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Class 2 Ap1 Muscles
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Class 2 Ap1 Muscles

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  • 1. Class Two Muscles of the Forearm
  • 2.  
  • 3. Supraspinatus
    • P: Supraspinous Fossa of the scapula
    • D: Greater tubercle of the humerus
    • 1. Abducts the arm at the shoulder joint
    • Part of the rotator cuff muscle group
  • 4. Infraspinatus
    • P: Infraspinous fossa of the scapula
    • D: Greater tubercle of the humerus
    • 1. Laterally rotates the arm at the shoulder joint
    • Part of the rotaor cuff muscle group
  • 5. Teres minor
    • P: Superior lateral border of the scapula
    • D: Greater tubercle of the humerus
    • 1. Laterally rotates the arm at the shoulder joint
    • Part of the rotator cuff muscle group
  • 6. Subscapularis
    • P: Subscapular fossa of the scapula
    • D: Lesser tubercle of the humerus
    • 1. Medially rotates the arm at the shoulder joint
    • Part of the rotator cuff muscle group
  • 7. Teres Major
    • P: Inferior lateral border of the scapula
    • D: Medial lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus
    • 1. Medially rotates the arm at the shoulder joint
    • 2. Adducts the arm at the shoulder joint
    • 3. Extends the arm at the shoulder joint
  • 8. Deltoid
    • P: Lateral clavicle, acromion process, and the spine of the scapula
    • D: Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
    • 1. Abducts the arm at the shoulder joint (entire muscle)
    • 2. Flexes the arm at the shoulder joint (anterior deltoid)
    • 3. Extends the arm at the shoulder joint (posterior deltoid)
    • 4. Medially rotates the arm at the shoulder joint (anterior deltoid)
    • 5. Laterally rotates the arm at the shoulder joint (posterior deltoid)
  • 9. Coracobrachialis
    • P: Coracoid process of the scapula
    • D: Medial shaft of the humerus
    • Flexes the arm at the shoulder joint
    • Adducts the arm at the shoulder joint
  • 10. Biceps Brachii
    • P: Long head: Supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
    • Short head: Coracoid process of the scapula
    • D: Radial tuberosity
    • Flexes the forearm at the elbow joint (entire muscle)
    • Supinates the forearm at the radioulnar joints (entire muscle)
    • Flexes the arm at the shoulder joint (entire muscle)
  • 11. Brachialis
    • P: Distal ½ of the anterior shaft of the humerus
    • D: Ulnar tuberosity
    • 1. Flexes the forearm at the elbow joint
  • 12. Triceps Brachii
    • P: Long head: Infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
    • Lateral head: Posterior shaft of the humerus
    • Medial head: Posterior shaft of the humerus
    • D: Olecranon process of the ulna
    • 1. Extends the forearm at the elbow joint
  • 13.  
  • 14. Pronator Teres Muscle
    • P: Humeral head: Medial epicondyle of the humerus via common flexor tendon
    • Unlnar head: Coronoid process of ulna
    • D: Laterla radius
    • Pronates the forearm at the radioulnar joint
    • Flexes the forearm at the elbow joint
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18. Flexor Carpi Radialis
    • P: Medial epicondyle of the humerus
    • D: Radial hand on the anterior side
    • Flexes the hand at the wrist joint
    • Radially deviates (abducts) the hand at the wrist joint
  • 19. Flexor Carpi Radialis
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22. Palmaris Longus
    • P: Medial epicondyle of the humerus
    • D: Palm of hand
    • 1. Flexes the hand at the wrist joint
  • 23. Palmaris Longus
  • 24. Palmaris Longus Inserts to the palm of the hand
  • 25.  
  • 26. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    • P: Medial epicondyle of the humerus
    • D: Ulnar hand on the anterior side
    • Flexes the hand at the wrist joint
    • Ulnar deviates (adducts) the hand at the wrist joint
  • 27. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris: Medial epicondyle of the Humerus via the Common Flexor Tendon and the Ulna
  • 28.  
  • 29. Brachioradialis
    • P: Lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus
    • D: Styloid process of the radius
    • 1. Flexes the forearm at the elbow joint
  • 30.  
  • 31.  
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34. Vineyard, Rome, Italy
  • 35. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    • Flexes fingers 2-5 at the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints
    • Flexes the hand at the wrist
  • 36.  
  • 37.  
  • 38. Pronator Quadratus
    • P: Anterior distal ulna
    • D: Anterior distal radius
    • 1. Pronates the forearm at the radioulnar joints
  • 39.  
  • 40.  
  • 41. Flexor digitorum profundus
    • Flexes fingers 2-5 at the metacarpophalangeal and proximal and distal interphalangeal joints
    • Flexes the hand at the wrist
  • 42.  
  • 43.  
  • 44.  
  • 45.  
  • 46.  
  • 47. Sicily, Italy
  • 48. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    • P: Lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus
    • D: Radial hand on the posterior side
    • Extends the hand at the wrist joint
    • Radially deviates (abducts) the hand at the wrist joint
  • 49.  
  • 50.  
  • 51. Extensor Digitorum
    • Extends fingers 2-5 at the metacarpophalangeal and proximal and distal interphalangeal joints
    • Extends the hand at the wrist joint
  • 52. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
    • P: Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
    • D: Radial hand on the posterior side
    • Extends the hand at the wrist joint
    • Radially deviates (abducts) the hand at the wrist joint
  • 53.  
