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Muscles of the Trunk
Latissimus Dorsi <ul><li>P:  SPs of T7-L5, posterior sacrum, and the posterior iliac crest </li></ul><ul><li>D:  Medial li...
Latissimus Dorsi:  SPs of T7-L5, Posterior sacrum, and Posterior iliac crest
 
 
 
 
Rhomboid Major and Minor <ul><li>P:  SPs of C7-T5 </li></ul><ul><li>D:  Medial border of the scapula from the root of the ...
Rhomboids Major and Minor:  SPs of C7-T5
 
 
 
Superficial Muscles of Back
Serratus Anterior <ul><li>O:  Ribs 1-9 </li></ul><ul><li>I:  Anterior surface of the entire medial border of the scapula <...
Serratus Anterior:  Ribs 1-9
 
 
 
Serratus Posterior Superior <ul><li>1.  Elevates ribs #2-5 at the sternocostal and costospinal joints </li></ul>
Serratus Posterior Inferior <ul><li>1.  Depresses ribs #9-12 at the sternocostal and costospinal joints </li></ul>
<ul><li>Three subgroups listed lateral to medial: </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Iliocostalis </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Longissimus </l...
<ul><li>The iliocostalis attaches from the ilium to the ribs </li></ul><ul><li>The longissimusis the longest of the three ...
<ul><li>Iliocostalis lumborum </li></ul><ul><li>Iliocostalis thoracis </li></ul><ul><li>Iliocostalis cervicis </li></ul>
<ul><li>Longissimus thoracis </li></ul><ul><li>Longissimus cervicis </li></ul><ul><li>Longissimus  capitis </li></ul>
<ul><li>Spinalis thoracis  </li></ul><ul><li>Spinalis cervicis </li></ul><ul><li>Spinalis capitis  (The spinalis capitis o...
Erector Spinae Group <ul><li>O:  Pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>I:  Spine, ribcage, and head </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the trunk...
 
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>The name tells us that the muscle group attaches from a TP to a SP.  The TP is the inferior attachment and the SP ...
Transversospinalis Group <ul><li>O:  Pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>I:  Spine and the head </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the trunk, ...
Transversospinalis Group:  Pelvis to the spine and head
Rotatores of transversospinalis group:  attach to spine (Tp inferiorly to lamina superiorly:  FYI)
Semispinalis of transversospinalis group:  attaches to head
Transversospinalis Group <ul><li>Semispinalis </li></ul>
Transversospinalis Group <ul><li>Multifidus </li></ul>
Transversospinalis Group <ul><li>Rotatores </li></ul>
Quadratus Lumborum <ul><li>P:  12 th  rib and the TPs of L1-L4 </li></ul><ul><li>D:  Posterior Iliac crest </li></ul><ul><...
 
R
 
Intermediate Muscles of Back
Deep Muscles of Back
Pectoralis Major <ul><li>P:  Medial clavicle, sternum, and the costal cartilages of ribs 1-7 </li></ul><ul><li>D:  Lateral...
 
 
Pectoralis Minor <ul><li>P:  Ribs 3-5 </li></ul><ul><li>D:  Coracoid process of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Protracts (a...
 
 
 
 
Diaphragm <ul><li>Increases the volume of the Thoracic Cavity (inspiration) </li></ul>
RectusAbdominis <ul><li>P:  Pubis  </li></ul><ul><li>D:  Xiphoid process and the cartilage of ribs 5-7 </li></ul><ul><li>F...
 
 
External Oblique <ul><li>P:  Anterior iliac crest, pubic bone, and the abdominal aponeurosis </li></ul><ul><li>D:  Lower 8...
 
 
Internal Oblique <ul><li>O:  Inquinal ligament, iliac crest, and the thoracolumbar fascia </li></ul><ul><li>I:  Lower thre...
 
