Class 3 Ap1 Muscles

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Class 3 Ap1 Muscles

  1. 1. Muscles of the Head & Neck
  2. 2. <ul><li>Muscles from Weeks One and Two </li></ul>
  3. 3. Supraspinatus <ul><li>P: Supraspinous Fossa of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>D: Greater tubercle of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>1. Abducts the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the rotator cuff muscle group </li></ul>
  4. 4. Infraspinatus <ul><li>P: Infraspinous fossa of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>D: Greater tubercle of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>1. Laterally rotates the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the rotaor cuff muscle group </li></ul>
  5. 5. Teres minor <ul><li>P: Superior lateral border of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>D: Greater tubercle of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>1. Laterally rotates the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the rotator cuff muscle group </li></ul>
  6. 6. Subscapularis <ul><li>P: Subscapular fossa of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>D: Lesser tubercle of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>1. Medially rotates the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the rotator cuff muscle group </li></ul>
  7. 7. Teres Major <ul><li>P: Inferior lateral border of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>D: Medial lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>1. Medially rotates the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>2. Adducts the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>3. Extends the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul>
  8. 8. Deltoid <ul><li>P: Lateral clavicle, acromion process, and the spine of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>D: Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>1. Abducts the arm at the shoulder joint (entire muscle) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Flexes the arm at the shoulder joint (anterior deltoid) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Extends the arm at the shoulder joint (posterior deltoid) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Medially rotates the arm at the shoulder joint (anterior deltoid) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Laterally rotates the arm at the shoulder joint (posterior deltoid) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Coracobrachialis <ul><li>P: Coracoid process of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>D: Medial shaft of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>Adducts the arm at the shoulder joint </li></ul>
  10. 10. Biceps Brachii <ul><li>P: Long head: Supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Short head: Coracoid process of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>D: Radial tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the forearm at the elbow joint (entire muscle) </li></ul><ul><li>Supinates the forearm at the radioulnar joints (entire muscle) </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the arm at the shoulder joint (entire muscle) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Brachialis <ul><li>P: Distal ½ of the anterior shaft of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>D: Ulnar tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>1. Flexes the forearm at the elbow joint </li></ul>
  12. 12. Triceps Brachii <ul><li>P: Long head: Infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral head: Posterior shaft of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>Medial head: Posterior shaft of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>D: Olecranon process of the ulna </li></ul><ul><li>1. Extends the forearm at the elbow joint </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pronator Teres Muscle <ul><li>P: Humeral head: Medial epicondyle of the humerus via common flexor tendon </li></ul><ul><li>Unlnar head: Coronoid process of ulna </li></ul><ul><li>D: Laterla radius </li></ul><ul><li>Pronates the forearm at the radioulnar joint </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the forearm at the elbow joint </li></ul>
  14. 14. Flexor Carpi Radialis <ul><li>P: Medial epicondyle of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>D: Radial hand on the anterior side </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the hand at the wrist joint </li></ul><ul><li>Radially deviates (abducts) the hand at the wrist joint </li></ul>
  15. 15. Palmaris Longus <ul><li>P: Medial epicondyle of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>D: Palm of hand </li></ul><ul><li>1. Flexes the hand at the wrist joint </li></ul>
  16. 16. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris <ul><li>P: Medial epicondyle of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>D: Ulnar hand on the anterior side </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the hand at the wrist joint </li></ul><ul><li>Ulnar deviates (adducts) the hand at the wrist joint </li></ul>
  17. 17. Brachioradialis <ul><li>P: Lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>D: Styloid process of the radius </li></ul><ul><li>1. Flexes the forearm at the elbow joint </li></ul>
  18. 18. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis <ul><li>Flexes fingers 2-5 at the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the hand at the wrist </li></ul>
  19. 19. Pronator Quadratus <ul><li>P: Anterior distal ulna </li></ul><ul><li>D: Anterior distal radius </li></ul><ul><li>1. Pronates the forearm at the radioulnar joints </li></ul>
