various sites that were in use: blogs, forums
  • Raiding starts when the character has reached its maximum level, and can only be further enhanced by gaining magical items – which incidentally is kept by these really large and hard-to-beat monsters. So, the idea behind raiding is that you get several players together in order to defeat a really big and tough monster, for a really big and phat reward. So, raids are defined as groups of players banding together that are large then 5. What size such raidgroups are have varied depending on the content the game has put foward, but for the last few years its been groups of 10 or 25. Raiding as a playing phenomenon - first came about in the MMO Everquest where some players decided that if they just got enough people together in game, perhaps they could kill some of the allmighty dragons that were about. This was not intended from the designers, so it started out as an emergent type of play (Malaby 2009?). In WoW however, it has been been part of the design from day one – and as more and more content is added it has been modelled so that more and more players should have access to this – making it one of the games biggest selling points. While raiding and raiding communities initially was seen as an elite activity, it is now a commonplace activity. In the last 3 years it have gone from a primarily powergamer type of play, to something engaging a large amount of the playerbase. Thought it seems that the instrumental type of play that was promoted by powergamers, have been normative and is defining for all those involved (Taylor 2008)
  • Raiding starts when the character has reached its maximum level, and can only be further enhanced by gaining magical items – which incidentally is kept by these really large and hard-to-beat monsters. So, the idea behind raiding is that you get several players together in order to defeat a really big and tough monster, for a really big and phat reward. So, raids are defined as groups of players banding together that are large then 5. What size such raidgroups are have varied depending on the content the game has put foward, but for the last few years its been groups of 10 or 25. Raiding as a playing phenomenon - first came about in the MMO Everquest where some players decided that if they just got enough people together in game, perhaps they could kill some of the allmighty dragons that were about. This was not intended from the designers, so it started out as an emergent type of play (Malaby 2009?). In WoW however, it has been been part of the design from day one – and as more and more content is added it has been modelled so that more and more players should have access to this – making it one of the games biggest selling points. While raiding and raiding communities initially was seen as an elite activity, it is now a commonplace activity. In the last 3 years it have gone from a primarily powergamer type of play, to something engaging a large amount of the playerbase. Thought it seems that the instrumental type of play that was promoted by powergamers, have been normative and is defining for all those involved (Taylor 2008)
  • Må empirisk til verks for å se at selv om noen av disse trekkene vedvarer, står de ikke alene. Gir konnotasjoner til den typiske “nerden” VIS FILM! Return
  • 00:27 på Malygos guiden
  • Fortalt en del om, de som kjenner litteraturen vet hvor mye dette har blitt vektlagt.
  • … But I do wish there was some way to turn around this virtual phobia of inefficiency -- this terror of being WRONG -- that we have managed to instill in our player base. I honestly think it's one of the greatest challenges facing the game. …the WoW community has evolved in a direction where being badly informed is worse than being a bad player. We're all very quick to judge each other based on litmus tests, such as gear scores, achievements, or proper talent builds, that likely don't measure performance half as well as we want them to. Ghostcrawler, fra WoWs offisielle forum
  • Det grunnleggende forblir det samme= store grupper som bekjemper digitale monstre Mestring gjelder ikke bare spillet, men også sosiale koder, kunnskap og tekniske hjelpemidler Sosial interaksjon er valgfritt, deltagelse i et spillersamfunn er ikke Evaluering er basert på utførelse ikke opplevelse Standardisering av spillpraksiser, raiding som norm

Transcript

  • 1. Lek og arbeid i World of Warcraft Kristine Ask Senter for Teknologi og Samfunn Institutt for Tverrfaglige Kulturstudier www.kristineask.com
  • 2. Dagens plan
    • Om prosjektet mitt
    • Lek, arbeid og STS
    • Script og domestisering – et STS bidrag for å se sammenheng mellom design og bruk
    • Spilleres arbeid: den kollektive re-scriptingen av World of Warcraft
  • 3. Om meg og prosjektet mitt
    • Begynte å spille WoW ved release
    • Bachelor -> master -> PhD
  • 4. Om meg og prosjektet mitt
    • Begynte å spille WoW ved release
    • Bachelor -> master -> PhD
    • Orginaltittel: ”Læring og
    • samarbeid i online dataspill”
    • Utfordringer i metode
    • og datamateriale
  • 5. Om meg og prosjektet mitt
    • Begynte å spille WoW ved release
    • Bachelor -> master -> PhD
    • Orginaltittel: Læring og samarbeid
    • i online dataspill
    • Utfordringer i metode
    • og datamateriale
    • Handler nå om:
      • Hverdagsforhandlinger
      • knyttet til spill
      • Vitenskapskulturer i WoW
      • Medproduksjon i WoW
      • Spill og materialitet/ANT
      • Elitespillere
  • 6. MMO RP G Virtuell verden Opp til 30 000 spillere pr server 11,5 mill. verdensbasis Basert på rollespill system Interaksjon med verden gjennom avatar En spillplattform med mange typer spill Hovedspill: Drepe monster og utvikle avataren
  • 7.  
  • 8. Å forstå lek
      • Definisjoner:
      • “ Den magiske sirkel”: adskilt, ikke alvorlig, regelbundet og uproduktiv.