 
Transverse Abdominis <ul><li>Compresses the abdominal contents </li></ul>
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>Have client seated with hands at their sides </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand on the client’s posterior axil...
<ul><li>Have client seated with hand placed in the small of the back </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand between the sc...
<ul><li>Have client supine with the arm flexed to 90 degrees at the shoulder joint (hand pointed toward ceiling) </li></ul...
<ul><li>Have client prone </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hands lateral to the SPs of the vertebral column in the lumbar...
<ul><li>Have the client supine with the forearm in the small of the back to relax the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Place palp...
<ul><li>Have the client prone </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hands on either side of the midline of the sacrum </li></u...
<ul><li>Have the client prone </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand superior to the iliac crest and just lateral to the e...
<ul><li>Have client seated </li></ul><ul><li>Have client raise arm to 90 degrees of abduction at the shoulder joint </li><...
<ul><li>Have client seated with the forearm relaxed in the small of the back </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating fingers jus...
<ul><li>Have the client supine with a pillow under the knees  </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hands between the xiphoid ...
<ul><li>Have client supine with a pillow placed under the knees </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hands on the anterolater...
<ul><li>Have the client supine with a pillow under the knees </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hands on the anterolateral ...
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Class 5 Ap1 Muscles

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Transcript of "Class 5 Ap1 Muscles"