  20. 20. Flexor digitorum profundus <ul><li>Flexes fingers 2-5 at the metacarpophalangeal and proximal and distal interphalangeal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the hand at the wrist </li></ul>
  21. 21. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus <ul><li>P: Lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>D: Radial hand on the posterior side </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the hand at the wrist joint </li></ul><ul><li>Radially deviates (abducts) the hand at the wrist joint </li></ul>
  22. 22. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis <ul><li>P: Lateral epicondyle of the humerus </li></ul><ul><li>D: Radial hand on the posterior side </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the hand at the wrist joint </li></ul><ul><li>Radially deviates (abducts) the hand at the wrist joint </li></ul>
  23. 23. Extensor Digitorum <ul><li>Extends fingers 2-5 at the metacarpophalangeal and proximal and distal interphalangeal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the hand at the wrist joint </li></ul>
  24. 24. Extensor Digiti Minimi <ul><li>Extends the Little Finger at the Metacarpophalangeal and Proximal and Distal Interphalangeal Joints </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the hand at the wrist joint </li></ul>
  25. 25. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris <ul><li>P: Lateral epicondyle of the humerus and the ulna </li></ul><ul><li>D: Ulnar hand on the posterior side </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the hand at the wrist joint </li></ul><ul><li>Ulnar deviates (adducts) the hand at the wrist joint </li></ul>
  26. 26. Supinator <ul><li>P: Lateral epicondyle of the </li></ul><ul><li>humerus and proximal ulna </li></ul><ul><li>D: Proximal radius </li></ul><ul><li>1. Supinates the forearm at the radioulnar joints </li></ul>
  27. 27. WEEK THREE <ul><li>Muscles of the Head and Neck </li></ul>
  28. 28. Temporalis Muscle <ul><li>P: Temporal fossa </li></ul><ul><li>D: Coronoid process and the ramus of the mandible </li></ul><ul><li>1. Elevates the mandible at the temporomandibular joint </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>Very painful cramp when the temporalis muscle goes into spasm </li></ul>
  30. 33. Masseter <ul><li>P: Inferior margins of both the zygomatic bone and the zygomatic arch of the temporal bone </li></ul><ul><li>D: Angle, ramus, and coronoid process of the mandible </li></ul><ul><li>1. Elevates the mandible at the temporomandibular joint </li></ul>
  31. 36. Lateral Pterygoid <ul><li>Protracts the mandible at the temporomandibular joint </li></ul>
  32. 37. Medial Pterygoid <ul><li>Elevates the mandible at the temporomandibular joint </li></ul>
  33. 38. Trapezius muscle <ul><li>P: Occiput, nuchal ligament, and SPs of C7-T12 </li></ul><ul><li>D: Lateral clavicle, acromion process, and spine of scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the neck and the head at the spinal joints (upper) </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the neck and the head at the spinal joints (upper) </li></ul><ul><li>Contralaterally rotates the neck and the head at the spinal joints (upper) </li></ul><ul><li>Elevates the scapula at the scapulocostal joint (upper) </li></ul><ul><li>Retracts (adducts) the scapula at the scapulocostal joint (entire muscle) </li></ul><ul><li>Depresses the scapula at the scapulocostal joint (lower) </li></ul>
  34. 42. Splenius Capitis <ul><li>P: Nuchal ligament and SPs of C7-T4 </li></ul><ul><li>D: Mastoid process of the temporal bone and the occipital bone </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the head and the neck at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the head and the neck at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Ipsilaterlly rotates the head and the neck at the spinal joints </li></ul>
  35. 43. Splenius Capitis: Nuchal ligament and SP’s of C7-T4
  36. 44. Splenius Capitis: Mastoid process of the temporal bone and occipital bone
  37. 45. Splenius Cervicis <ul><li>Extends the neck at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the neck at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Ipsilaterally rotates the neck at the spinal joints </li></ul>
  38. 47. Levator scapulae <ul><li>P: TPs of C1-C4 </li></ul><ul><li>D: Medial border of the scapula, from the superior angle to the root of the spine of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Elevates the scapula at the scapulocostal joint </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the neck at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the neck at the spinal joints </li></ul>
  39. 48. Levator Scapulae: TP’s of C1 – C4
  40. 51. Platysma <ul><li>P: Subcutaneous fascia of the superior chest </li></ul><ul><li>D: Mandible and the subcutaneous fascia of the lower face </li></ul><ul><li>1. Draws up the skin of the superior chest and neck, creating ridges of skin of the neck </li></ul>
  41. 55. Sternocleidomastoid <ul><li>P: Sternal head: Manubrium of the sternum </li></ul><ul><li>Clavicular head: Medial clavicle </li></ul><ul><li>D: Mastoid process of the temporal bone </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the head at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the neck and the head at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Contralaterally rotates the neck and the head at the spinal joints </li></ul>
  42. 59. Head and Neck Topographic Anatomy
  43. 60. Streets of Venice