  • 54.  
  • 55.  
  • 56.  
  • 57. Extensor Digiti Minimi
    • Extends the Little Finger at the Metacarpophalangeal and Proximal and Distal Interphalangeal Joints
    • Extends the hand at the wrist joint
  • 58.  
  • 59. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    • P: Lateral epicondyle of the humerus and the ulna
    • D: Ulnar hand on the posterior side
    • Extends the hand at the wrist joint
    • Ulnar deviates (adducts) the hand at the wrist joint
  • 60.  
  • 61.  
  • 62.  
  • 63.  
  • 64.  
  • 65. Supinator
    • P: Lateral epicondyle of the
    • humerus and proximal ulna
    • D: Proximal radius
    • 1. Supinates the forearm at the radioulnar joints
  • 66.  
  • 67.  
  • 68. The Thenar Group:
    • Abductor Pollicis Brevis
    • Flexor Pollicis Brevis
    • Opponens Pollicis
  • 69. Thenar Muscle Group
  • 70. The Hypothenar Group
    • Abductor Digiti Minimi Manus
    • Flexor Digiti Minimi Manus
    • Opponens Digiti Minimi
  • 71. Hypothenar Muscle Group
  • 72. The Central Compartment Group
    • Adductor Pollicis
    • Lumbricals Manus
    • Palmar Interossei
    • Dorsal Interossei Manus
  • 73. A Superficial Fascial Muscle
    • Palmaris Brevis
  • 74. Venice, Italy
  • 75.  
  • 76.  
  • 77.  
  • 78.  
  • 79.  
  • 80.  
  • 81.  
  • 82.  
  • 83.
    • Have the client seated
    • Partially flex forearm and have the forearm half way between pronation and supination.
    • Place palpating hand on the proximal anterior medial forearm
    • Have the client further flex or pronate the forearm and feel for contraction of the pronator teres
    • The proximal attachment is the medial epicondyle of the humerus and the distal attachment is the lateral radius underneath the brachioradialis
  • 84.
    • Client seated
    • Place palpating hand across anterior wrist
    • Have client actively flex and radially deviate the hand at the wrist joint and feel for the distal tendon on the radial side just lateral to the palmaris longus
    • Palpate proximally toward the medial epicondyle
    • It is difficult to palpate the proximal tendon because it blends with the common flexor tendon of the elbow
  • 85.
    • Have client seated
    • Place palpating hand on anterior wrist
    • Ask the client to cup the hand (bring thenar and hypothenar eminence together)
    • Ask client to flex the hand at the wrist joint against resistance with the fingers fully extended; feel for the distal tendon of the palmaris longus in the center of the wrist.
    • Palpate proximally to the common flexor tendon of the elbow
  • 86.
    • Have client seated
    • Place palpating hand across anterior wrist
    • Have client actively flex and ulnar deviate the hand at the wrist joint and feel for the distal tendon on the medial side of the anterior wrist.
    • Palpate proximally toward the medial epicondyle and the common flexor tendon of the elbow.
  • 87.
    • Have client seated with forearm flexed at the elbow 90 degrees, and in a position halfway between pronation and supination.
    • Place palpating hand on lateral forearm.
    • Resist client from further flexing the forearm and feel for contraction of the brachioradialis.
    • Palpate distally to the styloid process of the radius and proximally to the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus.
  • 88.
    • Have client seated (This is a difficult muscle to palpate).
    • Place palpating hand distally on the lateral anterior forearm.
    • Find the radial pulse and then palpate on either side of it to locate the pronator quadratus.
    • Resist the client from actively pronating the forearm at the radioulnar joints and feel for contraction of the muscle.
  • 89.
    • Have client seated
    • Place palpating hand posterior to brachioradialis
    • Ask client to make a fist in a slightly extended position and feel for contraction of the muscle.
    • Continue palpating proximally toward the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus.
    • Continue palpating distally to the 2 nd metacarpal
  • 90.
    • Client seated
    • Pinch the radial group of forearm muscles with your thumb on one side and your fingers on the other and slightly pull them away from forearm.
    • The fingers on the posterior aspect of the radial group are on the extensor carpi radialis brevis
    • Have client actively extend and/or radially deviate the hand at the wrist to feel for contraction of the muscle.
    • The distal tendon can be palpated by having the client make a fist with the wrist slightly extended. Attaches to 3 rd metacarpal.
  • 91.
    • Have client seated
    • Place palpating hand directly posterior to the shaft of the ulna and feel for the belly of the extensor carpi ulnaris.
    • Continue palpating proximally toward the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and distally toward the 5 th metacarpal.
    • Have the client extend and ulnar deviate the wrist to further bring out this muscle.
  • 92.
    • Have the client seated with the forearm passively flexed, pronated, and resting on the lap
    • Pinch the radial group of the forearm muscles with your thumb on one side and your fingers on the other side.
    • Palpate deeper against the radius between the radial group of the forearm and the extensor digitorum to locate the radial attachment of the supinator
    • Have client slowly supinate the forearm and feel for contraction of the supinator
    • Palpate proximally toward the lateral epicondyle and ulnar attachment.