  1. 1. Muscles of the Trunk
  2. 2. Latissimus Dorsi <ul><li>P: SPs of T7-L5, posterior sacrum, and the posterior iliac crest </li></ul><ul><li>D: Medial lip of bicipital groove of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>Medially rotates the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>Adducts the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the lumbosacral joint </li></ul>
  3. 3. Latissimus Dorsi: SPs of T7-L5, Posterior sacrum, and Posterior iliac crest
  4. 8. Rhomboid Major and Minor <ul><li>P: SPs of C7-T5 </li></ul><ul><li>D: Medial border of the scapula from the root of the spine of the scapula to the inferior angle of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Retracts (Adducts) the scapula at the scapulocostal joint </li></ul><ul><li>Elevates the scapula </li></ul>
  5. 9. Rhomboids Major and Minor: SPs of C7-T5
  6. 13. Superficial Muscles of Back
  7. 14. Serratus Anterior <ul><li>O: Ribs 1-9 </li></ul><ul><li>I: Anterior surface of the entire medial border of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Protracts (abducts) the scapula at the scapulocostal joint </li></ul><ul><li>Upwardly rotates the scapula at the scapulocostal joint </li></ul>
  8. 15. Serratus Anterior: Ribs 1-9
  9. 19. Serratus Posterior Superior <ul><li>1. Elevates ribs #2-5 at the sternocostal and costospinal joints </li></ul>
  10. 20. Serratus Posterior Inferior <ul><li>1. Depresses ribs #9-12 at the sternocostal and costospinal joints </li></ul>
  11. 21. <ul><li>Three subgroups listed lateral to medial: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Iliocostalis </li></ul><ul><li>2. Longissimus </li></ul><ul><li>3. Spinalis </li></ul>
  12. 22. <ul><li>The iliocostalis attaches from the ilium to the ribs </li></ul><ul><li>The longissimusis the longest of the three subgroups. Only subgroup that attaches onto the head. </li></ul><ul><li>The spinalis attaches from SPs to SPs </li></ul><ul><li>Each subgroup can be further divided into three subgroups </li></ul>
  13. 23. <ul><li>Iliocostalis lumborum </li></ul><ul><li>Iliocostalis thoracis </li></ul><ul><li>Iliocostalis cervicis </li></ul>
  14. 24. <ul><li>Longissimus thoracis </li></ul><ul><li>Longissimus cervicis </li></ul><ul><li>Longissimus capitis </li></ul>
  15. 25. <ul><li>Spinalis thoracis </li></ul><ul><li>Spinalis cervicis </li></ul><ul><li>Spinalis capitis (The spinalis capitis often blends with and is therefore considered to be a part of the semispinalis capitis of the transversospinalis group) </li></ul>
  16. 26. Erector Spinae Group <ul><li>O: Pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>I: Spine, ribcage, and head </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the trunk, neck, and the head at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the trunk, neck, and head at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Ipsilaterally rotates the trunk, neck, and head at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the lumbosacral joint </li></ul>
  17. 33. <ul><li>The name tells us that the muscle group attaches from a TP to a SP. The TP is the inferior attachment and the SP is the superior attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Group is very deep; lies in the laminar groove </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into three subgroups: from superficial to deep: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Semispinalis </li></ul><ul><li>2. Multifidus </li></ul><ul><li>3. Rotatores </li></ul>
  18. 34. Transversospinalis Group <ul><li>O: Pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>I: Spine and the head </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the trunk, neck, and head at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the trunk, neck, and head at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Contralaterally rotates the trunk and the neck at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the lumboscaral joint </li></ul>
  19. 35. Transversospinalis Group: Pelvis to the spine and head
  20. 36. Rotatores of transversospinalis group: attach to spine (Tp inferiorly to lamina superiorly: FYI)
  21. 37. Semispinalis of transversospinalis group: attaches to head
  22. 38. Transversospinalis Group <ul><li>Semispinalis </li></ul>
  23. 39. Transversospinalis Group <ul><li>Multifidus </li></ul>
  24. 40. Transversospinalis Group <ul><li>Rotatores </li></ul>
  25. 41. Quadratus Lumborum <ul><li>P: 12 th rib and the TPs of L1-L4 </li></ul><ul><li>D: Posterior Iliac crest </li></ul><ul><li>Elevates the pelvis at the lumbosacral joint </li></ul><ul><li>Anteriorly tilts the pelvis at the lumbosacral joint </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul>
  26. 43. R
  27. 45. Intermediate Muscles of Back
  28. 46. Deep Muscles of Back
  29. 47. Pectoralis Major <ul><li>P: Medial clavicle, sternum, and the costal cartilages of ribs 1-7 </li></ul><ul><li>D: Lateral lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>1. Adducts the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>2. Medially rotates the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>3. Flexes the arm at the shoulder joint (clavicular head) </li></ul>
  30. 50. Pectoralis Minor <ul><li>P: Ribs 3-5 </li></ul><ul><li>D: Coracoid process of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Protracts (abducts) the scapula at the scapulocostal joint </li></ul><ul><li>Depresses the scapula at the scapulocostal joint </li></ul><ul><li>Elevates ribs 3-5 at the sternocostal and costospinal joints </li></ul>
  31. 55. Diaphragm <ul><li>Increases the volume of the Thoracic Cavity (inspiration) </li></ul>
  32. 56. RectusAbdominis <ul><li>P: Pubis </li></ul><ul><li>D: Xiphoid process and the cartilage of ribs 5-7 </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriorly tilts the pelvis at the lumbosacral joint </li></ul>
  33. 59. External Oblique <ul><li>P: Anterior iliac crest, pubic bone, and the abdominal aponeurosis </li></ul><ul><li>D: Lower 8 ribs (5-12) </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Contralateral rotates the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriorly tilts the pelvis at the lumbosacral joints </li></ul>
  34. 62. Internal Oblique <ul><li>O: Inquinal ligament, iliac crest, and the thoracolumbar fascia </li></ul><ul><li>I: Lower three ribs (10-12) and the abdominal aponeurosis </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Ipsilaterally rotates the trunk at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriorly tilts the pelvis at the lumbosacral joints </li></ul>