  44. 61. Anterior Scalene <ul><li>P: TPs of the cervical spine </li></ul><ul><li>D: 1 st rib </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the neck at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the neck at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Elevates the first rib at the sternocostal and costospinal joints </li></ul>
  45. 65. Middle Scalene <ul><li>P: TPs of the cervical spine </li></ul><ul><li>D: 1 st rib </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the neck at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Flexes the neck at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Elevates the first rib at the sternocostal and costospinal joints </li></ul>
  46. 66. Middle Scalene: TP’s of C2-C7
  47. 67. Middle Scalene: Superior surface of first rib
  48. 68. Posterior Scalene <ul><li>P: TPs of the cervical spine </li></ul><ul><li>D: 2 nd rib </li></ul><ul><li>Laterally flexes the neck at the spinal joints </li></ul><ul><li>Elevates the second rib at the sternocostal and costospinal joints </li></ul>
  49. 69. Posterior Scalene: TP’s C5-C7
  50. 75. The Suboccipitals <ul><li>Rectus Capitis Posterior Major and Minor: Extends the head at the Atlanto-Occipital joint </li></ul>
  51. 76. Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor <ul><li>Extends the head at the Atlanto-Occipital joint </li></ul>
  52. 77. Suboccipital Muscles cont. <ul><li>Obliquus Capitis Inferior: </li></ul><ul><li>Ipsilaterally Rotates the Atlas at the Atlantoaxial joint </li></ul>
  53. 78. Suboccipital Muscles cont. <ul><li>Obliquus Capitis Superior: </li></ul><ul><li>Extends the head at the Atlanto-Occipital joint </li></ul>
  54. 79. Superficial Muscles of Back
  55. 80. Intermediate Muscles of Back
  56. 81. Deep Muscles of Back
  57. 83. <ul><li>Have client supine </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating fingers on the temporal fossa. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask client to clench and relax the teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Feel for the contraction and relaxation of the muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>The inferior attachment on the coronoid process of the mandible can be palpated if the client opens mouth widely. Difficult to distinguish from the masseter. </li></ul>
  58. 84. <ul><li>Have client supine </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating fingers between the zygomatic arch and the angle of the mandible. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to alternately clench the teeth and relax. </li></ul><ul><li>When the masseter contracts it may visibly bulge out. </li></ul>
  59. 85. <ul><li>Have the client prone </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand over the upper trapezius. </li></ul><ul><li>Have client actively abduct the arm at the shoulder joint and retract the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat above to palpate the middle and lower trapezius </li></ul><ul><li>To further bring out the upper trapezius, have the client slightly extend the neck </li></ul>
  60. 86. <ul><li>Client seated </li></ul><ul><li>Locate posterior margin of SCM and the anterior margin of the upper trapezius. Palpate the superior aspect of the triangle formed by these muscles (posterior triangle of the neck) </li></ul><ul><li>Ask client to actively rotate the head and neck. Feel for contraction of the ipsilateral splenius capitis </li></ul><ul><li>Giving resistance may further bring out the muscle </li></ul>
  61. 87. <ul><li>Client seated with the forearm in the small of the back </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand just superior to the superior angle of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Have client perform short, quick range of motion of active elevation of the scapula and feel for the contraction of the levator scapulae. </li></ul><ul><li>Continue palpating superiorly into the posterior triangle of the neck </li></ul>
  62. 88. <ul><li>Have the client seated </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand on the anterolateral neck </li></ul><ul><li>Ask client to forcefully contract the platysma by depressing and drawing the lower lip laterally, while keeping the mandible fixed in a position of slight depression. </li></ul>
  63. 89. <ul><li>Have client seated with the neck and head rotated to one side. </li></ul><ul><li>Stand on the opposite side. </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating hand on the anterolateral neck of the side where you are standing. </li></ul><ul><li>Now resist the client from laterally flexing the neck and head toward the side you are standing and feel for contraction of the SCM. </li></ul>
  64. 90. <ul><li>Have client seated </li></ul><ul><li>Locate lateral margin of the SCM </li></ul><ul><li>Place palpating fingers slightly lateral to the lateral margin of the SCM and just superior to the clavicle </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to take in short, quick, deep breaths through the nose and feel for contraction of the anterior and middle scalenes </li></ul><ul><li>Palpate more medially for the anterior scalene and slightly more laterally for the middle scalene </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful of the brachial plexus </li></ul>
  65. 91. <ul><li>Have client seated and do the same procedure as the anterior and middle scalenes </li></ul><ul><li>Continue palpating more posteriorly for the posterior scalene </li></ul><ul><li>To distinguish from the levator scapulae have the client alternate between elevating the scapula and taking in a deep breath. </li></ul><ul><li>To distinguish from the upper trapezius have the client alternate between abducting the arm and retracting the scapula and taking a deep breath </li></ul>

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