      • I dagligtale:
        • Motsetning til arbeid
        • Barnelek
  • 9. Den magiske sirkelen viskes ut
      • Læring:
        • Gee (2007), Steinkuehler (2004)
      • Ekspertise:
        • Chen (2009), Reeves et al (2009)
      • Juks:
        • Consalvo (2007)
      • Emergens:
        • Karlsen (2009)
      • Online – Offline :
        • Taylor (2006), Castranova (2006)
      • Arbeid:
        • Yee (2006), Silverman and Simon (2008)
  • 10. Fra lek til arbeid
      • Instrumentell spilling (Taylor 2006):
        • Kommer fra powergamer kultur
        • Effektiv, målrettet, fokus på tall og resultat
      • Åpner for at spilling ikke er lek. Betyr det at det er arbeid?
    Moralen er: Spill og lek må studeres empirisk
  • 11. Metode
      • 1 år etnografisk studie i et spillersamfunn i World of Warcraft (WoW)
        • Mellom 20 og 50 timer spilt pr uke
      • Intervju med 19 spillere på ulike nivå av progresjon
  • 12. Metode
      • 1 år etnografisk studie i et spillersamfunn i World of Warcraft (WoW)
        • Mellom 20 og 50 timer spilt pr uke
      • Intervju med 19 spillere på ulike nivå av progresjon
  • 13. STS perspektivet
    • Teknologi som ”missing masses”
      • Sammenhenger mellom menneskelige og ikke-menneskelige aktører
    • Studie av praksis, prosesser og nettverk
    • I studiet av spill:
      • Fokus på det materielle
      • Spill som særskilt, men ikke adskilt
      • Spillpraksiser
  • 14. Script
    • Akrich (1992): Script
      • En semiotisk tilnærming til design
      • Ideer og forståelser om brukeren gjøres materielt gjennom designet
      • Vi kan derfor “lese” designet
        • Script – fra manuscript
      • Problem: Stort fokus på design
  • 15. Brukere følger ikke alltid manuskriptet
  • 16. Brukerscript
    • Gjøen and Hård (2002):
    • Brukere skaper andre script gjennom å gi ny mening
    • Problem: individuelle lesninger har liten effekt på “hovedscriptet”
    • Domestisering (Silverstone, Sørensen og Lie): Tilpasning av teknologi gjennom bruk
    • I WoW er mange spillere involvert i opposisjonelle lesninger, mange av disse er like = Kollektiv re-scription?
  • 17. Raiding
      • Store spillergrupper kjemper mot særlig vanskelige monster
    Klipp fra ”Return”
  • 18. Raiding
      • Store spillergrupper kjemper mot særlig vanskelige monster
      • Fra emergens til mainstream
      • Fastsatte
        • tider
      • Lagspill
      • Komplisert
      • Små
      • belønninger
      • Organisert
  • 19. Script i raiding
      • Vanskelig: Kan ikke gjøres alene
      • Størrelse: 10 eller 25 spillere
      • Kontinuitet: Nullstilles ukentlig
      • Historie: Episke slag
      • Samfunn: Alle kan lage guilds/laug
      • Organisert: synkron verden, krever planlegging
      • Tidsintensivt: Selv “på farm” tar det flere timer å komme igjennom
      • Ekspertspilling (for de få): Komplekse kamper med høy grad av koordinasjon
  • 20. Scriptet sier en raider er:
      • sosial, ekspertspiller, interessert i WoW historien og sterkt involvert i spillersamfunnet
  • 21. Kognitivt
    • Må kunne:
      • Strategier
      • Optimaliseringsstrategier for avataren
      • Theorycraft
  • 22.  
  • 23. Praksis
      • Laug som strukturerte og formaliserte spillergrupper
      • Et sted for læring, vennskap og samarbeid
      • Forplitkelse og evaluering
      • Regulering av spillerpraksiser
  • 24. Symbolsk
    • Spiller mot en strategi, ikke mot kode
    • Fokus på tall
    • Instrument-alitet som norm
  • 25.
      • Det er ikke et monogamt forhold mellom spiller og spill
        • Addons
        • Logger
        • Databaser
        • Guider
        • Strategier
        • Forum, blogger etc
    En vending mot materialitet
  • 26. Det materielle har betydning for spillingen
      • Delegering av kompleksitet
      • Økt mulighet for overvåkning og evaluering
      • Presisjon
      • Deling og lagring av ekspertise
      • Integreres inn i designet gjennom nye utgivelser
    VS
  • 27. Et nytt script?
    • Bekjempe monster
    • Mestring er noe mer
    • Samfunn =/= sosialt
    • Utførelse > opplevelse
    • Standardisering
  • 28. Hva sier brukerscriptet?
        • Brukeren er en lagspiller, instrumentell, pålitelig, dyktig og arbeidssom.
        • Beskriver det best en spiller eller en arbeidstager?
  • 29. Lek som arbeid
      • Spillpraksisene former forståelsen av hva spillet handler om
      • Nye spillere introduseres til det eksisterende nettverket av teknologier og systemer
      • Spilldesignet utvikles
      • Instrumentell spilling: en spillerstrategi som kan brukes ved behov