  35. 65. Transverse Abdominis <ul><li>Compresses the abdominal contents </li></ul>
  36. 74. <ul><li>Have client seated with hands at their sides </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand on the client’s posterior axillary fold </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to push down on the table with both hands, attempting to elevate the pelvis and trunk off the table. Feel for the contraction of the latissimus dorsi </li></ul><ul><li>Continue palpating the muscle toward its humeral attachment. It can be difficult to distinguish the tendon of the latissimus dorsi from the tendon of the teres major because they often blend together. </li></ul>
  37. 75. <ul><li>Have client seated with hand placed in the small of the back </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand between the scapula at a level that is between the inferior angle and the root of the spine of the scapula and the spine </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to lift the hand away from the back and feel for the contraction of the rhomboids </li></ul>
  38. 76. <ul><li>Have client supine with the arm flexed to 90 degrees at the shoulder joint (hand pointed toward ceiling) </li></ul><ul><li>Locate the lateral border of the pectoralis major (anterior axillary fold) and then locate thelateral border of the latissimus dorsi (posterior axillary fold) </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand between these two borders in the armpit and feel for the ribs and the serratus anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Now ask the client to protract the scapula by actively pushing the hand toward the ceiling and feel for contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Once found try to follow the muscle as far anterior as possible and as far posterior as possible </li></ul>
  39. 77. <ul><li>Have client prone </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hands lateral to the SPs of the vertebral column in the lumbar region and feel for the vertical orientation of the fibers of the muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Continue palpating inferiorly and superiorly </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to actively extend the upper part of the body off the table and feel for contraction of the erector spinae group </li></ul><ul><li>To palpate the erector spinae of the neck it is easier to have the client supine </li></ul>
  40. 78. <ul><li>Have the client supine with the forearm in the small of the back to relax the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hands in the posteromedial neck and feel for the semispinalis capitis </li></ul><ul><li>Continue palpating the muscle superiorly toward the occipital attachment between the superior and inferior nuchal lines </li></ul>
  41. 79. <ul><li>Have the client prone </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hands on either side of the midline of the sacrum </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to actively extend the upper part of the body off the table and feel for the contraction of the multifidus </li></ul><ul><li>Continue palpating the muscle on either side of the midline in the sacral and lumbar regions </li></ul><ul><li>The rotatores are very small and extremely deep and are virtually impossible to palpate </li></ul>
  42. 80. <ul><li>Have the client prone </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand superior to the iliac crest and just lateral to the erector spinae. To locate lateral border have erectors ask client to raise the head off the table. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to elevate the pelvis on the side you are palpating and feel for contraction of the quadratus lumborum </li></ul><ul><li>Continue palpating the muscle deep to the erectors, medially toward the lumbarTPs, superiomedially toward the 12 th rib, and inferiomedially toward the iliac crest </li></ul>
  43. 81. <ul><li>Have client seated </li></ul><ul><li>Have client raise arm to 90 degrees of abduction at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand on the belly of the muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to actively horizontally flex the arm at the shoulder joint against resistance and feel for the contraction of the pectoralis major </li></ul><ul><li>Continue palpating the muscle medially and superiorly toward its attachment s on the trunk and distally toward its humeral attachment </li></ul>
  44. 82. <ul><li>Have client seated with the forearm relaxed in the small of the back </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating fingers just inferior to the coracoid process of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to lift the hand away from the back and feel for contraction of the pectoralis minor </li></ul>
  45. 83. <ul><li>Have the client supine with a pillow under the knees </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hands between the xiphoid process of the sternum and the adjacent ribs superiorly and the pubis inferiorly </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to alternate between mild flexion of the trunk and relaxation so that you can feel for the contraction of the muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Palpate the rectus abdominis superiorly toward its ribcage attachment and inferiorly toward its pelvic attachment </li></ul>
  46. 84. <ul><li>Have client supine with a pillow placed under the knees </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hands on the anterolateral abdomen between the iliac crest and the lower ribs </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to rotate the trunk at the spinal joints actively to the opposite side along with slight flexion of the trunk and feel for contraction of the external oblique </li></ul><ul><li>Continue palpating superolaterally toward the rib attachments and inferomedially toward the iliac crest </li></ul>
  47. 85. <ul><li>Have the client supine with a pillow under the knees </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hands on the anterolateral abdomen between the iliac crest and the lower ribs </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to actively rotate the trunk at the spinal joints to the same side along with slight flexion of the trunk and feel for the contraction of the internal abdominal oblique </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguishing the contraction of the internal abdominal oblique from the external abdominal oblique will be difficult </li></ul>
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